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G- 1  -  i)  CLT  f  Q~\  ;  ^  y 

m 

THE  KITAB  AL-LUMA 
FI  'L-TASAWWUF 


OF 


ABU  NASR  'ABDALLAH  B.  1ALI  AL- 
SARRAJ  AL-TUSI 

EDITED  FOR  THE  FIRST  TIME,  WITH  CRITICAL  NOTES, 
ABSTRACT  OF  CONTENTS,  GLOSSARY,  AND  INDICES 


BY 


REYNOLD  ALLEYNE  NICHOLSON 

M.A..  Litt.  D.,  Hon.  LL.D.  (Aberdeen), 

Lecturer  on  Persian  in  the   University  of  Cambridge, 
Formerly  Fellow  of  Trinity  College. 


AND  PRINTED  FOR  THE  TRUSTEES  OF  THE 
"E.  J.  W.  GIBB  MEMORIAL" 


LEYDEN:   E.   J.   BRILL,    IMPRIMERIE   ORIENTALS. 

LONDON:  LUZAC  &  Co.,  46  GREAT  RUSSELL  STREET. 

1914. 


PRINTED  BY  E.  J.  BRILL, 
LEYDEN  (HOLLAND). 


UE.  J.   W.  GIBB  MEMORIAL"  SERIES. 

PUBLISHED. 

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and  Indexes,  by  Mrs.  Beveridge,  1905.     (Out  of  print.) 

2.  An  abridged  translation  of  Ibn  Isfandiydr's  History  of  Tabaristan, 
by  Edward  G.  Browne,  1905.     Price  8s. 

3.  Al-Khazraji's  History  of  the  Rasuli  Dynasty  of  Yaman,  with  intro 
duction  by  the  late  Sir  J.  Redhouse,  now  edited  by  E.  G.  Browne, 
R.  A.  Nicholson,  and  A.  Rogers.  Vols.  I,  II (Translation),  1906,  07. 
Price  JS.  each.    Vol.  Ill  (Annotations),  1908.    Price  j"j.    Vol.  IV 
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4.  Umayyads  and  cAbbasids :  being  the  Fourth  Part  of  Jurji  Zayddrfs 
History   of  Islamic   Civilisation,    translated   by   Professor   D.   S. 
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5.  The  Travels  of\\H\.]\\\my?,thclateDr.  William  Wright's  edition  of 
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6.  Ydqufs  Dictionary   of  Learned  Men,  entitled  Irshad   al-arib   ila 
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12.  Introduction  a  1'Histoire  des  Mongols  de  Fadl  Allah  Rashid  ed- 
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edited  from  seven  MSS.  by  Mirzd  Muhammad  of  Qazivin.  Vol.  /, 
1912.  Price  8s.  (Vols.  II  and  III  in  preparation). 

ij.A  translation  of  the  Kashfu'l-Mahjub  of^Alib.^Uthmdnal-Julldbi 
al-Hujwiri,  the  oldest  Persian  manual  of  Sufism,  by  R.  A.  Ni 
cholson,  191 1.  Price  8s. 

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toire  dcs  tribus  turkes  ct  de  Tchinkkiz  Khaghan.) 

19.  The  Governors   and   Judges  of  Egypt,   or  Kitab   el   'Umara'  (el 
Wulah)    wa    Kitab    el-Qudah    of  El  Kindi ,  with    an   Appendix 
derived  mostly  from  Raf  el  Isr  by  Ibn  Hajar,  edited  by  Rhuvon 
Guest,  1912.    Price  I2s. 

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tion  by  Professor  D.  S.  Margoliouth,  D.  Litt.,  1912.    Price  £  i. 

2 1 .  The  Diwans  of  °Abid  ibn  al- Abras  and  cAmir  ibn  at-Tufail,  edited^ 
with  a  translation  and  notes,  by  Sir  Charles  Ly all,  1913.  Price  I2s. 

22.  The  Kitab  al-Lumac  fi  l'-Tasawwuf  of  Abu  Nasr  al-Sarrdj,  edited 
from  two  MSS.,  with  critical  notes  and  Abstract  of  Contents,  by 
R.  A.  Nicholson,  1914.    Price  I2s. 

IN   PREPARATION. 

An  abridged  translation  of  the  Ihya'u  '1-Muluk,  a  Persian  History  of 

Sistdn    by   Shah  Husayn,  from    the  British  Museum  MS.  (Or. 

2 779),  by  A-  G.  Ellis. 
The  geographical  part  of  the  Nuzhatu  '1-Quliib  of  Hamdulldh  Mustawfi 

of  Qazwin,  with  a  translation,  by  G.  le  Strange.    (In  the  Press.) 
The  Futuhu  Misr  wa  '1-Maghrib  wa  '1-Andalus  of  Ibn  "Abdi  'l-Hakam 

(d.  A.H.  257),  edited  and  translated  by  Professor  C.   C.   Torrey. 
The  Qabiis-nama,  edited  in  the  original  Persian,  with  a  translation, 

by  E.  Edwards. 
The  Diwans  of  at-Tufayl  b.  *Awf  and  af-Tirimmdh  b.  Hakim,  edited 

and  translated  by  F.  Krenkow.     (In  'the  Press). 
The  Persian  text  of  the  Fars  Namah  of  Ibnu  'l-Balkhi,  edited  from 

the  British  Museum  MS.  (Or.  5983),  by  G.  le  Strange. 
Extracts   relating   to   Southern   Arabia,  from  the  Dictionary  entitled 

Shamsu    'l-cUlum,   of  Nashwdn   al-Himyari,  edited,  with  critical 

notes,  by  cAzimu  \l-Din  Ahmad,  Ph.  D.  (In  the  Press). 
Contributions  to  the  History  and  Geography  of  Mesopotamia,  being 

portions  of  the  TaMkh  Mayyafarikin   of  Ibn  al-Azrak  al-Edriki 

B.  M.  MS.   Or.  3803,    and  of  al-Aclak  al-Khatira  of  *Izz  ad-Din 

Ibn   Shadddd  al-Halabi,  Bodleian  MS.  Marsh  333,  edited  by   W. 

Saras  in,  Ph.  D. 

The  Rahatu  's-Sudiir  wa  Ayatu  's-Surur,  a  history  of  the  Seljuqs,  by 
Najmu  \i-Din  Abu  Bakr  Muhammad  ar-Rdwandi,  edited  from  the 
unique  Paris  MS.  (Suppl.  persan,  1314)  by  Edward  G.  Browne. 


This   Volume  is  one 

of  a  Series 
published  by  the  Trustees  of  the 

"E.  j.  w.  GIBB  MEMORIAL:' 

The  Funds  of  this  Memorial  are  derived  from  the  Interest  accruing 
from  a  Sum  of  money  given  by  the  late  MRS.  GIBB  of  Glasgow,  to 
perpetuate  the  Memory  of  her  beloved  son 

ELI  AS  JOHN  WILKINSON  GIBB, 

and  to  promote  those  researches  into  the  History,  Literature,  Philo 
sophy  and  Religion  of  the  Turks,  Persians,  and  Arabs  to  which,  from 
his  Youth  upwards,  until  his  premature  and  deeply  lamented  Death 
in  his  forty-fifth  year,  on  December  3,  1901,  his  life  was  devoted. 


i,  >• 


11  The  worker  pays  his  debt  to  Death; 
His  work  lives  on,  nay,  quickeneth." 

The  following  memorial  verse  is  contributed  by  ^Abdrfl-Haqq  Hdmid 
Bey  of  the  Imperial  Ottoman  Embassy  in  London,  one  of  the  Founders 
of  the  New  School  of  Turkish  Literature,  and  for  many  years  an 
intimate  friend  of  the  deceased. 


"E.  J.    W.   GIBB  MEMORIAL' : 

ORIGINAL   TRUSTEES. 

[JANE  GIBB,  died  November  26,  1904], 

E.  G.  BROWNE, 

G.  LE  STRANGE, 

H.  F.  AMEDROZ, 

A.  G.  ELLIS, 

R.  A.  NICHOLSON, 

E.  DENISON  ROSS, 

AND 

IDA    W.   E.    OGILVY  GREGORY  (formerly   GIBB), 
appointed  1905. 

CLERK  OF  THE  TRUST. 

W.  L.  RA  YNES, 

yj,  Sidney  Street^ 

CAMBRIDGE. 

PUBLISHERS  FOR   THE   TRUSTEES. 

E.  J.  BRILL,       LEYDEN. 
LUZAC  &  Co.,    LONDON. 


(Translations  of  the  three  Inscriptions 
on  the  Cover.) 


/.     Arabic. 

"These  are  our  works  which  prove 

what  we  have  done; 
Look,     therefore,     at    our    works 
when  we  are  gone." 


2.     Turkish. 

"His  genius  cast  its  shadow  o'er  the  world, 
And    in   brief   time    he    much   achieved    and 

wrought : 

The  Age's  Sun  was  he,  and  ageing  suns 
Cast  lengthy  shadows,  though  their  time  be 

short." 

(Kemdl  Pdshd-zdde.) 


3.    Persian. 

"  When  we  are  dead,  seek  for  our 

resting-place 

Not    in    the    earth,     bat    in     the 
hearts  of  men." 

(Jaldlu  'd-Din  Bumi.) 


"E.  J.   W.  GIBB  MEMORIAL 

SERIES. 


VOL.  XXII. 


(All  communications  respecting  this  volume  should  be  ad 
dressed  to  R.  A.  Nicholson,  12  Harvey  Road,  Cambridge,  who 
is  the  Trustee  specially  responsible  for  its  production). 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 


ENGLISH  PORTION. 

Introduction i— XLIV 

Addenda  et  Corrigenda. XLV— L 

Abstract  of  Contents  of  the  Kitab  al-Lumac.      .      .  1—121 

Index  of  subjects  and  technical  terms      ....  122—130 

Glossary 131-154 


ARABIC   PORTION. 

Text  of  the  Kitab  al-Lumac     .      , fH— I 

Index  of  Persons fTt— fl*V 

Index  of  Places,  Tribes,  Books,   etc.  .....  fvV— flv 


INTRODUCTION. 

This  volume  marks  a  further  step  in  the  tedious  but  in 
dispensable  task,  on  which  I  have  long  been  engaged,  of 
providing  materials  for  a  history  of  Sufism,  and  more  espe 
cially  for  the  study  of  its  development  in  the  oldest  period, 
beginning  with  the  second  and  ending  with  the  fourth 
century  of  Islam  (approximately  700 — 1000  A.  D.).  A  list 
of  the  titles  known  to  us  of  mystical  books  written  during 
these  three  hundred  years  would  occupy  several  pages,  but 
the  books  themselves  have  mostly  perished,  although-  the 
surviving  remnant  includes  some  important  works  on  various 
branches  of  Sufistic  theory  and  practice  by  leaders  of  the 
movement,  for  example,  Harith  al-Muhasibi,  Husayn  b.  Mansur 
al-Hallaj,  Muhammad  b.  cAli  al-Tirmidhi,  and  others  whom 
I  need  not  mention  now.  M.  Louis  Massignon,  by  his  recent 
edition  of  the  Kitdb  al-Tawdsin  of  Hallaj,,  has  shown  what 
valuable  results  might  be  expected  from  a  critical  examina 
tion  of  the  early  literature.  It  is  certain  that  a  series  of 
such  monographs  would  form  the  best  possible  foundation 
for  a  general  survey,  but  in  the  meanwhile  we  have  mainly 
to  rely  on  more  or  less  systematic  and  comprehensive  treat 
ises  dealing  with  the  lives,  legends,  and  doctrines  of  the 
ancient  Sufis.  I  am  preparing  and  hope,  as  soon  as  may  be, 
to  publish  a  work  on  this  subject  derived,  to  a  large  extent, 
from  the  following  sources: 

1.  The  Kitdb  al-Lumac  by  Abu  Nasr  al-Sarraj  (f  378  A.  H.). 

2.  The    Kitdb  al-Tcfarruf  li-madhhab  ahl  al-Tasaw^v^tf  by 
Abu  Bakr  al-Kalabadhi  (f  380  or  390  A.  H.). 


II  INTRODUCTION. 

3.  The  Q&t  al-Qulib  by  Abu  Talib  al-Makki  (f  386  A.  H.). 

4.  The  Tabaqdt  al-Sufiyya  by  Abu  cAbd  al-Rahman  al-Sulami 
(t  412  A.  H.). 

5.  The    Hilyat  al-Aivliyd    by   Abu    Nucaym    al-Isbahani    (f 
430  A.  H.). 

6.  The  Risdlat  al-Qushayriyya  by  Abu  '1-Qasim  al-Qushayri 
(t  465  A.  H.). 

7.  The   Kashf  al-Mahjub  by  cAli  b.  cUthman  al-Hujwirf  (f 
circa  470  A.  H.). 

8.  The    Tadhkirat  al-Awliyd  by  Fariduddin  cAttar  (f  circa 
620  A.  H.). 

NOS.  i,  3,  6,  7,  8  of  the  above  list  are  now  accessible  in 
European  or  Oriental  editions,  and  N°.  7  also  in  an  English 
translation.  NOS.  2,  4  and  5  are  still  unedited  and  therefore 
comparatively  useless  for  purposes  of  reference.  May  I  suggest 
that  some  of  our  younger  scholars  should  turn  their  atten 
tion  to  the  manuscript  copies  of  these  texts  in  London, 
Leyden,  Vienna,  Constantinople  and  elsewhere? 

Little  material  exists  for  the  biography  of  Sarraj.  The 
authors  of  the  oldest  Sufi  Lives  pass  him  over  in  silence. ') 
The  first  separate  notice  of  him  that  is  known  to  me  occurs 
in  the  Supplement  to  the  Tadhkirat  al-Awliyd  (II,  182), 
from  which  the  article  in  Jami's  Nafahdt  al-Uns  (N°.  353) 
is  chiefly  compiled.  Shorter  notices  are  given  by  Abu  '1- 
Mahasin  (Nujum,  ed.  by  Popper,  II,  part  2,  N°.  I,  p.  42), 
Dhahabi,  Ta'rikh  al-Isldm  (British  Museum,  Or.  48,  1560), 
Abu  '1-Falah  cAbd  al-Hayy  al-cAkari  (Shadhardt  al-Dhahab, 
MS.  in  my  possession,  I,  iS$a),2)  and  Dara  Shikuh, 

i)  Abii  cAbd  al-Rahman  al-Sulami,  who  does  not  notice  Sarraj  in  his  Tabaqdt 
al-Sufiyya  (British  Museum,  Add.  18520),  appears  to  have  supplied  the  omission 
in  his    Ta'rikh  al-Sufiyya  See  the  extract  from  Dhahabi  cited  below. 
^  2)  See    JKAS    for    1899,  p.    911,    and    for    1906,    p.    797.    The   article  on 
Sarraj    copies   Dhahabi   and   concludes    with   a  short  quotation  from  Sakhawi : 


LIFE   OF   SARRAJ.  Ill 

Safinat  al-Awliyd  (Ethe,  Catalogue  of  Persian  manuscripts 
in  the  Library  of  the  India  office,  col.  301,  N°.  271).  Since 
the  passage  in  the  Tarikh  al-  Islam  has  not  been  published 
before,  I  will  transcribe  it. 

\ 


,  J   < 


The  few  facts  contained  in  this  notice  may  be  summarised 
as  follows. 

Abu  Nasr  °Abdallah  b.  cAli  b.  Muhammad  b.  Yahya  al- 
Sarraj,  the  author  of  the  Kitdb  al-Lumcf  was  a  native  of  Tus. 
His  teachers  were  Jacfar  al-Khuldi,  Abu  Bakr  Muhammad  b. 
Dawud  al-Duqqi,  and  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad  al-Sa'ih.  !)  The 
family  to  which  he  belonged  was  noted  for  asceticism.  Abu 
Nasr  was  a  zealous  Sunni,  but  although  he  based  himself 
on  knowledge  of  the  religious  law,  2)  he  was  learned  in  mys 
tical  theology  and  was  regarded  by  the  Sufis  as  an  author 
itative  exponent  of  their  doctrines.  Amongst  his  countrymen 


1)  No    person    of    this    name    is    mentioned  in  the  Lumac.  It  seems  to  me 
certain  that   ^VJ\  is  a  mistake  for     i'O\,  in  which  case  the  reference  will  be  to 
Abu    '1-Hasan    Ahmad    b.    Muhammad    b.    Salim.    See  under  Ibn  Salim  in  the 
List  of  Authorities. 

2)  i«i  jj\    Lc    ,Uaw.V\  is    literally    "to    use    the    knowledge   of   the  religious 
law  as  a  support  or  guard." 


IV  INTRODUCTION. 

he  was  celebrated  for  his  nobility  of  soul.  ')  He  died  in 
the  month  of  Rajab,  378  A.  H.  =  October — November, 
988  A.  D.  2) 

From  the  Persian  biographies  we  learn  that  Sarraj  was 
surnamed  "the  Peacock  of  the  Poor"  (to* us  al-fuqara}.  The 
statement  that  he  had  seen  Sari  al-Saqati  (ob.  253)  and  Sahl 
b.  cAbdallah  al-Tustari  (ob.  283)  is  manifestly  false,  nor  does 
the  Kitdb  al-Lumc£  bear  out  the  assertion  that  he  was  a 
pupil  of  Abu  Muhammad  al-Murtacish  of  Naysabur  (ob.  328). 
It  may  be  that,  as  the  Nafahdt  says,  he  composed  many 
works  on  Sufism  in  addition  to  the  Lumtf,  but  if  so,  every 
trace  of  them  has  vanished.  The  following  anecdote,  which 
first  occurs  in  the  Kashf  al-Mahjub  of  Hujwiri,  3)  is  related 
by  both  the  Persian  biographers.  "Abu  Nasr  al-Sarraj  came 
to  Baghdad  in  the  month  of  Ramadan  and  was  given  a 
private  chamber  in  the  Shuniziyya  mosque  and  was  appointed 
to  preside  over  the  dervishes  until  the  Feast.  During  the 
nightly  prayers  of,  Ramadan  (tardwih)  he  recited  the  whole 
Koran  five  times.  Every  night  a  servant  brought  a  loaf  of 
bread  to  his  room.  On  the  day  of  the  Feast,  when  Sarraj 
departed,  the  servant  found  all  the  thirty  loaves  untouched." 
Another  story  describes  how,  in  the  course  of  a  theosophical 
discussion,  he  was  seized  with  ecstasy,  and  threw  himself  in 


1)  Futuwwat   (altruism),  the  quality  which  was  displayed  by  Iblis  when  he 
chose   to  incur  damnation  rather  than  deny  the  Unity  of  God  by  worshipping 
Adam.  Cf.  Massignon,  al-Hallaj^  in  Reviie  de  Fhistoire  des  religions*  1911.  The 
meaning  of  the  word  is  discussed  by  Thorning  in  his  Beitrdge  zur  Kenntniss 
des   islamischen    Vereinsiuesens    Tiirkische    Bibliothek,    vol.    16,    pp.   184 — 221 
and  by  R.  Hartmann,  Das  Suflttim  nach  al-Kuschairi^  p.  44  foil. 

2)  According    to    the    Nujiim,   his    death   took  place  at  Naysabur  while  he 
was  engaged  in  prayer  (cf.  the  final  words  of  Dhahabi's  notice);  but  the  Nafahdt 
states  that  he  was  buried  at  Tus.  Before  his  death  he  said,   "Every  one  whose 
bier    is    carried    past    my  tomb  will  be  forgiven."  Consequently  the  people  of 
Tus    used    to    bring    their    dead    to   his   tomb  and  halt  beside  it  for  a  time  and 
then  move  on. 

3)  P.  323  of  my  translation. 


LIFE   OF    SARRAJ.  V 

the  attitude  of  prayer  upon  a  blazing  fire,  which  had  no 
power  to  burn  his  face.  !) 

He  must  have  travelled  extensively.  The  Kitdb  al-Lumc£ 
records  his  meetings  and  conversations  with  Sufis  in  many 
parts  of  the  Muhammadan  empire,  e.g.,  Basra,  Baghdad, 
Damascus,  Ramla,  Antioch,  Tyre,  Atrabulus,  Rahbat  Malik  b. 
Tawq,  Cairo,  Dimyat,  Bistam,  Tustar,  and  Tabriz.  Probably 
the  duties  of  a  spiritual  director  were  not  congenial  to  him. 
It  is  interesting,  however,  to  observe  that  the  only  one  of 
his  pupils  who  attained  to  eminence,  Abu  '1-Fadl  b.  al-Hasan 
of  Sarakhs,  afterwards  became  the  Sheykh  of  the  famous 
Persian  mystic,  Abu  Sacid  b.  Abi  '1-Khayr.  2) 

Sarraj  explains  (p.  f,  1.  'A  foil.)  that  he  wrote  the  Kitdb 
al-Lumcf  at  the  request  of  a  friend,  whose  name  he  does 
not  mention.  His  purpose  in  writing  it  was  to  set  forth  the 
true  principles  of  Sufism  and  to  show  by  argument  that  they 
agree  with,  and  are  confirmed  by,  the  doctrines  of  the  Koran 
and  the  Apostolic  Traditions;  that  they  involve  imitation 
of  the  Prophet  and  his  Companions  as  well  as  conformity 
with  the  religious  practice  of  pious  Moslems.  The  work, 
therefore,  is  avowedly  apologetic  and  controversial  in  character. 
Its  contents  are  fully  detailed  in  the  Abstract,  but  a  brief 
analysis  will  not  be  out  of  place  here. 


1)  Tadh.  al-Awliyd,  II,   183,  3;  Nafahdt^  320,  2. 

2)  Nafahat^  320,   18. 


VI  INTRODUCTION. 

Pages 

t— I  Names    of   the    persons    by  whom  the  Kitdb  al- 

Lumcf  was  transmitted  to  the  anonymous  editor. 
Doxology.  The  author's  preface. 

r.—  i  CHAPTERS  I — IX.  The  relation  of  Sufism  to  Islam. 
Traditionists,  jurists,  and  Sufis.  Peculiar  charac 
teristics  of  the  Sufis.  Their  doctrine  derived  from 
the  Koran  and  the  Traditions  of  the  Prophet. 

rr-r.        CHAPTERS  X— XL  Origin  of  the  name  'Sufi'. 

TA— r^  CHAPTERS  XII — XIV.  Sufism  the  esoteric  science 
of  Islam.  Its  nature,  meaning,  and  derivation. 

U-TA  CHAPTERS  XV— XVIII.  Unification  (taw/nd)a.n& 
Gnosis  (mcfrifat). 

Vr-i  \  CHAPTERS  XIX— XXXVII.  The  mystical  stations 
(maqdmdt)  and  states  (ahwdl). 

tr-Yr  CHAPTERS  XXXVIII— XLVI.  The  hidden  mean 
ings  of  the  Koran  and  how  they  are  interpreted 
by  the  Sufis. 

\-i— 1^  CHAPTERS  XL  VII— L.  Imitation  of  the  Prophet. 
His  character  and  virtues. 

Mt-\.o  CHAPTERS  LI— LV.  The  Sufistic  method  of  in 
terpretation  of  the  Koran  and  the  Traditions, 
with  examples. 

\i\-\U  CHAPTERS  LVI— LXII.  The  Companions  of  the 
Prophet  regarded  as  patterns  of  the  mystic  life. 
Abu  Bakr,  cUmar,  cUthman,  cAli,  the  Ahl  al-Suffat 
and  the  other  Companions. 

r  \\-\i\  CHAPTERS  LXIII— LXXXVIII.  The  manners 
(dddb)  of  the  Sufis :  in  their  ablutions,  in  prayer, 
almsgiving,  fasting,  pilgrimage,  social  intercourse, 
mystical  discussions,  meals  and  entertainments, 


CONTENTS    OF   THE   KITAB   AL-LUMAC.  VII 

ecstasy,  dress,  travelling,  begging,  earning  a  live 
lihood,  marriage,  sitting  alone  or  in  company, 
hunger,  and  sickness;  the  manners  of  Sheykhs, 
disciples,  and  hermits ;  their  manners  in  friend 
ship  and  in  the  hour  of  death. 

\      CHAPTER  LXXXIX.  The  different  answers  given 
by  Sufis  on  many  points  of  mystical  doctrine. 

CHAPTER  XC.  Letters,  or  parts  of  letters,  written 
by  Sufis  to  one  another. 

— fit     CHAPTER   XCI.    Specimens   of  the  introductions 
(sudur)  of  Sufistic  epistles. 

Toy— fil     CHAPTER  XCII.  Specimens  of  Sufistic  poetry. 

CHAPTER  XCIII.  Prayers  and  invocations  to  God. 

CHAPTER  XCIV.  The  precepts  (wasdyd)  given 
by  Sufis  to  one  another. 

..— r"\Y     CHAPTERS  XCV— CVI.  Audition  (samdc). 
CHAPTERS  CVII— CXII.  Ecstasy  (wajd). 
CHAPTERS  CXIII— CXVIII.  Miracles  (kardmdt). 

CHAPTERS  CXIX— CXX.  Explanation  of  Sufistic 
technical  terms. 

CHAPTERS  CXXI— CXXXII.  Explanation  of  the 
ecstatic  expressions  (shathiyydt)  used  by  Sufis. 

CHAPTERS  CXXXIII— CLII.  Account  of  the 
erroneous  doctrines  held  by  certain  Sufis. 


VIII  INTRODUCTION. 

The  Kitdb  al-Lumc£  can  hardly  be  called  an  original  work 
in  the  sense  that  it  deals  with  the  author's  theories  and 
speculations  on  the  subject  of  Sufism.  In  the  main  he  con 
fines  himself  to  recording  and  interpreting  the  spoken  or 
written  words  of  his  predecessors,  and  he  rebukes  contem 
porary  writers  for  the  ostentatious  discussions  in  which  they 
indulged.  From  the  historical  point  of  view,  his  reserve  is 
welcome.  It  throws  into  sharp  relief  the  invaluable  collection 
of  documents  which  he  has  brought  together  and  arranged, 
documents  that  are  in  many  instances  nowhere  else  to  be 
found,  illustrating  the  early  development  of  Islamic  mys 
ticism  and  enabling  us  to  study  its  language,  ideas,  and 
methods  during  the  critical  time  of  adolescence.  Considering 
the  variety  of  topics  which  the  author  has  managed  to  in 
clude  in  a  comparatively  short  treatise,  we  can  easily  forgive 
him  for  having  often  suppressed  the  isndds  and  abbreviated 
the  text  of  traditions  and  anecdotes;  but  if  he  had  allowed 
himself  a  freer  hand  in  exposition,  his  book  would  be  even 
more  instructive  than  it  is.  There  are  many  passages  which 
only  a  Sufi  could  explain  adequately. 

Its  compendious  style,  the  wide  range  of  its  subject-matter, 
and  the  writer's  close  adherence  to  his  authorities  do  not 
permit  such  a  systematic  and  exhaustive  analysis  of  mystical 
doctrines  as  we  find,  for  example,  in  the  Qut  al-qulub  of  Abu 
Talib  al-Makki.  The  nineteen  chapters  on  'states'  (ahwdl)  and 
'stations'  (maqdmdt)  occupy  a  little  over  thirty  pages  in  the  pre 
sent  edition  —  about  half  the  space  which  Abu  Talib  devotes  to 
the  single  maqdm  of  'trust  in  God'  (tawakkul}.  Here  as  well 
as  in  other  sections  of  his  work  Sarraj  adopts  an  artificial 
scheme  of  classification  by  triads,  which  is  characteristic  of 
this  kind  of  Sufi  literature.  On  the  whole,  however,  it  may 
be  claimed  for  him  that  his  readers  will  obtain  a  clear  notion, 
uncomplicated  by  elaborate  details,  of  what  is  most  import 
ant  for  them  to  understand.  Without  attempting  a  complete 


DESCRIPTION   OF   THE  KITAB   AL-LUMA0  IX 

review,  I  would  mention  as  especially  novel  or  noteworthy 
the  chapters  on  Sufistic  interpretation  (istinbdt)  of  the  Koran 
and  the  Hadith;  those  on  audition  and  ecstasy,  which  em 
body  excerpts  from  the  lost  Kitdb  al-wajd  of  Abu  Sacid  b. 
al-Acrabi  and  have  been  utilised  by  Ghazzali  in  the  Ihyd\ 
the  seventy  pages  on  'manners',  treating  of  the  ritual  and 
social  aspects  of  Sufism;  the  interesting  selection  of  poems 
and  epistles;  the  large  vocabulary  of  technical  terms;  the 
specimens  of  shathiyydt  with  explanations  partly  derived 
from  Junayd's  commentary  on  the  ecstatic  sayings  that  were 
attributed  to  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami;  and  the  final  chapters 
on  errors  of  mystical  doctrine.  I  have  already  published  the 
text  and  translation  of  certain  passages  relating  to  the  con 
ception  of  fand  in  an  article  entitled  "The  Goal  of  Mu- 
hammadan  Mysticism"  (J.R.A.S.  for  1913,  p.  55  foil.) 

As  regards  the  word  'Sufi',  it  is  remarkable  that  Sarraj 
favours  (not  on  linguistic  grounds,  however)  the  now  accepted 
derivation  from  suf.  He  tells  us  that,  according  to  some, 
'Sufi'  was  a  modern  designation  invented  by  the  people  of 
Baghdad.  This  statement,  though  he  naturally  rejects  it,  does 
in  all  probability  give  a  true  account  of  the  origin  of  the  name. 

Notwithstanding  that  Sarraj  takes  for  granted  the  reality 
of  the  higher  mystical  experiences  and  is  eager  to  justify 
the  apparent  blasphemies  uttered  by  many  Sufis  at  such 
moments,  he  constantly  appeals  to  the  Koran  and  the  Apo 
stolic  Traditions  as  the  supreme  arbiters  which  every  Sufi 
must  recognise.  If  we  admit  his  principles  of  interpretation, 
we  cannot  deny  his  orthodoxy.  Fand  itself,  as  defined  by 
him,  means  nothing  more  than  realisation  of  the  Divine 
Unity  (taw  kid)  and  is  in  logical  harmony  with  Islamic  mo 
notheism.  Whether  this  view  indicates  that  the  fand  theory, 
as  Professor  Margoliouth  has  contended, *)  was  simply  evolved 


t)  The  Early  Development  of  Mohammedanism^  p.   199. 


X  INTRODUCTION. 

from  tawhidj  or  whether  it  represents  the  result  of  impreg 
nation  of  the  monotheistic  idea  by  foreign  influences,  is  a 
difficult  question.  We  cannot  yet  decide  with  certainty,  but 
the  evidence,  so  far  as  it  goes,  seems  to  me  to  render  the 
latter  hypothesis  more  probable.  1)  Sarraj  denounces  hulul 
and  other  heretical  forms  of  the  fand  doctrine.  While  dis 
approving  of  excessive  asceticism,  he  enjoins  the  strictest 
obedience  to  the  sacred  law.  The  Sufi  (he  says)  differs  from 
the  ordinary  Moslem  only  in  laying  greater  stress  upon  the 
inward  religious  life  of  which  the  formal  acts  of  worship 
are  an  outward  expression. 

Sarraj  was  closely  associated  with  Ibn  Salim  (Abu  '1-Hasan 
Ahmad  b.  Muhammad) 2)  of  Basra,  who,  "though  extremely 
orthodox  in  some  respects,  was  opposed  to  certain  funda 
mental  articles  of  the  Sunna".  3)  This  Ibn  Salim  was  the  son 
of  Abu  cAbdallah  b.  Salim ;  and  their  followers,  a  group  of 
theologians  known  as  the  Salimfs,  occupied  an  advanced 
position  on  the  left  wing  of  the  mystical  movement,  as  ap 
pears  from  the  fact  that  they  sympathised  with  Hallaj  and 
defended  his  orthodoxy.  4)  From  the  account  of  their  tenets 
given  by  cAbd-al-Qadir  al-Jilani  in  his  Ghunya  5)  we  might 
assert  with  confidence  that  Sarraj  cannot  have  been  a  mem 
ber  of  the  school.  None  of  the  heresies  there  enumerated 
occurs  in  the  Lumcf,  and  on  the  last  page  of  his  book 
Sarraj  declares  that  the  spirit  dies  like  the  body,  a  state- 


1)  Cf.  my  Mystics  of  I  slam  ^  p.   1 6  foil. 

2)  See  under  Ibn  Salim  in  the  List  of  Authorities. 

3)  Shadharat  al-Dhahab,  I,  1720  (citation  from  the  clbar  of  Dhahabi).  Poss 
ibly    these   words    refer    to    Ibn    Salim    the    Elder.    Muhammadan    writers   fre 
quently  fail  to  distinguish  between  the  father  and  the  son. 

4)  Concerning   the    Salimis  and  their  doctrines  see  Goldziher,  Die  dogma  ti- 
sche   Partei  der   Salimijja,  ZDMG.    vol.    61,    p.    73   foil.;  Amedroz  in  JRAS. 
for   1912,  p.  573  foil.;    and    Massignon,    Kit&b    al-Tawdsin^  Index  under  Sali- 
miyah. 

5)  Goldziher,  loc.  cit.  p.   77. 


SARRAJ   AND   IBN   SALIM.  XI 

ment  which  is  at  variance  with  the  Salimi  belief  in  its  im 
mortality.  l)  On  the  other  hand,  it  would  be  absurd  to  sup 
pose  that  each  individual  Salimi  embraced  all  the  heresies 
in  GAbd  al-Qadir's  list.  That  Ibn  Salim  himself  did  so  is 
most  unlikely  in  view  of  the  respect  shown  to  him  by 
Sarraj  and  the  friendly  intercourse  that  was  maintained  be 
tween  them.  Moreover,  Sarraj  on  several  occasions  quotes 
sayings  and  verses  by  Hallaj,  whom  he  seems  to  have  re 
garded  as  a  profound  Unitarian  (cf.  303,  20  foil.).  But  though 
he  agreed  with  the  Salimis  on  this  point,  I  doubt  whether 
any  trace  of  their  peculiar  doctrines  can  be  discovered  in 
the  Lumac.  A  follower  of  Ibn  Salim  would  scarcely  have' 
twitted  his  leader  with  excusing  in  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  (the 
Sheykh  of  Abu  °Abdallah  b.  Salim)  what  he  condemned  in 
Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami,  nor  would  he  have  described  Sahl 
as  "the  Imam  of  Ibn  Salim  and  the  most  excellent  of 
mankind  in  his  opinion"  (394,  12  foil.).  It  is  a  striking  cir 
cumstance  that  two  of  the  three  oldest  surviving  Arabic 
treatises  on  Sufism  were  directly  influenced  by  Ibn  Salim. 
In  the  Luma^  his  personality  stands  out  conspicuously  amongst 
the  author's  contemporaries,  and  the  Qut  al-qulub  is  the  work 
of  his  pupil,  Abu  Talib  al-Makki,  whom  the  Salimis  justly 
claim  as  one  of  themselves. 

Sarraj  obtained  his  materials  partly  from  books  and  partly 
from  oral  tradition,  but  the  information  which  he  gives  us 
concerning  his  sources  is  by  no  means  complete. 

The  following  books  are  cited : 

1.  A  History    of  Mecca   (4X»j\j>-\),    possibly   the    work    of 
Azraqi  (22,  12). 

2.  The   Kitdb  al-nmshdhadat  by  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al-Makkf 
(69,  12  and   117,  8). 


i)  Cf.  Massignon,  Kitdb  al-Tawdsin^  p.   136,  n.  2. 


XII  INTRODUCTION. 

3.  The  Kitdb  al-Sunan  by  Abu  Dawud  al-Sijistani  (139,  13). 

4.  A   work   on   the    rules  of  prayer    (adab  al-saldt)  by  Abu 
Sacid  al-Kharraz  (153,7). 

5.  A   book   of  which   the   title    is   not   mentioned,  by  Abu 
Turab  al-Nakhshabi  (205,  19). 

6.  The  Kitdb  al-mundjdt  by  Junayd  (259,  2). 

7.  The   Kitdb  al-wajd  by    Abu    Sacid    b.    al-Acrabi    (308,  5 ; 
310,  I ;   314,  17). 

8.  The   Kitdb   mcfrifat  al-mc£rifat  by  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas 
(362,  14). 

9.  A   commentary   by   Junayd    on    the   ecstatic   expressions 
(shathiyydt]   attributed   to    Abu    Yazid  al-Bistami  (381,2; 
382,5,   etc.). 

The  persons  cited  as  authorities  at  first  hand  are  forty  in 
number,  all  being  Sufis  with  a  single  exception  —  the  cel 
ebrated  philologist  Ibn  Khalawayh.  Most  of  them  are  un 
known,  but  the  list  includes  several  mystics  of  eminence, 
e.  g.  Duqqi,  Abu  '1-Hasan  al-Husri,  Jacfar  al-Khuldi ,  Abu 
cAmr  b.  Nujayd,  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Rudhabari,  Abu  '1-Hasan 
b.  Salim,  and  Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Sirawani.  The  names  of  the 
forty  in  alphabetical  order,  together  with  some  biographical 
details  and  references,  are  printed  below,  and  those  most 
frequently  cited  are  marked  with  an  asterisk. 


LIST  OF  AUTHORITIES. 

Abbreviations:  !) 

A  =  Ansdb  of  Samcani  (Gibb  Memorial  Series,  vol.  XX). 
H  =  Hilyat  al-Awliyd  of  Abu  NiTaym  al-Isbahani,  Leyden 

MS.  311^  and  311^  Warn. 
K  =  Kashf  al-Mahjub    of   Hujwiri,    my    translation    (Gibb 

Memorial  Series,  vol.  XVII). 
N  =  Nafahdt  al-Uns  of  Jami,  ed.  by  Nassau  Lees  (Calcutta, 

1859).    The   figures   cited    refer  to  the  numbered  bio 

graphies,  not  to  the  pages. 
Q  =  Qushayri's  Risdla  (Cairo,   1318  A.  H.). 
Sh  =  Shacrani's   Tabaqdt  al-Kiibrd  (Cairo,   1299  A.  H.). 
TA  =  Tadhkirat  al-Awliyd  of  Fariduddin  cAttar,  ed.  by  me 

in   Persian  Historical  Texts,  vols.  Ill  and  V  (1905— 

1907). 
TS  =  Tabaqdt  al-Sufiyya  of  Abu  cAbd  al-Rahman  al-Sulami, 

British  Museum,  Add.   18520. 
Y  =  Yaqut,  Mtfjam  al-Bulddn,  ed.  by  Wiistenfeld  (1866— 

1873)- 


cAkki,  Abu  '1-Tayyib  Ahmad  b.  Muqatil  al-Baghdadi. 
A  397^  penult. 


This  quotation  does  not  occur  in  the  Lumrf'y  but  Samcani 
may  have  found  it  in  another  work  by  Sarraj. 


i)  In  referring  to  MSS.  I  have  used  the  italicised  letters  a  and  b  to  denote 
the  two  pages  which  face  each  other  when  the  MS.  lies  open  before  the 
reader,  a  being  on  his  right  hand  and  b  on  his  left.  According  to  the  method 
commonly  adopted  a  and  b  denote  the  front  and  back  of  the  same  leaf.  There 
fore  the  figures  of  the  references  given  below  are  always  one  page  ahead  of 
the  ordinary  reckoning.  For  example,  200^  =  199^  and  2Qol>—2OOa. 


XIV  INTRODUCTION. 

cAkki  reports  a  description  of  Shibli's  behaviour  on  his 
deathbed,  derived  from  his  famulus,  Bundar  al-Dinawari, 
whom  GAkki  met  on  the  same  day  in  the  house  of 
Jacfar  al-Khuldi  (104,  6);  part  of  a  letter  written  to 
Jacfar  al-Khuldi  by  Abu  '1-Khayr  al-Tinati  (236,  13); 
an  account  derived  from  Jacfar  al-Khuldi  of  the  way  in 
which  Abu  '1-Husayn  b.  Ziri,  a  pupil  of  Junayd,  expressed 
his  approval  or  disapproval  of  samtf  (272,  13);  an  ecstasy 
of  Shibli  which  he  witnessed  (282,  17). 
The  author  relates  that  cAkkf  showed  him  a  list  that 
he  had  compiled  of  persons  who  recovered  their  lost 
property  by  means  of  a  prayer  which  Jacfar  al-Khuldi 
used  for  that  purpose  (317,  6). 

cAlawi,  Hamza  b.  cAbdallah.  N.  64. 

A  pupil  of  Abu  '1-Khayr  al-Tinati  (ob.  349  A.  H.). 
Speaking  from  personal  experience,  he  vouches  for  his 
master's  telepathic  powers  (317,  8). 

cAlawi,  Yahya  b.  al-Rida. 

He  related  at  Baghdad,  and  copied  for  the  author  with 
his  own  hand,  an  anecdote  of  the  Sufi  Abu  Hulman  (289, 7). 

cAsd'idi,  Talhat  al-Basri. 

He  related  at  Basra  an  anecdote  of  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah 
al-Tustari  which  he  derived  from  one  of  Sahl's  disciples 
(330,  8).  The  name  of  the  disciple  is  defectively  written 
in  the  MSS.  and  cannot  be  ascertained. 

Bdniydsi,  Muhammad  b.  Macbad. 

He  relates  a  story  of  al-Kurdi  al-Sufi  (203,  5). 

Basri,  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad. 

Possibly  identical  with  Abu  '1-Hasan  Ahmad  b.  Muham 
mad  b.  Salim  of  Basra  (see  under  Ibn  Salim}.  !)  He 
reports  a  saying  of  al-Jalajili  al-Basri  (143,  14). 


i)  The  author  uses  the  name  Abu  '1-Hasan  Muhammad  b.  Ahmad  (which  is 
a  mistake  for  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad)  in  reference  to  Ibn  Salim  (292,  n). 


LIST    OF   AUTHORITIES.  XV 

Basri,  Abu  '1-Husayn. 

He  may,  perhaps,  be  Abu  '1-Hasan  al-Husri  of  Basra  (see 
under  Husri).  He  reports,  as  eye-witness,  a  miracle  that 
was  granted  to  a  negro  faqir,  at  cAbbadan  (316,8). 

Basri,  Talhat  al-cAsa'idi.  See  ^Asa'idi. 

Bayruti,  Abu  Bakr,  Ahmad  b.  Ibrahim  al-Mu'addib. 

He  recited  to  the  author  at  Cairo  some  verses  by  Ibrahim 
al-Khawwas  (250,  i). 

Bistdmi,  Tayfiir  b.  clsa. 

He  reports  two  sayings  of  the  celebrated  Abu  Yazid 
al-Bistami  on  the  authority  of  Musa  b.  clsa  al-Bistami 
(known  as  cUmayy),  who  heard  them  from  his  father. 
He  describes  the  poverty  in  which  Abu  Yazid  died 
(188,  12). 

Ibn  Dillawayh,  ')  Ahmad. 

He  reports  a  saying  of  Abu  clmran  al-Tabaristani  (171,13). 

Dinawari,  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Khayyat. 
His  wasiyyat  to  the  author  (265,  n). 

D^na^var^,  ctsa  al-Qassar. 

He  was  the  famulus  of  Shibli  (148, 7).  He  reports  a 
saying  of  Ruwaym  (189,  8).  A  saying  by  him  on  hunger 
(202,  14).  He  witnessed  the  removal  of  Hallaj  from  prison 
to  the  place  of  execution  (24^  of  Dhu  'l-Qacda,  309 
A.  H.)  and  reports  the  last  words  which  he  uttered 
before  his  death  (303,  20). 

Dinawari,  Muhammad  b.  Dawud.  See  Duqqi. 

Dinaivari,  Abu  Sacid. 

The  author  was  present  in  his  majlis  at  Atrabulus  and 
gives  the  text  of  a  prayer  which  he  heard  him  pro 
nounce  on  that  occasion  (260,  4). 


i)  For  the  name  Dillawayh  (Dilluya)  or  Dallawayh  see  Noldeke,  Persische 
Studien^  S.  B.  W.  A.  1888,  vol.  116,  part  I,  p.  403.  Zakariyya  b.  Dillawayh 
of  Naysabiir  (pb.  294  A.  H.)  is  noticed  in  N.  77,  where  the  text  has  </^:>. 


XVI  INTRODUCTION. 

*Duqqi,  Abu  Bakr  Muhammad  b.  Dawiid  al-Dinawari.  TS. 
103^.  Q.  33.  N.  229.  Sh.  I,  158.  A.  228^,  24. 
Originally  of  Dinawar,  he  resided  for  some  time  at 
Baghdad  and  finally  settled  at  Damascus,  where  he  died 
in  359  or  360  A.  H.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Abu  Bakr  al- 
Zaqqaq  the  Elder  (see  the  List  of  Sufis  given  below) 
and  Abu  cAbdallah  b.  al-Jalla  (Q.  24.  Sh.  I,  116.  N. 
112).  That  Duqqi,  to  whom  there  are  eighteen  referen 
ces  in  the  Lumcf,  was  a  trustworthy  reporter  may  be 
judged  from  the  fact  that  he  made  a  special  journey 
from  Syria  to  the  Hijaz  in  order  to  hear  from  the  lips 
of  Abu  Bakr  al-Kattani  the  true  version  of  an  anecdote 
concerning  the  latter  (178,  18).  He  relates  sayings  and 
anecdotes  of  Jariri,  Abu  Bakr  al-Farghani,  J)  Abu  Bakr 
al-Kattani, .  Ibn  al-Jalla,  Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq,  Abu  '1- 
Husayn  al-Darraj,  and  verses  of  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari. 
He  also  describes  the  hunger  which  he  endured  at  Mecca 
(170,  6)  and  tells  the  story  of  the  slave  whose  sweet 
voice  was  the  death  of  his  master's  camels  (270,  3).  2) 
The  author  mentions,  several  times,  that  he  received 
information  from  Duqqi  at  Damascus. 

Farrd,  Muhammad  b.  Ahmad  b.  Hamdun.  TS.  117^.  N. 
231.  Sh.  I,  166  (where  ±\jb\  is  a  mistake  for  -\yJV). 
His  kunya  is  Abu  Bakr.  N.  gives  his  name  as  Ahmad 
b.  Hamdun,  which  is  incorrect.  He  was  an  eminent 
Sufi  of  Naysabur  and  died  in  370  A.  H.  He  reports  a 
saying  of  cAbd  al-Rahman  al-Farisi  (40,  5). 

Him  si,  Qays  b.  cUmar. 

He  relates  an  anecdote  of  Abu  '1-Qasim  b.  Marwan  al- 
Nahawandi  (288,   16). 


1)  Generally   known   as    AbU    Bakr  al-Wasiti  (Q.  29.  K.   154.  TA.  II,  265. 
Sh.  I.  132.  N.  212). 

2)  See    K.    399,    where    the  same  story  is  told  on  the  authority  of  Ibrahim 
al-Khawwds. 


LIST   OF   AUTHORITIES.  XVII 

Husri,   Abu    '1-Hasan.    TS.    114^.    Q.  35.    K.   160.  TA.  II, 
288.  N.  290.  Sh.  I,   164. 

Died  371  A.  H.  A  native  of  Basra  but  resided  at  Bagh 
dad.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Shibli,  two  of  whose  sayings  he 
reports  (396,  8 ;  398,  6).  Sarraj  quotes  six  sayings  by 
Husri,  including  a  definition  of  'Sufi"  (28,  2)  and  a  sum 
mary  of  the  principles  of  Sufism  (218,  i). 

Ibn  Jab  an,  Abu  °Abdallah  Ahmad. 

He  relates  an  anecdote  of  Shibli,  whose  house  he  visited 
(395,  1 8). 

Ibn  Khdlawayk,  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Husayn. 

The  well-known  grammarian  (Brockelmann,  I,  125).  He 
died  in  370  A.  H.  He  reports  from  Ibn  al-Anbari  (Brock 
elmann,  I,  119)  fourteen  verses  of  Kacb  b.  Zuhayr's 
ode  beginning  with  the  words  Bdnat  Sucdd  (275,  8). ') 

Khayydt,  Abu  Hafs  cUmar. 

He  reports  Abu  Bakr  b.  al-Mucallim,  who  related  to  him 
at  Antioch  how,  after  sixty  years,  he  was  called  upon 
to  pronounce  the  Moslem  profession  of  faith  (207,21). 

*Khuldit    Jacfar   b.    Muhammad  b.  Nusayr.  Q.  33.  K.   156. 
TA.  II,  283.  N.  278.  Sh.  I,   156.  A.  205^,   13. 
A   native  of  Baghdad,  pupil  of  Junayd  and  Ibrahim  al- 
Khawwas.  He  died  in  348  A.  H. 

He  reports  Junayd  and  through  him  Sari  al-Saqati  (seven 
references).  A  story  of  his  own  pilgrimage  to  Mecca 
(168,  13).  A  manuscript  in  his  handwriting  is  mentioned 
as  the  authority  for  an  anecdote  of  Junayd  (204,  5)  and 
for  an  extract  from  a  letter  written  by  a  certain  Sheykh 

* 

(237,  14).  The  author's  use  of  the  words  4«ic  Cj\^5  \^ 
(251,  2;  306,  5;  434,  10)  shows  that  in  these  cases  he 
obtained  from  Jacfar  al-Khuldi  a  personal  assurance  that 
the  tradition  was  accurate. 


l)  The  word  ^VijVi  (27$->  9)  is  an  obvious  misprint  for 


XVIII  INTRODUCTION. 

Malati,  cUmar. 

He  reports  to  the  author  at  Antioch  the  reply  which 
he  received  from  a  certain  Sheykh  whom  he  had  asked 
to  pray  for  him  (261,  17). 

Muhallab,  Abu  Muhammad  b.  Ahmad  b.  Marzuq  al-Misri. 
He  associated  with  Abu  Bakr  b.  Tahir  al-Abhari,  who 
died  circa  330  A.  H.  (N.  p.  207,  1.  4  foil.).  He  relates 
that  Abu  Muhammad  al-Murtacish  of  Naysabur  on  his 
deathbed  (ob.  328  A.  H.)  enjoined  him  to  pay  the  debts 
wich  he  (Murtacish)  had  contracted  (266,  2). 

tbn  Nujayd,  Abu  cAmr  Ismacil.  TS.  105*.  Q.  34-  TA.  II, 
262.  N.  281.  Sh.  I,  159. 

Died  in  366  A.  H.  He  was  the  maternal  grandfather 
of  Abu  cAbd  al-Rahman  al-Sulami  and  the  pupil  of 
Abu  cUthman  al-Hiri  of  Naysabur.  He  reports  three 
sayings  of  Abu  GUthman  al-Hiri.  ]) 

Rdzi,  Abu  cAbdallah  Husayn  b.  Ahmad. 

He  reports  (316,  12)  a  story  told  by  Abu  Sulayman  al- 
Khawwas,  a  Maghribi,  who  died  at  Damascus  and  was 
contemporary  with  Abu  '1-Khayr  al-Tmati  (ob.  349  A.H.). 
See  N.  286,  where  the  same  story  is  related. 

Rdzi,  Husayn  b.  cAbdallah. 

He  reports  (215,20)  a  saying  of  Abu  Bakr  cAbdallah 
b.  Tahir  al-Abhari  who  died  circa  330  A.  H. 

Rudhabdri,  Abu  cAbdallah  Ahmad  b.  cAta.  TS.  115$.  Q. 
35.  N.  328.  Sh.  I,  164. 

He  lived  at  Sur  and  died  there  in  369  A.  H.  He  was  a 
nephew  (son  of  the  sister)  of  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari 
(ob.  322  A.  H.).  He  tells  an  anecdote  of  his  uncle  (185, 
14)  and  recites  some  verses  by  him  (249,  10).  He  relates 


l)  In  the  Lnmc?  his  name  is  given  as  Sacid  b.  cUthman  al-Hirf  (al-Razi), 
but  according  to  all  other  authorities  it  is  Sacid  b.  Ismacil.  He  was  originally 
a  native  of  Rayy. 


LIST   OF   AUTHORITIES.  XIX 

that  one  night  his  prayer  for  forgiveness  was  answered 
by  a  heavenly  voice  (316,  17).  The  author  states  that 
Abu  cAbdallah  al-Rudhabari  l)  wrote  an  impromptu 
letter  in  his  presence  at  Ramla,  begging  the  owner  of 
a  slave-girl,  who  was  famed  for  her  singing,  to  permit 
the  author  and  his  companions  to  hear. her  performance 
(234,  6). 

*Ibn  Salim,  Abu  '1-Hasan  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad.  Dhahabi, 
Ta'rikh  al-Isldm  (British  Museum,  Or.  48,  710)  cited  in 
Notes  on  some  Sufi  Lives  by  H.  F.  Amedroz  in  JRAS 
for  1912,  p.  573,  note  2.  Shadhardt  al-DJialiab,  I,  172^. 
He  is  the  son  of  Abii  °Abdallah  Muhammad  b.  Salim2) 
of  Basra  (TS.  95^.  H.  II,  321^.  N.  124.  Sh.  I,  154),  who 
was  a  pupil  of  Sahl  b.  GAbdallah  al-Tustari  and  founder 
of  a  school  of  mystical  theologians  known  after  him  as 
the  Salimis  (al-Sdlimiyya).  3)  Ibn  Salim  Senior  died  in 
297  A.  H. 4)  He  is  often  confused  with  his  son,  the 
subject  of  the  present  notice,  who  died  circa  360  A.  H. 
Thus  the  author  of  the  Luma*  records  (177,  21)  a  state- 
•  ment  by  Ibn  Salim  Junior  that  he  associated  with  Sahl 
b.  °Abdallah  for  a  period  of  sixty  years.  Evidently  this 
refers  to  his  father  and,  as  it  happens,  the  mistake  is 
corrected  in  a  later  passage  (292,  n).  Again,  it  must 
have  been  Ibn  Salim  Senior  who  had  the  conversation 
with  Sahl  which  is  reported  by  Ibn  Salim  Junior  as  a 
personal  experience  (293,  2). 


1)  The  text  has  Abii  °Ali  al-Rudhabari,  but  the  reading  of  B  is  correct. 

2)  Muhammad    b.   Ahmad   b.    Salim,    according    to  Abu  cAbd  al-Rahman  al- 
Sulami,  Abii  Nucaym  al-Isbaham  and  Samcani. 

3)  See  p.  X  above. 

4)  The  passage  cited  by  Dhahabi  from  the  Hilyat  al-Awliyd  of  Abu  Nucaym 
(ob.    430    A.  H.)    makes    the    latter    say    that  he  was    born  before  the  death  of 
Ibn    Salim    the    Elder,   which    is   absurd.  The  correct  reading  of  the  text  after 
the    words   V$T  ^W_,  (JR  'AS,    1912,    p.    574,    1.    7    of  the  Arabic  text)  is: 


in 


XX  INTRODUCTION. 

Abu  '1-Hasan  b.  Salim  is  cited  as  authority  for  several 
anecdotes  and  sayings  of  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah,  and  in 
about  half  of  these  instances  it  is  expressly  mentioned 
that  his  information  was  .obtained  from  his  father.  If 
he  and  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad  al-Basri  (143,  14)  are  the 
same  person,  he  also  reports  a  saying  of  al-Jalajili  of 
Basra,  concerning  whom  nothing  is  known. 
Sarraj  was  intimately  acquainted  with  Ibn  Salim.  He 
was  present  in  his  majlis  at  Basra  (195,18;  390,12; 
394,  8);  he  reports  conversations  with  him  (319,  2  ;  326,  17, 
390,  12)  and  a  considerable  number  of  his  sayings  (i  16,  9; 
152,13;  202,9;  219,2;  223,3;  3l$>  I2~ 3l6>  2;  417>  17)- 

Sayrafi,  Abu  '1-Hasan  cAli  b,   Muhammad. 

Apparently  identical  with  Abu  '1-Hasan  cAli  b.  Bundar 
b.  al-Husayn  al-Sayrafi  of  Naysabur,  who  associated  with 
Ruwaym  and  died  in  359  A.H.  (Q  34,  N.  118,  Sh.  I,  165). 
He  reports  a  saying  of  Ruwaym  (288,  13). 

Shimshdti,  Abu  Hafs  cUmar. 

He  recited  some  verses  by  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas  to  the 
author  at  Ramla  (250,  8). 

Shirdzi,  Abu  '1-Tayyib. 

He  reports  a  saying  of  one  of  his  Sheykhs  (342,  17). 

Sirawdni,  Abu  '1-Husayn.  N.  336. 

There  are  two  Sufis  of  this  name:  Abu  '1-Husayn  cAli 
b.  Muhammad  al-Sirawani,  a  native  of  Sirawan  in  the 
Maghrib,  who  resided  at  Dimyat  (N.  283),  and  his  pupil 
Abu  '1-Husayn  cAli  b.  Jacfar  b.  Dawud  al-Sirawani 
al-Saghir,  who  associated  with  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas 
in  Egypt  and  afterwards  settled  at  Mecca,  where  he 
died.  Jami  says,  on  the  authority  of  the  Ta'rikh  al- 
Sufiyya  of  al-Sulami,  that  al-Sirawani  al-Saghir  lived 
to  the  age  of  a  hundred  and  twenty-four.  He  is  the 
person  cited  in  the  Lumcf,  for  he  is  described  as  the 
sahib  of  al-Khawwas. 


LIST    OF    AUTHORITIES.  XXI 

He  met  Sarraj  at  Dimyat  and  related  to  him  a   saying 
of  Junayd  (285,  18). 
Ibn  Sun  ay  d,  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad. 

Qadi   of  Dinawar.    He   reports  an  anecdote  of  Ruwaym 

(I63,  12). 

Suri,  Abu  cAli  b.  Abi  Khalid. 

He  recited  to  the  author  at  Sur  some  verses  written  by 
him  to  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari  and  by  the  latter  in  reply 
to  him  (234,  14). 

Talli,  !)  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad. 

He  reported  to  the  author  at  Antioch  from  his  father, 
from  Bishr  (or  clsa),  a  saying  of  Ishaq  b.  Ibrahim  al- 
Mawsili  concerning  the  expert  singer  (271,  3). 

Tarasusi,  Ahmad. 

He  is  probably  Abu  Bakr  cAli  b.  Ahmad  al-Tarasusi 
al-Harami,  who  associated  with  Ibrahim  b.  Shayban  al- 
Qarmisini  (pb*  337  A.  H.)  and  died  in  364  A.  H.  at  Mecca 
(N.  233).  He  reports  from  Ibrahim  b.  Shayban  a  story 
told  by  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas  (170,  14). 

Tusi,  Abu  Bakr  Ahmad  b.  Jacfar. 

He  reports  a  saying  of  Nasr  b.  al-Hammami  (48,  15) 
and  relates  to  the  author  at  Damascus  an  anecdote  of 
Abu  Yacqub  al-Nahrajuri,  who  died  in  330  A.  H.  (203,  13). 

*Ibn  cUlwdn,  Abu  cAmr  cAbd  al- Wahid. 

Fourteen  references.  He  reports  sayings  and  anecdotes 
of  Junayd,  whom  he  had  met  (116,  20),  and  a  story  of 
Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Nuri  (193,  20).  The  author  mentions 
twice  that  Ibn  cUlwan  communicated  information  to 
him  at  Rahbat  Malik  b.  Tawq. 

*Wajihi,  Abu  Bakr  Ahmad  b.  cAli. 

Twenty-four  references.  He  is  called  (293,  17)  Ahmad 
b.  CAH  al-Karaji  (or  al-Karkhi),  generally  known  as  Wa- 


i)  Variant  Talhi. 


XXII  INTRODUCTION. 

jihi.  He  reports  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari  (eleven  referen 
ces),  Jariri,  Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq,  Ibn  Mamliila  al-cAttar 
al-Dinawari,  Abu  Jacfar  al-Saydalani,  Jacfar  al-Tayalisi 
al-Razi,  and  Muhammad  b.  Yusuf  al-Banna.  He  relates 
anecdotes  of  Bunan  al-Hammal,  Hasan  al-Qazzaz,  and 
Mimshadh  al-Dinawari,  and  recites  verses  by  Nuri. 
Zanjdni,  Abu  °Amr. 

He    recited    to    the    author    at   Tabriz    some    verses   by 
Shibli  (251,12). 

About  two  hundred  names  of  Sufis  are  mentioned  in  the 
Kitdb  al-Lumac.  Many  of  these  are  familiar  and  will  be 
found  in  almost  any  Arabic  or  Persian  'Lives  of  the  Saints'. 
On  the  other  hand,  a  great  proportion  of  them  either  do 
not  occur  in  the  published  works  of  reference,  or  are  re 
corded  only  in  one  or  two  of  such  works,  or  are  not  mentioned, 
to  my  knowledge,  except  in  the  Lmncf.  In  the  hope  that 
further  information  may  be  forthcoming,  I  append  the  names 
of  those  more  or  less  obscure  mystics,  accompanied  by  a  few 
notes  which  I  have  made  while  endeavouring  to  identify 
them.  Names  included  in  the  List  of  Authorities  are  omitted 
from  the  following  list,  which  is  also  arranged  alphabetically. 


LIST  OF  SUFIS. 

1.  cAbdallah  b.  al-Husayn  (248,  15).  4th  century. 

2.  °Abd  al-Rahman  b.  Ahmad  (325,  3).  A  sahib  of  Sahl  b. 

°Abdallah  of  Tustar. 

3.  Abhari,    Abu  Bakr  cAbdallah  b.  Tahir.  Died  330  A.  H. 

TS.  90^.  Q.  32.  H.  II,  315*,  N.  223,  Sh.  I,   149. 

4.  Anmati,  Abu  cUmar  (329,  20). 

5.  c  Attar  al-Dinawari  =  Ibn  Mamlula. 

6.  c  Attar,    Abu    Hatim    (180,  17).    Contemporary  with  Abu 

Turab  al-Nakhshabi  (ob.  245  A.  H.).  Abu  Sacid  al- 
Kharraz  and  Junayd  were  his  pupils.  N.  35. 

7.  cAtufi,   Abu  '1-Hasan  (205,  11).  Contemporary  with  Abu 

CAH  al-Rudhabari  (ob.  322  A.  H.). 

8.  Awlasi,    Abu  '1-Harith.  His  name  is  Fayd  b.  al-Khadir. 

He  was  a  pupil  of  Ibrahim  b.  Sacd  al-cAlawi  (ob. 
circa  260  A.  H.).  N.  16. 

9.  Abu  '1-Azhar  (325,  7).  Contemporary  with  Abu  Bakr  al- 

Kattani  (ob.  322  A.  H.). 

10.  Banna,  Muhammad   b.  Yusuf  (325,  19).  Author  of  many 

excellent  works  on  Sufism.  He  travelled  with  Abu 
Turab  al-Nakhshabi  (ob.  245  A.  H.)  and  was  the 
Sheykh  of  cAli  b.  Sahl  al-Isbahani  (ob.  307  A.  H.). 
N.  103.  H.  II,  328^. 

11.  Barathi,    Abu    Shucayb    (200,3).  He  is  described  as  one 

of  the  ancient  Sheykhs  of  Baghdad.  Junayd  said  that 
Abu  Shucayb  was  the  first  who  dwelt  at  Baratha  (a 
quarter  of  Baghdad)  in  a  knkh,  or  hut  made  of 


XXIV  INTRODUCTION. 

rushes,  and  devoted  himself  to  asceticism.  His  wife, 
Jawhara,  died  in  170  A.  H.  (Nujum,  ed.  by  Juynboll, 
I,  460).  H.  II,  304^,  gives  the  same  anecdote  which 
is  related  here. 

12.  Barizi,  Abu  Bakr  (207,6;   264,4). 

13.  Basri,  Ahmad  b.  al-Husayn  (248,  15).  Contemporary  with 

Junayd. 

14.  Bunan    al-Hammal    al-Misri.    Died    316  A.  H.   Q.  28.  N. 

184.  Sh.  I,   130. 

15.  Ibn    Bunan    al-Misri    (193,18;    209,20).  A  pupil  of  Abu 

Sacid  al-Kharraz  (ob.  277  or  286  A.  H.).  Notices  of 
him  under  the  name  of  Abu  '1-Husayn  b.  Bunan  J) 
occur  in  TS.  90*2,  H.  II,  317^,  Q.  32,  and  N.  271. 

1 6.  Bundar  b.  al-Husayn.  A  pupil  of  Shibli.  He  was  a  native 

of  Shiraz  but  resided  at  Arrajan, 2)  where  he  died 
in  353  A.  H.  H.  II,  323^.  Q.  34.  Sh.  I,  161.  N.  280. 

17.  Busri,   Abu    cUbayd.    A   pupil    of  Abu    Turab    al-Nakh- 

shabi  (ob.  245  A.  H.)  Q.  26.  A.  8i£,  5.  N.  114.  Y.I, 
621,  8.  Sh.  I,  118. 

18.  Damaghani,  al-Hasan3)  b.  cAli  b.  Hayawayh.4) 

19.  Darraj,  Abu  Ja'far  (194,  19). 

20.  Darraj,  Abu  '1-Husayn,  of  Baghdad.  N.  207.  Famulus  of 

Ibrahim  al-Khawwas.  He  had  a  brother,  Bukayr  al- 
Darraj,  who  was  also  a  Sufi  (N.  208).  Abu  '1-Hu 
sayn  al-Darraj  died  in  320  A.  H. 


1)  (jUJ  in  N.  is  a  mistake  for  (jVu. 

2)  j\c>  \\,  the  reading  of  B  at  278,  7,  is  a  mistake  for  ^WjV\. 

3)  Qushayri  has  al-Husayn.  See  41,  9,  note  8. 

4)  Examples  of  the  name  Hayawayh,  which  appears  to  be  the  correct  reading 
here,  are  found  in  my  MS.  of  the  Shadhardt  al-Dhahab  (see  JRAS.  for  1899, 
p.  911,  and  for   1906,  p.  797)1,   1770,  24,  Abu  '1-Hasan  Muhammad  b.  cAbd- 
allah  b.  Zakariyya  b.  Hayawayh  al-Naysaburi  al-Misri  al-Qadi  (pb.   367   A.H.); 
I,   183^,  17,    Abu    Bakr    Muhammad    b.  Hayawayh    al-Karkhi,    the  grammarian 
(ob.  373    A.  H);    and    1,    l88d!,   10,    Abu    cAmr    b.    Hayawayh    al-Khazzaz    of 
Baghdad,  the  traditionist  (ob.  382  A.  H.). 


LIST    OF    SUFIS.  XXV 

21.  Dinawari,  Abu  Bakr  al-Kisa'i  =  Kisa'i. 

22.  Dinawari,  Bakran  (210,  14).  Contemporary  with  Shibli. 

23.  Dinawari,  Bundar  (104,7).  Famulus  of  Shibli. 

24.  Dinawari,  Hasan  al-Qazzaz  =  Qazzaz. 

25.  Ibn    al-Faraji  =  Abu    Jacfar    Muhammad   b.    Yacqub  al- 

Faraji.  A  sahib  of  Harith  al-Muhasibi  (ob.  243  A.H.). 
Author  of  the  Kitdb  al-waraf,  the  Kitdb  sifat  al- 
muridin  and  other  works  on  Sufism.  H.  II,  293^. 

26.  Farghani,    Abu    Bakr    Muhammad    b.    Musa  (228,  10)  = 

Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti  (ob.  circa  320  A.  H.).  Q.  29. 
K.  154.  TA  II,  265.  N.  212.  Sh.  I,  132. 

27.  Farisi,  cAbd  al-Rahman  (40,  6).  Contemporary  with  Mu 

hammad  b.  Ahmad  b.  Hamdun  al-Farra  (ob.  370  A.H.). 

28.  Farisi,    Abu    '1-Husayn   cAli  b.  Hind  al-Qurashi  (230,  2). 

He  associated  with  Junayd  and  °Amr  b.  cUthman 
al-Makki,  but  himself  belonged  to  a  younger  gene 
ration.  TS  92^.  N.  272.  Sh.  I,  150. 

29.  Path  al-Mawsili.  Died  in  220  A.  H.  N.  25.  Sh.  I,    105. 

30.  Fath  b.  Shakhraf  al-Marwazi  (228,  6).  Died  in  273  A.H. 

N.   26. 

31.  Ibn  al-Fuwati  (286,  i)  ').  Contemporary  with  Abu  '1-Hu- 

sayn  al-Darraj  (ob.  320   A.  H.). 

32.  Ghassani,  Kulthum  (142,  13). 

33.  Haddad,    Abu    Jacfar    (332,  5).    There    are    two    Sufis    of 

this  name:  (i)  Abu  Jacfar  al-Haddad  al-Kabir  of 
Baghdad,  who  was  contemporary  with  Junayd  (ob. 
298  A.  H.)  and  Ruwaym  (ob.  303  A.  H.) ;  and  (2) 
Abu  Jacfar  b.  Bukayr  al-Haddad  al-Saghir  al-Misri, 
a  pupil  of  Abu  Jacfar  al-Haddad  the  elder.  At  first 
sight  it  would  seem  that  the  former  is  referred  to 
here,  since  he  is  described  as  having  had  a  conver 
sation  with  Abu  Turab,  whom  we  should  naturally 


i)  Fuwati    (not    Qiiti    or  Ghuti)  seems  to  be  the  correct  form  of  the  nisba. 
Cf.  N.  p.  216,  1.  2  and  JRAS.  for  1901,  p.  708. 


XXVI  INTRODUCTION. 

identify  with  Abu  Turab  al-Nakhshabi  (ob.  245  A.H.), 
but  in  N.  p.  190,  1.  i  foil,  the  same  story  is  told 
of  Abu  Jacfar  al-Haddad  the  younger,  and  it  is  ex 
pressly  stated  on  the  authority  of  cAbdallah  Ansarf 
that  the  Abu  Turab  in  question  is  not  Abu  Turab 
al-Nakhshabi  ').  N.  201. 

34.  Abu    '1-Hadfd   (256,  13).  Contemporary   with   Abu  °Abd- 

allah  al-Qurashi. 

35.  Ibn  Hamawayh,  Abu  Bakr  Ahmad  (197,  12).  A  sahib  of 

Subayhf  (q.  v.) 

36.  Ibn  al-Hammami,  Nasr  (48,  17).  Contemporary  with  Abu 

Bakr  Ahmad  b.  Jacfar  al-Tusi.  See  List  of  Authorities 
under  Tusi. 

37.  Harawi,    Abu  Muhammad  (209,  12).  Contemporary  with 

Shibli. 

38.  Hasan,   Sheykh  (178,  4).  He  consorted  for  seventy  years 

with  Abu  GAbdallah  al-Maghribi  (ob.   299  A.  H.). 

39.  Haykali,  Abu  cAbdallah.  Contemporary  with  Abu  GAbd- 

allah  al-Qurashi. 

40.  Abu  Hulman  al-Sufi  (289,  8).  A  Persian,  who  resided  at 

Damascus  and  gave  his  name  to  the  sect  of  the 
Hulmanis,  who  are  reckoned  among  the  Hululis.  Cf. 
al-Farq  bayna  'l-firaq,  p.  245,  1.  3  foil.,  and  K.  260. 

41.  Husri,    Abu    cAbdallah,    of   Basra.    A   pupil  of  Path    al- 

Mawsili  (ob.  220  A.  H.).  N.   116. 

42.  Isbahani,    Sahl   b.    GAli    b.    Salil.  (48,  7).  Apparently  the 

son  of  cAli  b.  Sahl  al-Isbahani  (ob.   307  A.  H.). 

43.  Istakhri,    Abu   clmran    (211,6).  Contemporary  with  Abu 

Turab  al-Nakhshabi  (ob.   245   A.  H.). 

44.  Istakhri,    Yahya    (211,8).    Contemporary    with   Ibn  cAta 

of  Baghdad  (ob.  309  A.  H.). 


i)  On    the    other  hand  it  is  said  in  H.  II,  310*$  that  Abii  Jacfar  al-Haddad 
U  . 


LIST   OF   SUFIS.  XXVII 

45.  Jabala,  Sheykh  (287,  5).  A  Maghribi,  contemporary  with 

Abu  cAbdallah  Ahmad  b.  Yahya  al-Jalla  (ob.  306  AH.). 

46.  Jacfar  al-Mubarqac  (287,  ii;   332,  n).    Probably  identical 

with    Jacfar    ibn    al-Mubarqac  (N.  117),  who  was  con 
temporary  with  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Husri  (q.  v). 

47.  Jalajili,  al-Basrf  (143,  15)  *).  Contemporary  with  Ahmad  b. 

Muhammad    al-Basri  =  Ibn    Salim    (see    List  of  Au 
thorities). 

48.  Ibn    al-Karanbi,    Abu    Jacfar,    of  Baghdad  2).   Teacher  of 

Junayd    and    pupil    of  Abu    °Abdallah    b.  Abi  Jacfar 
al-Barathi  (H.  II,  304^).  H.  II,  275^.  N.  72. 

49.  Ibn  al-Katib,  Abu  cAli  (206,7).  Q-  32-  Sh-  I»  14&-  N.  249. 

50.  Khawwas,  Abu  Sulayman.  N.  286.  See  under  Razi,  Abu 

GAbdallah    Husayn    b.    Ahmad    in    the    List    of  Au 
thorities. 

51.  Kisa'i,  Abu  Bakr  al-Dinawari.  A  sahib  of  Junayd,  whom 

he  predeceased.  N.   135. 

52.  Ibn  al-Kurrini.  See  Ibn  al-Karanbi. 

53.  Maghazili,  Abu  °Ali  (281,  19).  Contemporary  with  Shibli. 

54.  Maghazili,    Ishaq   (195,  14).    Contemporary  with  Bishr  b. 

al-Harith  al-Hafi  (ob.  227  A.  H.). 

55.  Maghazili,  Abu  Muhammad  (209,9).  Contemporary  with 

Jacfar  al-Khuldi  (ob.  348  A.  H.).  Cited  in  TA  II  46,20 
and  84,  6. 

56.  Makki,  Abu  '1-Hasan  of  Basra  (165,  22).  One  of  the  au 

thor's    contemporaries.    Ibn    Salim    refused    to   salute 


1)  This  passage  is  cited  by  Qushayri,   152,  11   foil. 

2)  Karanbi  (cabbage-seller)  is  probably  the  correct  form  of  the  nisba^  which 

appears  in  the  MSS.  of  the  Lumcf  as  £j  an(i  in  the  present  edition  as 
.A/p!  The  reading  ^ ^  (Ihya,  Bulaq,  1289  A.  II.  IV,  345,26)  is  certainly 

false.  According  to  H.  and  N.  the  name  of  this  Sufi  is  Abu  Jacfar  al-Karanbi 
but  he  is  called  Ibn  al-Karanbi  (N.  p.  93,  1.  2)  in  a  story  of  him  which 
also  occurs  in  the  Lumcf^  337,  16  foil.  Cf.  the  Introduction  to  al-Hidaya  'Ha 
fara'id  al-quh'ib^  ed.  by  Dr.  A.  S.  Yahuda,  p.  108. 


XXVIII  INTRODUCTION. 

him,  on  the  ground  that  he  had  made  himself  cel 
ebrated  by  his  fasting. 

57.  Ibn   Mamlula  al-cAttar  al-Dinawari  (201,  14).  According 

to  H.  II,  3270,  Muhammad  b.  Macruf  al-cAttar,  gen 
erally  known  as  Mammula,  was  the  Imam  of  the 
congregational  mosque.  He  heard  Traditions  from 
Yahya  b.  Sacid  al-Qattan  (ob.  198  A.  H.)  and  Yazid 
b.  Harun  (ob.  206  A.  H.).  The  Mosque  of  Mammula 
b.  Macruf  is  named  after  him. 

58.  Marandi,  Husayn  b.  Jibril  (238,  i). 

59.  Marastani,    Ibrahim.    His    full    name    is  Abu  Ishaq  Ibra 

him  b.  Ahmad  al-Marastani.  He  was  a  friend  of  Ju- 
nayd.  H.  II,  308^,  where  the  text  is  given  of  a  letter 
written  to  him  by  Junayd. 

60.  Marwazi,    cAbdallah    (178,  20).    Contemporary   with  Abu 

cAli  al-Ribati  (q.  v.). 

61.  Ibn    Masruq,    Abu    'l-cAbbas   Ahmad  b.  Muhammad  al- 

Tusi.  Died  at  Baghdad  in  298  or  299  A.  H.  Q.  27. 
K.  146.  N.  83.  TA  I,  115. 

62.  Ibn   Masruq,   Muhammad  al-Baghdadi  (297,   5).  Contem 

porary  with  Junayd  (K.  415).  Probably  the  same  as 
N°.  61. 

63.  Mimshadh    al-Dinawari.    Died    in    299  A.  H.  N.  88.  TA 

II,   157.  Sh.  I,   135. 

64.  Ibn    al-Misri,    Husayn  (198,  16).    Contemporary  with  Ju 

nayd. 

65.  Ibn   al-Mucallim,    Abu    Bakr    (208,  i).    See    the    List    of 

Authorities  under  Khayyat. 

66.  Muhammad  b.  Ahmad,  Abu  '1-Hasan  (292,  n)  =  Ahmad 

b.  Muhammad  Abu  '1-Hasan  =  Ibn  Salim.  See  the 
List  of  Authorities. 

67.  Muhammad  b.  Ismacil  (189,9).   Contemporary  with  Abu 

Bakr  al-Kattani  (ob.  322  A.  H.). 

68.  Muhammad  b.  Yacqub  (287,   n)  =  Ibn  al-Faraji. 


LIST   OF   SUFIS.  XXIX 

69.  Munadi,  Abu  '1-Qasim,  of  Naysabur.  Contemporary  with 

Abu  l'-Hasan  al-Bushanji  of  Naysabur  (ob.  347  or 
348  A.  H.).  Q.  125,4  from  foot  and  126,3. 

70.  Muqri,  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Razi  (149,  1 6)  =  Abu  cAbdallah 

b.  al-Muqri  (191,  22).  His  full  name  is  Abu  cAbd- 
allah  Muhammad  b.  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad  al-Muqri. 
He  died  in  366  A.  H.  TS  uSa.  N.  332.  Sh.  i,  166. 

71.  Abu    '1-Musayyib    (207,    n).     Contemporary    with  Abu 

'1-Husayn  al-Darraj  (ob.  320  A.  H.). 

72.  Mushtuli,  Abu  cAli  (158,21).  His  full  name  is  Abu  cAli 

Hasan  b.  cAli  b.  Musa  al-Mushtuli.  He  was  a  pupil 
of  Abu  cAli  b.  al-Katib  and  Abu  Yacqub  al-Susi. 
He  died  in  340  A.  H.  N.  250. 

73.  Ibn    al-Muwaffaq,    cAli,    of   Baghdad    (290,   18).    He  met 

Dhu  '1-Nun  al-Mfsri  (ob.  245  A.  H.).  He  performed 
more  than  fifty  pilgrimages  to  Mecca.  H.  II,  301^. 
N.  108. 

74.  Ibn  al-Muwallad  =  Raqqi. 

75.  Muzayyin,  Abu  '1-Hasan.  Died  in  328  A.  H.  Q.  32.  N.  188. 

76.  Muzayyin  al-Kabir  =  Abu  '1  Hasan  al-Muzayyin.  See  A 

528^,  3  from  foot  and  foil.  According  to  cAbdallah 
Ansari  (N.  p.  180,  1.  18  foil.)  there  were  two  Sufis 
named  Abu  '1-Hasan  al-Muzayyin.  The  elder,  known 
as  Muzayyin  al-Kabir,  was  a  native  of  Baghdad  and 
was  buried  there.  The  younger,  known  as  Muzayyin 
al-Saghir,  was  also  a  native  of  Baghdad,  but  was 
buried  at  Mecca.  Samcani,  on  the  other  hand,  says 
that  Abu  '1-Hasan  al-Muzayyin  al-Kabir  was  buried 
at  Mecca. 

77.  Muzayyin,  Abu  cUthman  (307,  20). 

78.  Nahawandi,  Abu  '1-Qasim  b.  Marwan  (288,  16).  A  sahib 

of  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  (ob.  277  or  286  A.  H.). 

79.  Nasibi,   Abu  cAbdallah  (190,  i). 

80.  Nassaj,  Abu  Muhammad  (399,  i).  4th  century. 


XXX  INTRODUCTION. 

81.  Nawribati,   Abu  cAli  (183,7).  Perhaps  the  same  as  Abu 

cAli  al-Ribati  (q.  v.). 

82.  Nibaji,    Abu    cAbdallah    (222,  12).  His  full  name  is  Abu 

cAbdallah  Sacid  b.  Yazid  al-Nibaji.  He  was  contem 
porary  with  Dhu  '1-Nun  (ob.  245  A.  H.)  and  was  one 
of  the  teachers  of  Ahmad  b.  Abi  '1-Hawari  of 
Damascus  (ob.  230  or  246  A.  H.),  who  related  anec 
dotes  of  him.  H.  II,  1 8 1£.  A.  553^,  6.  N.  86. 

83.  Qalanisf,    Abu    cAbdallah    Ahmad.    He   is   said   to    have 

been  the  teacher  of  Junayd  (175,  20),  but  this  state 
ment,  which  has  been  added  by  a  corrector,  is  prob 
ably  untrue.  The  answer  given  by  him  (176,  3)  is 
ascribed  in  H.  and  in  the  Kitdb  al-Lumc£  itself  (217, 
1 6)  to  Abu  Ahmad  al-Qalanisi.  H.  II,  2560  and  N. 
in,  merely  relate  how  he  saved  his  life  by  keeping 
a  vow  which  he  had  made  that  he  would  never  eat 
elephant's  flesh. 

84.  Qalanisf,    Abu    Ahmad    Muscab.    He  originally  belonged 

to  Merv  but  resided  in  Baghdad.  Abu  Sacid  b.  al- 
Acrabi  associated  with  him.  He  died  in  290  A.  H.  at 
Mecca.  H.  II,  299^.  N.  109. 

85.  Qannad,  Abu  '1-Hasan  CAH  b.  cAbd  al-Rahim.  He  related 

sayings  of  Husayn  b.  Mansur  al-Hallaj  (ob.  309  A.H.). 
A.  462^,  13. 

86.  Qarawi,  Abu  Jacfar  (216,  5).  One  of  the  MSS.  has  Farwi. 

87.  Qarmisim,  al-Muzaffar  (191,  8).  He  was  a  sahib  of  cAbd- 

allah  b.  Muhammad  al-Kharraz,  who  died  before 
320  A.  H.  Al-Muzaffar  died  at  Ramla  (N.  p.  113,  1. 
1 8).  TS.  910.  Q.  32.  N.  270.  Sh.  I,  150. 

88.  Qassab,    Abu  Jacfar  (205,  15).  He  resided  at  Ramla  and 

was  contemporary  with  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  (ob. 
277  or  286  A.  H.). 

89.  Qassab,  Muhammad  b.  cAli  (24,  20).  Teacher  of  Junayd. 


LIST    OF   SUFIS.  XXXI 

90.  Qassar,  Muhammad  b.  cAli  (199,  10).  Probably  these  two 

names  refer  to  the  same  person. 

9 1 .  Qazzaz,  Hasan  al-.Dina wari.  Contemporary  with  Mimshadh 

al-Dinawari  (ob.  299  A.  H.). 

92.  Qurashf,  Abu  cAbdallah.  His  full  name  is  Abu  cAbdallah 

Muhammad  b.  Sacid  al-Qurashi.  H.  II,  310^,  where 
a  passage  is  quoted  from  a  book  by  him  entitled 
Shark  al- taw  kid. 

93.  Raqqi,    Ibrahim    b.    al-Muwallad.    TS.  and  N.  call  him 

Abu  Ishaq  Ibrahim  b.  Ahmad  b.  al-Muwallad.  He 
died  in  342  A.  H.  TS.  94^.  H.  II,  317^.  N.  265. 
Sh.  I,  153. 

94.  Ibn  Razcan(?),  Abu  '1-Hasan  (297,  13). 

95.  Ribati,  cAbdallah  (328,  16).  Contemporary  with  Abu  Hafs 

al-Haddad  of  Naysabur  (ob.  271   A.  H.). 

96.  Ribati,    Abu    cAli    (178,  20).    A   sahib    of  cAbdallah  al- 

Marwazi.  Perhaps  identical  with  Ibrahim  al-Ribati  of 
Herat  (N.  18),  who  was  a  pupil  of  Ibrahim  Sitanbah 
(N.  17),  the  contemporary  of  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami 
(ob.  261  A.  H.). 

97.  Ibn    Rufayc   al-Dimashqi    (197,  20).  Contemporary  with 

Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari  (ob.  322  A.  H.). 

98.  Sa'igh,   Ibrahim  (205,  2).  He  associated  with  Abu  Ahmad 

al-Qalanisi  (ob.  290  A.  H.). 

99.  Sa'igh,  Yusuf  (197,  16).  Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq  (q.v.)  met 

him  in  Egypt. 

100.  Samarqandi,    Muhammad    b.   al-Fadl  ==  Muhammad  b. 

al-Fadl  al-Balkhi  (ob.  319  A.  H.).  Q.  24.  K.  140. 
TA.  II,  87.  N.  119.  Sh.  I,  117. 

101.  Saydalani,    Abu    Jacfar,    of   Baghdad.    He    was  contem 

porary  with  Junayd  and  was  one  of  the  teachers 
of  Abu  Sacid  b.  al-Acrabi.  He  died  in  Egypt.  N.  197. 

102.  Sijzi,  Abu  cAbdallah  (191,  22).  He  associated  with  Abu 

Hafs   al-Haddad    (ob.    271    A.  H.).   TS.    tfb.    H.    II, 


XXXII  INTRODUCTION. 


N.  115.  Sh.  I,  132  (where  <5\  is  a  mistake 
for  l5jfJ\). 

103.  Sindi,  Abu  cAli.  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami    (ob.  261  A.  H.) 

learned  from  him  the  theory  of  fand.   N.  43. 

104.  Subayhi,    Abu    cAbdallah,    of  Basra.    He    was   a    great 

ascetic  and  is  said  to  have  lived  for  thirty  years 
in  a  cellar.  H.  gives  his  name  as  Abu  GAbdallah 
al-Husayn  b.  cAbdallah  b.  Bakr.  Abu  Nucaym  al- 
Isbahani  (ob.  430  A.  H.).  says  that  his  father  was 
a  sahib  of  Subayhi,  before  the  latter  left  Basra  and 
settled  at  Sus.  TS.  ?$&.  H.  II.  3150.  N.  190.  Sh. 
I,  136  (where  (j&a^\  is  a  mistake  for  ^^\). 

105.  Sulami,  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad  (185,23).  Contemporary 

with  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Husri  (q.  v.). 
1  06.    Sulami,  Ismacil  (332,  13).  Contemporary  with  Abu  Bakr 

al-Zaqqaq  (q.  v.). 
107.    Susi,    Abu    Yacqub.    He    resided    chiefly   at  Basra  and 

Ubulla.  He  was  the  teacher  of  Abu  Yacqub  al-Nahr- 

ajuri  (ob.  330  A.  H.).  N.   139. 
1  08.    Tabaristani,  Abu  clmran  (171,  15;    190,  1  6). 
109.    Tayalisi,   Jacfar   al-Razi.    The   nisba   Tayalisi   is  conjec 

tural.  See  notes  at  288,  10;  336,  13;  and  359,6. 
1  10.    Tusi,    Abu    VAbbas    Ahmad    b.    Muhammad    =   Ibn 

Masruq  al-Tusi. 
in.    Tusi,    Muhammad    b.    Mansur   of  Baghdad  (183,4).  He 

was  the  teacher  of  Ibn  Masruq  al-Tusi,    Abu  Sacid 

al-Kharraz,  and  Junayd.  N.  53. 

112.  cUkbari,    Abu    '1-Faraj    (252,   10).    Contemporary    with 

Shibli. 

113.  cUmar  b.  Bahr  (260,9).  Contemporary  with  Shibli. 

1  14.  Urmawi,  al-Kurdi  al-Sufi.  Perhaps  identical  with  Abu 
'1-Husayn  al-Urmawi  (N.  295),  who  was  contemporary 
with  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Rudhabari  (ob.  369  A.  H.). 


LIST   OF   SUFIS.  XXXIII 

115.  Ibn  Yazdaniyar,  Abu  Bakr  al-Husayn  b. c All,  of  Urmiya. 

He  followed  a  'path'  of  his  own  in  Sufism  and  came 
into  conflict  with  Shibli  and  other  Sheykhs  of  clraq 
whose  doctrines  he  opposed.  It  is  greatly  to  be 
regretted  that  the  chapter  which  Sarraj  devotes  to 
him  in  the  Kitdb  al-Lumc£  is  wanting  in  both  MSS. 
See  p.  f.v.  TS.  940.  Q.  32.  N.  219.  Sh.  I,  151. 

116.  Zahirabadhi,  Abu  Bakr  (41,  10). 

117.  Zajjaji,  Ahmad  b.  Yusuf  (177,  3). 

1 1 8.  Zaqqaq,  Abu  Bakr.  His  full  name  is  Abu  Bakr  Ahmad 

b.  Nasr  al-Zaqqaq  al-Kabir  al-Misri.  He  was  a  con 
temporary  of  Junayd.  Amongst  his  pupils  were 
Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq  al-Saghir  of  Baghdad  and  Abu 
Bakr  al-Duqqi.  Q.  25.  N.  213.  Sh.  I,  117  (where 
JjViijM  is  a  mistake  for  JjVsjH). 

119.  Ibn  Ziri  (194,2)  =  Abu  '1-Husayn  b.  Ziri  (272,  14).  A 

sahib  of  Junayd. 

120.  Zurayq,    Sheykh    (287,6).    A    Maghribi,    contemporary 

with  Abu  cAbdallah  b.  al-Jalla  (ob.  306  A.  H.). 


XXXIV  INTRODUCTION. 

Until  five  years  ago  the  Kitdb  al-Lumc£  fi  'l-Tasawwuf 
(Hajjf  Khalifa,  ed.  Fluegel,  V  331,  N°.  11178)  was  known 
only  by  its  title.  Since  then  two  copies  have  come  to  light, 
one  of  which  belongs  to  Mr.  A.  G.  Ellis,  while  the  other  has 
recently  been  acquired  by  the  British  Museum  (Or.  7710).  Owing 
to  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Ellis,  the  former  MS.  has  remained 
in  my  hands  from  the  date  whom  I  began  to  prepare  this 
edition  until  the  last  proof-sheets  were  corrected.  The  con 
ditions  under  which  the  British  Museum  codex  is  accessible 
are  not  attractive  to  any  one  living  at  a  distance  from 
London,  and  I  have  to  thank  Dr.  Barnett,  Head  of  the 
Oriental  Department,  for  the  readiness  with  which  he  granted 
my  request  that  he  would  allow  me  to  have  the  MS.  pho 
tographed.  The  photographs  made  by  Mr.  R.  B.  Fleming 
are  so  excellent  that  whatever  inaccuracies  may  be  found  in 
the  critical  notes  are  probably  due  to  me. 

In  the  following  description  of  these  two  MSS.  I  shall  call 
Mr.  Ellis's  manuscript  A  and  the  British  Museum  manuscript 
B.  They  are  similarly  designated  in  the  critical  notes. 

A  contains  197  folios.  The  text  of  the  Kitdb  al-Lumac 
(fif.  \a  —  193^)  is  preceded  by  a  title-page,  bearing  the  in 
scription  uJJ^ai}\  J  ^Vj-iJ  T^\  w_j\i5  as  well  as  a  number  of 
memoranda  (mostly  illegible)  by  different  hands.  Following 
the  title-page  is  a  full  table  of  contents,  beginning  .jLj\  i^A> 


ic  ^  and    ending  ^j 


h 

L,  <jv.  -^v^»  The  text  is  written  with  great  distinctness, 
each  page  containing  twenty-one  lines,  but  diacritical  points 
are  left  out  frequently,  and  vowel-marks  almost  invariably. 
A  is  dated  the  10*  of  Rabf  II,  683  A.  H.  =  June  26th, 
1284  A.  D.  The  name  of  the  copyist,  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad 


THE    MANUSCRIPTS.  XXXV 

al-Zahiri,  occurs  at  the  end  of  three  of  the  four  samdcs 
(A  ff.  193^ — ig6a)  which  he  transcribed  from  a  MS.  dated 
the  ;th  of  Shacban,  566  A.  H.  =  April  15^,  n^i  A.  D.  This 
MS.  is  the  original  (J-^V^)  of  which  A  is  a  copy. 

A  is  superior  to  B  in  all  respects  but  that  of  age.  There 
can  be  few  manuscripts  of  the  13^1  century  that  are  so  well 
preserved.  The  ink  seems  to  have  lost  scarcely  anything 
of  its  firm  and  glossy  blackness,  and  nearly  every  word  is 
as  clear  as  if  it  had  been  written  yesterday.  The  margins 
have  been  curtailed  by  the  binder's  knife  and  honeycombed 
here  and  there  by  worms,  so  that  a  small  portion  of  the 
numerous  marginal  notes  has  disappeared.  These  notes  af 
ford  evidence  of  careful  collation  not  only  with  the  asl,  to 
which  I  have  referred  above,  but  also  with  other  MSS.  of 
the  work  !).  In  some  cases  the  scribe  has  copied  samdcs 
(ff.  2\b,  43#,  63^,  85^,  109^,  128^,  147^,  163^,  177^,  1830); 
on  f.  139^  he  has  supplied  several  words  that  were  omitted 
in  the  asl.  Most  of  the  annotations,  however,  have  been 
made  by  later  hands;  they  are  plentiful  in  the  first  half  of 
the  text  but  then  become  sparse.  Unfortunately  A  has  a 
lacuna  (1790,  last  line)  which  probably  covers  between  ten 
and  fifteen  folios,  and  B  does  not  fill  the  gap.  Five  chapters 
have  been  wholly  lost: 

(1)  Concerning   the   accusation    of  infidelity  brought  against 
Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Nuri  in  the  presence  of  the  Caliph. 

(2)  Concerning  Abu  Hamza  al-Sufi  2). 

(3)  Concerning  a  number  of  Sheykhs  who  were  charged  with 
infidelity  and  persecuted. 

(4)  Concerning  Abu  Bakr  cAli  b.  al-Husayn  (read  al-Husayn 
b.  cAli)  b.  Yazdaniyar. 


1)  This  is  attested  by  such  phrases  as   sLViu    *1>,  5P\  Jj  <dj\JL»   il»  ,   &\M    il» 

*  <d  * 

2)  Probably  Abii  Hamza  Muhammad  b.  Ibrahim  al-Baghdadi  (ob.  289  A.H.). 

IV 


XXXVI  INTRODUCTION. 

(5)  Concerning  Muhammad  b.  Musa  al-Farghani  and  some 
of  his  sayings. 

The  beginning  of  a  sixth  chapter,  in  explanation  of  the 
sayings  of  Wasiti  '),  has  also  disappeared. 

B  (British  Museum,  Or.  7710)  is  dated  Jumada  II,  548 
A.  H.  =  August — September  1153  A.  D.  The  text,  though 
worm-eaten  in  many  places,  is  written  clearly  and  remains, 
on  the  whole,  in  a  tolerable  state  of  preservation.  B  contains 
243  folios.  After  the  Bismillak  there  is  an  incomplete  table  of 
contents  (2a — b}.  The  text  begins  in  the  middle  of  a  sentence 
(30,  1.  i)  and  concludes  (242^,  1.  4  foil.)  with  a  passage  on  love 
(makabbat),  which  is  now  for  the  most  part  illegible  and  which 
does  not  occur  in  A.  This  passage,  however,  covers  less  than 
a  page.  The  omissions  in  B  are  very  serious;  as  compared 
with  A,  it  is  defective  to  the  extent  of  over  a  third  of  the 
text.  Its  arrangement  is  chaotic.  The  correct  order  is  given 
in  the  second  column  of  the  following  table ,  which  also 
shows  what  portions  of  the  text  are  missing. 

A  B 

A,  fol.  itf,  11.  2 — 10.  B,  om. 

A,  fol.  la,  11.   10 — 16.  B,  fol.  3#,  11.   i  —  ii.  , 

A,  fol.  i  a,  1.   17 — fol.   50,  1.   7.  B,  om. 

A,  fol.  50,  1.  7— fol.  6#,  1.  9.  B,  fol.  30,  1.   i— fol.  40,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  6#,  1.  9 — fol.   io0,  1.   i.  B,  om. 

A,  fol.  io0,  1.   i — fol.  1 60,  1.   i.  B,  fol.  40,  1.   i— fol.   150,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  i60,  1.   I — fol.   17^,  1.  3.  B,  om. 


A,  fol.  170,  1.  4 — fol.  320,  1.  7.  B,  fol.   150, 

A,  fol.  32^,  1.  7 — fol.  410,  1.   15.  B,  fol.  69^, 

A,  fol.  4 1^,  1.   15 — fol.  620,  last  line.  B,  om. 

A,  fol.  620,  1.   i— fol.  630,  penult.  B,  fol.  870, 

A,  fol.  630,  last  line— fol.  680,  1.   10.  B,  fol.  430, 

A,  fol.  680,  1.  10— fol.  69^,  1.   12.  B,  fol.  680, 


I — fol.  430,  last  line. 
I— fol.  870,  1.  7. 

8 — fol.  900,  last  line. 
I — fol.  520,  last  line, 
i — fol.  69*2,  last  line. 


A,  fol.  690,  1.    12 — fol.  950,  1.  8.  B,  om. 

A,  fol.  950,  1.  8 — fol.   1050,  1.    12.  B,  fol.  900,  1.    i — fol.   1090,  1.   I. 

A,  fol.   1050,  1.   12 — fol.   1080,  1.  2.  B,  fol.  2320;,  1.  6 — fol.  238^,  last  line. 


i)    Abii    Bakr    al-Wasiti,    the    same    person    as    Muhammad   b.   Musa  al-Far 
ghani  mentioned  in  the  preceding  chapter.  See  List  of  Stiffs  under  Farghani. 


THE    MANUSCRIPTS.  XXXVII 

A,  fol.  io8/5,  1.   2 — fol.   1090,  1.    16.  B,  fol.  239^,  1.   i — fol.  241  0,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  1090,  1.    16 — fol.   109^,  1.   12.  B,  fol.  238^,  1.   I — fol.  2390,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  109,5,  1.   13— fol.   1 1 20,  1.  8.  B,  fol.  62/5,  1.   i— fol.  68«,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  1 1 2£,  1.  9— fol.   113^,  1.  4.  B,  fol.  54/5,  1.    i— fol.   56^,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  113^,  1.  5 — fol.   1140,  1.   7.  B,  fol.  241*5,  1.   i — fol.  2420,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  1140,  1.  8— fol.   115/5,  1.  4.  B,  fol.  52/5,  1.   I— fol.   540,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  115/5,  1.  5 — fol.   H9/z,  I.   19.  B,  fol.  56/5,  1.   I — fol.  62#,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  1190,  penult. — fol.   147/5,  1.  2.  B,  fol.  1310,  last  line — fol.  191/7,1.4. 

A,  fol.  147^,  1.  2 — fol.   1530,  1.   1 8.  B,  fol.  109/5,  1.  2 — fol.   1220,  1.   10. 

A,  fol.  1530,  1.   18 — fol.   1720,  1.  8.  B,  fol.  191^,  1.  4 — fol.  2300,  last  line. 

A,  fol.  1720,  1.   8 — fol.   172*5,  1.   10.  B,  om. 

A,  fol.  172^,  1.  10 — fol.  1730,  last  line.  B,  fol.  230/5,  1.   i — fol.  232/2,  1.  6. 

A,  fol.  1730,  last  line — fol.   1780,  1.2.  B,  fol.  1220,  1.   10 — fol.  1310,  penult. 

A,  fol.  1780,  1.  3— fol.   193/5,  1.  4.  B,  ora. 

A,  om.  B,  fol.  242*5,  11.  4 — 17. 

As  regards  the  provenance  of  the  present  text  of  the 
Kitdb  af-Lumac,  in  the  opening  lines  of  A  (p.  t ,  11.  !*— t 
in  this  edition)  it  is  stated  that  the  text  was  put  together  by  an 
anonymous  editor  from  written  materials  which  were  com 
municated  to  him  by  several  persons  residing  in  Baghdad  and 
Damascus,  all  of  whom  derived  their  information  from  Abu 
'1-Waqt  °Abd  al-Awwal  b.  clsa  al-Sijzi;  and  that  Abu  '1-Waqt 
obtained  his  text  in  465  A.  H.  from  Ahmad  b.  Abi  Nasr  al- 
Kufani,  who  in  turn  received  it  from  Abu  Muhammad  al-Hasan 
b.  Muhammad  al-Khabushani,  presumably  a  pupil  of  the  author. 

This  isndd  will  not  bear  examination.  According  to  the 
Shadhardt  al-Dhahab,  Abu  '1-Waqt  died  in  553  A.  H.  at 
the  age  of  ninety-five,  !)  so  that  he  was  only  seven  years 


)  Under  553  A.  H.  the  Shadhardt  gives  the  following  account  of  Abu  '1-Waqt  : 

u\  &3jj>\  *{  i$ 

(Brockelmann  i,   157) 


(°b-    467  A.  H.) 

(pb.    471   A.  H.) 


XXXVIII  INTRODUCTION. 

old  at  the  time  when  Kufani  is  alleged  to  have  transmitted 
the  text  to  him.  !)  Moreover,  Kufani  died  at  Herat  in  464 
A.  H. 2)  Then,  as  regards  the  persons  (four  men  and  one 
woman)  whom  the  anonymous  editor  mentions  by  name  as 
his  immediate  authorities,  we  learn  from  the  Tabaqdt  al- 
Handbila  of  Ibn  Rajab  that  Abu  '1-Qasim  cAli,  the  son  of 
Abu  '1-Faraj  cAbd  al-Rahman  Ibn  al-Jawzi,  died  in  630 
A.H.  at  the  age  of  eighty3).  He  was  therefore  born  in  550 
A.  H.,  three  years  before  the  death  of  Abu  '1-Waqt,  and 
could  not  possibly  have  received  information  from  him.  A 
further  anachronism  is  involved  in  the  appearance  of  a 
great-grandson  of  the  Caliph  Mutawakkil  as  one  of  the  five 
reporters  of  the  text.  Mutawakkil  died  in  247  A.  H.,  and 
even  if  we  allow  50  years  for  each  generation  we  only 
reach  400  A.  H. 

At  the  end  of  A  (ff.  193^,  16  -  196^,  8)  the  copyist, 
Ahmad  b.  Muhammad  al-Zahiri,  has  transcribed  four  samdcs, 
which  he  found  in  his  original. 

The  first  of  these  was  copied  in  an  abridged  form  by 
Ibn  Yahya  4)  in  566  A.  H.  It  gives  the  names  of  seven  per- 


&   \JC 


1)  The    Shadkardt,    it  will  be  noticed,  makes  the    almost  equally  incredible 
statement    that   in    the   same    year    (465    A.  H.)  Abu  '1-Waqt  attended  lectures 
on  the  Sahih  of  Bukhari  and  other  books  of  Traditions. 

2)  Yaqut,  ed.  by  Wiistenfeld,  IV   321,   14  foil.   The  Lttwtf  gives  Abu  Nasr 
as    his    kunya,  but  Yaqiit  reads  Abu   Bakr;   which  is  confirmed  by  the  samcfs 
written    on   the    margin    of   A.    For    Abu    '1-Waqt    al-Bahri    (1.   16)    read    Abu 
'1-Waqt  al-Sijzi. 

3)  I    owe    these    details    to    Mr.    A.    G.    Ellis,    who    possesses    a  MS.  of  the 
Tabaqdt  al-Hanabila.  He  adds  that  in  the  life  of  Ibn  al-Jawzi    (ob.  597  A.H.) 
it  is  stated    that  his  eldest   son,  cAbd    al-cAziz,    received   instruction  from  Abu 
'1-Waqt  and  Muhammad  b.  Nasir  al-Silafi  (ob.  550  A.  H.).    This  is  quite  poss 
ible,  since  cAbd  al-cAziz  died   in  554  A.H.  during  his  father's  lifetime. 

4)  Abu    'l-Macali    Ahmad    b.    Yahya    b.    Hibatallah    al-Bayyic.    He    seems  to 
have  been  the  owner  of  the  original  MS.  from  which  A  was  copied.  See  below. 


PROVENANCE  OF  THE  TEXT.          XXXIX 

sons,  including  Abu  '1-Waqt  al-Sijzi,  who  heard  a  portion  of 
the  Kitdb  al-Lumc£  in  465  A.  H.  The  name  of  the  person 
from  whom  they  heard  it  is  not  mentioned.  !) 

The  second  was  copied  by  cAbd  al-cAziz  b.  Mahmud  b. 
al-Akhdar  2)  at  an  unspecified  date.  It  gives  the  names  of 
twenty-five  persons  (headed  by  Abu  'l-Macali  Ahmad  b. 
Yahya  b.  Hibatallah)  who  heard  the  whole  of  the  Kitdb 
al-Lumc£  in  a  series  of  sessions  which  were  completed  on 
the  1 2th  of  Rabic  II,  553  A.  H.  The  names  of  two  persons 
are  added  who  attended  every  session  except  one.  The  text 
which  these  twenty-seven  persons  heard  was  read  to  them 
by  Sheykh  Abu  '1-Fath  Yusuf  b.  Muhammad  b.  Muqallad 
al-Dimashqi  on  the  authority  of  Abu  '1-Waqt  al-Sijzi,  from 
Kufani,  from  Khabushani. 

The  third  samd^  contains  the  names  of  a  hundred  and 
forty  persons  to  whom  the  entire  text,  as  derived  from  Abu 
'1-Waqt,  was  read  by  Abu  '1-Fadl  b.  Shafic  during  a  number 
of  sessions,  the  last  of  which  took  place  on  the  gth  of  Shacban, 
553  A.  H.  Many  of  these  names  are  illegible.  Among  them 
occurs  the  name  of  cAbd  al-Razzaq,  the  fifth  son  of  cAbd 
al-Qadir  al-Jili.  cAbd  al-Qadir  died  in  561  A.  H.  cAbd  al- 
Razzaq  (born  528  A.  H. ;  died  623  A.  H.)  was  twenty-five 
years  of  age  when  he  heard  the  Kitdb  •  al-Lumcf  on  this 
occasion. 

The  fourth  samdc  enumerates  thirty-one  persons,  including 
two  women,  who  heard  Abu  '1-Waqt's  text  of  the  whole 
volume.  At  the  head  of  the  list  stands  the  well-known  author 
of  the  Addb  al-muridin,  Abu  '1-Najib  cAbd  al-Qahir  b.  cAbd- 


1)  The  same  sawdc    is  given  more  fully  in  various  places  on  the  margin  of 
A   (see    p.  XXXV    supra}^  each  record  covering  a  certain  portion  of  the  text. 
These  marginal  samcfs  name  Abu  Bakr  al-Kufani  as  the  authority  for  the  text 
and  Abu  Hafs  cUmar  al-Farawi  as  the  reader. 

2)  MS.    ^a»-Y\,    The  penultimate  letter  is  clearly  sad,  not  mini. 


XL  INTRODUCTION. 

dallah  al-Suhrawardi  (ob.  563  A.  H.),  with  his  sons  cAbd  al- 
Rahim  and  cAbd  al-Latif.  The  reader  was  Yusuf  b.  Muham 
mad  b.  Muqallad  al-Dimashqi  (already  mentioned  in  the 
second  samdc),  and  the  last  meeting  was  held  on  the  nth  of 
Rajab,  553  A.  H.  The  sama  ends  with  the  following  words: 

<~  Cr*  >^          -A    ^-^   f*  ^ 


It  seems  to  me  likely  that  the  isndd  is  a  fiction  based 
upon  the  samdcs.  The  date  465  A.  H.  occurs  in  the  first 
samdc;  those  written  in  the  margin  of  A  record  that  Kufani's 
text  of  the  Lumac  was  read  to  Abu  '1-Waqt  in  that  year; 
and  in  the  second  samd*  it  is  asserted  that  Kiifanf  derived 
his  text  from  Khabushani.  For  reasons  indicated  above,  I  do 
not  see  how  we  can  accept  the  statement  that  Abu  '1-Waqt 
received  the  text  from  Kiifanf  himself  or  that  he  heard  it 
from  any  one  as  early  as  465  A.  H. ;  but  he  may  have 
received  it  at  a  later  date  from  one  of  Kufani's  pupils. 
The  list  given  in  the  isndd  of  five  persons  who  are  said  to 
have  transmitted  Abu  '1-Waqt's  text  to  the  anonymous 
editor  is  discredited  on  chronological  grounds  and  also  lacks 
external  authority.  None  of  those  five  names  appears  in 
the  samdcs. 

Had  the  authenticity  of  the  text  been  doubtful,  I  should 
have  felt  myself  obliged  to  print  the  samd's  in  full,  since 
they  might  have  helped  us  to  settle  the  question  one  way 
or  the  other.  But  there  is  nothing  in  the  book,  as  it  stands, 
to  support  or  justify  such  a  suspicion,  and  the  evidence 
from  outside  is  equally  convincing.  Qushayrf  in  his  Risdla 
(437  A.  H.)  cites  many  passages  from  the  Lunicf  which  agree 
with  our  text.  Hujwiri,  writing  twenty  or  thirty  years  later, 
made  free  use  of  the  work,  and  he  quotes  verbatim  a  passage 
on  adab,  which  occurs  in  the  present  edition,  p.  Iff,  1.  11, 


PROVENANCE    OF   THE   TEXT.  XLI 

foil.  ')  The  Kitdb  al-Lumcf  is  one  of  the  sources  of  Ghazzali's 
Ihyd.  2)  M.  Louis  Massignon  has  called  my  attention  to  a 
passage  in  the  Tabaqdt  al-Shdffiyyat  al-Kubrd  of  Subki 
(Cairo,  1324  A.  H.,  part  V,  p.  123,  11.  13 — 19),  where  Sarraj 
is  cited  by  Abu  '1-Qasim  al-Rafici  as  impugning  the  genuineness 
of  the  Hadith,  "Lo,  a  veil  is  drawn  over  my  heart  and  I 
ask  pardon  of  God  a  hundred  times  every  day."  This  refers 
to  Lumcf,  p.  Tvl*,  1.  b,  foil,  (under  &£\). 3)  Another  passage 
of  the  Lu/nac  (p.  n*1,  1.  r.,  foil.)  was  cited  in  the  lost  7V- 
rikh  al-Siifiyya  of  Sulami  (ob.  412  A.  H.),  whence  it  was 
extracted  by  Khatib  and  published  by  him  in  the  History 
of  Baghdad*}. 

The  description  of  the  two  MSS.  which  has  been  given 
above  will  sufficiently  explain  my  decision  to  make  A  the 
basis  of  the  present  edition,  notwithstanding  its  relative  in 
feriority  in  age.  Although,  as  a  rule,  the  textual  differences 
are  unimportant,  I  have  recorded  almost  every  variation, 
however  trivial,  so  that  the  reader  practically  has  both  texts 
before  him.  The  readings  of  A  have  been  followed  throughout 
except  in  a  comparatively  small  number  of  instances  which 
will  be  found  in  the  foot-notes. 


1)  See   Kashf  al-Mahjub,   Lucknow    ed.,    265,    8  foil.  =  my  translation,  p. 
341.    The    same    passage   is  cited  by  Qushayri,   153,  5  foil,  and  in  Persian  by 
cAttar,    Tadhkirat  al-Avoliya,    II,    183,    15 — 21,   and  Jami,   Nafahdt   al-Uns, 
320,  7—14- 

2)  Sarraj    is   cited  by  name  in  the  Ihya   (Biilaq,  1289  A.H.),  II,  278,  6.  The 
passage    following ,    which    has    been    translated    by    Prof.  D.  B.  Macdonald  in 
JRAS   for    1901,    p.  745,    is    an    abridgment    of  Lumaf,  p.   M**,    1.    t« ,     foil. 
Two  quotations  from  Abu  Sacid  b.    al-Acrabi  (Lumaf,    p.    ^,  11.   '» — t  and  p. 
H.,   11.  if—  i*)  occur  in  the  Ihya,  II,  269,  \>]—^  =  JRAS  ibid.,  p.  720.  The 
extent    of    Ghazzali's  debt  to  Sarraj  may  be  estimated  by  comparing  the  chap 
ters    in    the    Lumcf    that    treat    of   music    and    ecstasy    with  the  corresponding 
portion  of  the  Ihya. 

3)  According  to  Rafici  the  Tradition  in  question  was  described  by  Sarraj  as 
JxL»   d-o-k>,  but  the  words  used  in  the  Lttmcf  are  ^Ji^>  _s\£- . 

4)  See  Massignon,  Quatre  textes  inedits,  relatifs  a  la  biographic  a'al-Hosayn 
ibn  Mansour  al-Hallaj,  p.  25*,  N°.  23. 


XLII  INTRODUCTION. 

The  omission  of  words  or  passages  in  one  of  the  MSS.  is 
always  noted,  but  I  have  not  thought  it  necessary  to  record 
every  occasion  when  words  which  occur  in  B  have  been 
supplied  in  A  by  a  later  hand. 

As  regards  spelling,  the  printed  text  does  not  retain  all 
the  peculiarities  of  the  MSS.,  e.g.  such  forms  as  J,V*x>  for 

''o    "* 

jV*-»,  \j£--X>    f°r   y^)  ^  f°r  t5^«    Hamza    very     rarely     ap- 

s? 

pears  in  the  MSS.,  but  I  have  generally  restored  it.  Where 
it  has  been  added  over  a  medial  yd,  the  dots  under  that 
letter  are  allowed  to  stand:  thus,  a53^L  (the  MSS.  write 
sSC^L).  I  must  admit  that  my  practice  in  this  respect  is  not 
entirely  consistent,  for  sometimes  the  MS.  spelling  has  been 
left  unaltered,  as  J.~-  =  J*~.  Yd  is  often  substituted  for  alif 

-is       1 

hamzatum  in  the  final  radical  of  the  verb.  e.  g.  L^\  =  Ul\, 
Ja)\  =  \3a$^  and  consequently  we  meet  with  many  inGorrect 
forms  ,  e.  g.  UyU\  =  \&j  \*U\  , 


4j^s  =  &f  .  In  such  cases  the  MS.  readings  have  been  retained. 
One  can  only  conjecture  how  far  the  author  shares  with 
his  copyists  responsibility  for  the  numerous  grammatical  mis 
takes  and  irregularities  which  are  found  in  the  MSS.  As  he 
says  (p.  If  P  1.  11  foil.),  the  adab  of  the  Sufis  is  not  philological 
but  theosophical;  and  though  we  may  acquit  him  of  gross 
blunders,  it  is  more  than  likely  that  his  knowledge  of  Arabic 
grammar  was  imperfect,  and  that  in  writing  the  language 
he  did  not  observe  all  the  niceties  appropriate  to  a  high 
standard  of  literary  composition.  The  most  common  errors 
and  solecisms  may  be  classified  as  follows:  Use  of  the  ac 
cusative  instead  of  the  nominative  (^  —  instead  of  jj—  ), 
and  of  the  nominative  instead  of  the  accusative  (especially 
after  ^\)  ;  omission  of  the  cd'id,  with  or  without  a  preposi 
tion,  after  U  and  ^j^  (19,8;  95,19;  154,6,16;  198,2; 


PECULIARITIES    OF    SPELLING    AND   GRAMMAR.        XLIII 

282,4;  313,4;  406,5,  etc.)\  use  of  the  plural  verb  when  it 
precedes  a  plural  subject  (17,1;  18,  2;  158,22;  165,9;  fur~ 
ther  examples  in  the  foot-notes);  use  of  the  Imperfect  in 
the  apodosis  of  conditional  sentences  (116,19;  ^5,  18  et 
passim)-,  use  of  the  Indicative  instead  of  the  Subjunctive; 
omission  of  ^J  after  C\.  With  regard  to  these  irregularities 
and  others  of  the  same  kind,  I  have  acted  on  the  principle  that 
while  an  editor  is  bound  to  correct  flagrant  faults  of  syntax, 
it  is  no  part  of  his  business  to  improve  the  author's  style. 

But  the  chief  difficulties  of  the  Kitdb  al-Lumc?  are  not 
essentially  linguistic;  they  arise  from  the  subtlety  and  ab- 
struseness  of  the  ideas  which  mystical  writers  have  to  ex 
press.  In  their  effort  to  express  such  ideas  the  Sufis  often 
employ  language  that  no  grammarian  can  make  intelli 
gible,  though  it  undoubtedly  suggests  a  meaning  to  the 
initiated :  it  may  be  comprehended  as  a  whole,  but  will  not 
bear  logical  analysis.  A  text  of  this  character  is  peculiarly 
liable  to  corruption  and  almost  beyond  the  reach  of 
emendation.  The  critic  is  disarmed  when  the  notions  pre 
sented  to  him  are  so  obscure  and  elusive  that  he  cannot 
draw  any  sharp  line  between  sense  and  nonsense,  or  con 
vince  himself  that  one  reading  is  superior  to  another. 

For  a  large  portion  of  the  book  we  have  to  depend  on  a 
single  MS.,  and  there  are  many  passages  which  the  author 
cannot  have  written  exactly  as  they  now  stand.  The  mys 
tical  verses  are  sometimes  unmetrical  as  well  as  corrupt. 
I  have  done  my  best  to  alleviate  the  difficulties  of  the  text, 
without  altering  it  except  in  a  few  places  where  the  remedy 
seemed  to  be  fairly  obvious.  That  it  requires  further  cor 
rection  is  evident,  but  in  editing  a  work  of  this  description 
for  the  first  time,  conjectural  emendation  is  only  justified 
when  it  can  claim  a  high  degree  of  probability. 

The  Abstract  of  Contents  will,  I  believe,  be  found  useful 
both  by  those  who  wish  to  refer  to  the  original  and  by 


XLIV  INTRODUCTION. 

those  who  do  not  read  Arabic  but  are  interested  in  the 
study  of  Muhammadan  mysticism.  It  should  be  pointed  out 
that  the  English  Index  (pp.  122 — 130)  supplies  references 
to  the  principal  subjects  discussed  by  Sarraj  and  also  to  the 
Arabic  technical  terms  which  he  explains  in  the  course  of 
his  work. 

In  the  Glossary  I  have  collected  a  number  of  words  and 
forms  which  illustrate  the  author's  somewhat  unclassical  style. 
Many  of  them  occur  in  Dozy,  but  his  examples  of  their 
usage  are  generally  drawn  from  writers  belonging  to  a  much 
later  period.  The  fact  that  Sufism  was  largely  a  popular 
movement  in  close  touch  with  the  poorer  and  uneducated 
Moslems  could  not  fail  to  lower  its  literary  standards  and 
vulgarise  its  vocabulary;  but  this  is  not  entirely  to  be 
deplored.  Unlike  the  philologists  and  lexicographers,  the 
Sufi  authors  availed  themselves  freely  of  the  living  and 
growing  language  of  their  time,  and  helped  to  overcome 
the  academic  influences  which,  if  unchecked,  would  have 
raised  a  barrier  against  the  extension  and  diffusion  of  Mu 
hammadan  culture  amongst  those  who  needed  it  most. 

The  book  has  been  printed  with  the  accurate  and  finished 
workmanship  that  Orientalists  have  learned  to  expect  from 
Messrs  Brill,  and  though  the  list  of  Corrigenda  and  Addenda 
is  a  long  one,  there  are  few  serious  errors.  For  these  I  am 
responsible,  but  I  hope  they  will  be  excused  as  misfortunes 
which  befall  the  most  careful  proof-reader  in  moments  of 
preoccupation  or  fatigue.  It  only  remains  to  express  once 
more  my  gratitude  to  Mr.  A.  G.  Ellis  for  having  placed  at 
my  disposal,  without  any  restriction  whatever,  the  manuscript 
that  forms  the  basis  of  the  present  edition  and  is  the  unique 
authority  for  a  large  portion  of  the  original  text. 

REYNOLD  A.  NICHOLSON. 


ADDENDA  ET  CORRIGENDA. 


Page     Line 

f        I.      For   \&k>     read 


.~~  -_, 

For   &*>      -»   *X>     read 


tf        f,      .For   tiU     read 


If  IF  Dele  the  hamza  in 
IA  I**  For  v— o>tj  read  &. 
FF  IF  (note  I.)  For  ,l£a  read  .L£o. 

i.    Ansari  in    his    commentary  on  the  Risdla  of 
Qushayri  (I,   172,  1)  says: 

Fariduddm     <Attar    (Tadhkirat    al-Awliijd,    II,    132,  3) 

rhymes  ,^.-j-z>  with  ^.-XAOJ,  and  though  he  is  often 
at  fault  in  historical  matters,  it  seems  to  me  that  he 
is  a  more  trustworthy  authority  than  Ansari  as  regards 
the  correct  pronunciation  of  the  nisba. 

For  L\j>m  read 


For   *i'  Jo    reat^      xi'.Jo. 


S^      For 

H      jFor   ^»*i'   read   will. 


5  O 

11  J^or  I^Ub  read  ^Lb.  This  saying  in  a  somewhat  diff 
erent  form  is  attributed  by  Qushayri  (12,  8)  to  Sari 
al-Saqati. 


XLVI  ADDENDA    ET   CORRIGENDA. 

Page     Line 
f*       If      For   JJu   read 


fA  11  (jMy«j.  The  correct  reading  is  probably  u^Lsu.  See 
Glossary. 

G  j  >  o 

fl         v      jPor   j&Xo   read   *J5L\*3. 
<%         y      Dele  \  after   &JIJ. 

6*  I*  The  accusative  yv-jiA^,  instead  of  the  nominative,  is 
contrary  to  rule,  (Wright  II,  85),  but  the  author  may 
have  written  it  so. 

ir         1      For  t>J  read  ^>J. 

o  —  --  -. 

IA       tv      For  ^*jJl  read 

^        v        »        »         » 
11        Id      Jffyr 

v»  1  For  jxli'  reac?  r^S.  Cf.  Freytag,  Arabutn  Proverbia, 
II,  421. 

a  A-  >  ^ 

vf       I*      J^or  w.   feod  w.. 

11        1      For   z&  read   UL&. 


II**      J^or      Lxll   read 


llf        f      ^or       \     read 


111        Iv      For   Joc>   read   (}»*>   (as    in   A). 

-     >  o  -     > 

\^>    reac^   £»A.^>. 
has    dropped   out    before 

>  £ 

fn       Iv 


jf^or          read 


in*1       lo 

It^j**        |l      ^or  £-*Jy  (so  A-,  but  the  points  over  the  initial  o  have 
been  added  by  a  later  hand)  read 


ADDENDA   ET   CORRIGENDA. 


Page 

Ifl 


Ifl 
tor 
flo 
HA 
IA* 
Uf 
IAV 

IAA 

II 
Hv 


Line 
i 


XLVII 


For  &J$  o^  read  ^  Q^«  The  same  correction 
must  be  made  on  p.  UV,  1,  I*,  p.  IAA,  1.  If,  p.  !1/\,  1.  A, 
p.  PL,  1.  v,  and  p.  H*V,  1.  Iv.  See  the  Introduction, 
p.  XXVII  n.  2. 

(note  P).   For   sjL^'   read   »^'. 


For 
For 


read 


J     „  CO  J    _O 

read 

c 


Perhaps   <$\ 
For  ^bCo   read 
.For     LiC)  read 


I  have  little  doubt  that  we  should  read 

.^LAMJ  ^5  and  omit  the  words  i^J3   ^1.  Cf.  p.   HI,  1.  I, 

where  read 


11 

For    Ax 

IA 

jRead  *j« 

*. 

For  £-c 

b 

For  ^ 

r 

For  »U 

i 

Perhaps 

r 

Possibly 

A 

Possibly 

read 

read 
read 

*   instead   of 
instead  of  o 
instead   of 


A   f.   102a  should  be  printed  opposite  this  line. 

For   lJUx^   read 

Read 

For 

For 


Ji   /"or 
read 


XLVI1I  ADDENDA    ET   CORRIGENDA. 

Page     Line 

F^o        f      For   ^^.j\J   read 


If  I*        I*      For 

—  •  o 

Iff       If      The  sajt  suggests  LpUS']  in   the  sense  of  "metaphorical 

description"  or  "symbolism". 
IfP       !v      For  the  construction   c\_x_otJl   ^JUaj   see  Wright,  II, 

218   CD. 

Iff        v      Jfcad   lijU   /or   £pt>'. 

rfo        f      Perhaps   <$U5   ^yj.   Of.  p.   yf*l,  1.  1 

ffA  o  The  following  verses  occur  thrice  (pp.  22*,  33*,  and 
53*)  in  Massignon's  Quatre  textea  inedits,  relatifs  a  la 
biographic  d'al-Hosayn  ibn  Mansour  al-Halldj  ,  where 
they  are  attributed  to  Hallaj  himself.  QT.  gives  eight 
verses,  and  the  order  is  different  from  that  in  the 
Lumat.  The  variants  that  seem  to  me  worth  noting 
are  these  : 
If  A  , 


/br 

fJ*A,  f.   j*_kXJf   L\Co   ^x,    but  in   the  third  version 
jJ^G  (sic) 

1      ^a^  lo  tc;t^  B. 


rfA   If—  r  In   the   Kashkul   (Biilaq,    1288   A.  H-),   p.    118,   1.    26, 
these  verses  are  attributed  to  Hallaj. 

O  --  S 

o  The  metre  of  this  verse  requires  ^-x-^x_*J  13  ^j, 
whereas  in  the  remaining  verses  the  rhyme-letter  must 
be  pronounced  with  the  vrdb.  Moreover,  the  rhymes 
are  highly  irregular,  although  the  MSS.  present  an 
appearance  of  uniformity,  which  has  been  obtained  at 
the  expense  of  grammar 


ADDENDA    ET    CORRIGENDA.  XLIX 

Page     Line 


_    O       -  S-.O-.  O    _       _    G     ^ 

v      For  l**Xu   read 


4_fl    These  verses  are  cited  by  Qushayri  (95,  4  foil.),  together 
with  the  opening  verse  : 


See  the  supercommentary  by  Mustafa  al-'Ariisi  on  Za- 
kariyya  al-  An  sari's  Shark  al-Risdlat  al-Qushayriyya, 
III,  62,  2  foil. 


n 

!v      J?ear^  ^LXPli;  o^«  ^yo^  j,  o^kLi.  Qushayri  has 

V!      For  AJJJ  rea^   Joy. 

I!      It   is    unnecessary   to    alter   the    reading   of  the  MSS. 

9 
=  ,f^i  but  cf.  the  Introduction,  p.   XLII. 


1*      For   ^JLfJ5   read 
1      For   oUioLi   rea^ 

(note  If).    For  Aghdni,  IV  21   foil,  rearf  Aghdni,  IV  39, 
21  foil. 


0  For  ~joA   read  (probably) 

t      For  1^'   read  ^.   Cf.  N.,  f 

I.  (note  A).  De^e  the  reference  to  the  Ansdb.  The  person 
noticed  there,  Abu  'Abdallah  Muhammad  al-Tayalisi 
al-Razi,  cannot  be  identified  with  this  Stiff,  whose 
name  is  Jarfar  (cf.  PV1,  o). 

1  For    .LwJdi   read 


nr       I!      For   Js-«^>l   ^j   L\-         ^ad   A°   ^   A^>l  =  Abu 

'1-Hasan  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad  b.   Salim. 

i**.v       1      For  xo  read  L^s. 

Ws       !d      For  ^^y^J   read  s- 

rrr       r      For   X^Lil   read   X 

HT       v      For        L          read 


L  ADDENDA   ET   CORRIGENDA 

Page     Line 

ft      For   yJilJfj   read   jjJUllv 
A        1      It  seems  probable  that  ^o?  and  the  following  verbs 

_     O     ~0 

should  be  read  as  Imperatives.  In  this  case  v_a=>i  must 
be  substituted  for  ^A  and  jLS?  for 

.      tv      For  *U£^I   read  SL^i.   Of.  H%  A 
vt       f      For 


HI      Iv      .For 


I       Perhaps 

1      Grammar  requires 


LXT  LJU 

(Of.  n%  io- 

ft.  A  i^Ui       .JJI   X5l.   Of. 

fll  v  ^ea^ 

fir  A  Read 

flf  ir  Perhaps  ^^l^cji  may  stand.  Of. 


for 

ABSTRACT   OF    CONTENTS. 
78      9       For   laqd   read   liqd. 


KITAB  AL-LUMA' 

ABSTRACT  OF  CONTENTS. 

1  The  anonymous  editor  mentions  the  names  of  several  per 
sons  (four  residing  in  Baghdad  and  one  in  Damascus)  through 
whom   the    text    of   the    Kitdb    al-Lumac  was  transmitted  to 
him.  All  of  them  derive  it  from  the  same  authority,  namely, 
Abu  '1-Waqt  cAbd  al-Awwal  b.  clsa  b.  Shucayb  b.  Ishaq  al- 
Sijzi  al-Sufi  al-Harawi  al-Malini,  who  received  it  in  465  A.  H. 
from    his    teacher    Abu    Nasr  J)    al-Kiifani,    to    whom    it    was 
communicated  by  Abu  Muhammad  al-Khabushani.  Doxology. 
Praise    to    God,  who  has  endowed  the  elect  among  His  ser 
vants  with  various  degrees  of  knowledge  and  understanding 
of  Himself.    The    whole  of  knowledge  is  comprised  in  three 
sources,    (a)   the    Koran,    (b)   the    Traditions    of  the  Prophet, 

2  (c)    that    which    is    revealed    to    the    Saints.   Blessings  on  the 
Prophet    and    his    family.    Preface.  The  author  describes  the 
nature  of  the  present  work.  It  is  a  treatise  on  the  principles 
and    sciences    of   Sufism,    including    an  account  of  the  tradi 
tions    and    poems    of  the  Suffs,  their  questions  and  answers, 
their    'stations'    and    'states',    their    peculiar    symbolism  and 
technical  terms.  The  author  has  indicated  the  salient  features 
of  each    topic    to    the    best    of  his    power.   He  writes   as  an 
orthodox    Moslem   and    begs    his    readers  to  study  the  work 
in    a   spirit    of  pious    devotion    and   friendliness  towards  the 


t)  This  should  be  Abu  Bakr. 


Sufis,  who,  though  few  in  number,  are  highly  esteemed  and 
honoured  by  God.  Some  knowledge  of  the  principles,  aims, 
and  method  of  genuine  Sufis  is  necessary  in  this  age,  in 
order  that  they  may  be  distinguished  from  the  impostors 

3  who    appropriate    their    name    and   dress.  Description  of  the 
genuine  Sufis,  whose  hearts  God  has  vivified  by  gnosis  and 
whose   bodies   He    has  adorned  with  worship,   so    that    they 
have  renounced  all  things  for  His  sake.  Many  of  the  author's 
contemporaries  were  only  theoretically  acquainted  with  Sufism, 
yet    they   composed    pretentious   books  on  the  subject.  This 
contrasts    unfavourably    with    the   behaviour   of   the  eminent 
Suffs   of  old  who  did  not  discourse  upon  mystical  questions 
until  they  had  undergone  austerities  and  had  mortified  their 
passions  and  had  endeavoured  to  cut  every  tie  that  hindered 
them  from  attaining  to  God,  and  who  combined  theory  with 

4  perfection  of  practice.  The  author  states  that  he  has  often  sup 
pressed    the    isndds    and   abridged  the  text  of  the  traditions 
and  anecdotes  in  this  volume.  He  has  recorded  the  answers 
and  sayings  of  the  ancient   Sufis    inasmuch    as  these   enable 
him  to  do  without  the  ostentatious  discussions  in  which  con 
temporary    writers    indulge.    God    is    the   enemy    of  any  one 
who    embellishes  or  clothes  in  different  language  a  mystical 
thought   belonging  to  the  ancients  and  attributes  it  to  him 
self  for  the  purpose  of  winning  fame  or  popularity. 

CHAPTER  I:  "Explanation  of  the  science  of  Sufism  and 
the  doctrine  of  the  Sufis  and  their  position  in  regard  to 
the  ^ulamd." 

The  author  was  asked,  by  some  one  who  pointed  out 
that  many  diverse  opinions  were  held  concerning  Sufism , 

5  to   explain    the    principles    of  its    doctrine    and    to    show  by 
argument  how  it  is  connected  with  the  Koran  and  the  Apostolic 
Traditions.   He  replies  by  quoting  Kor.  3,  16,  where  the  most 
excellent    of  the  believers  and  those  of  the  highest  rank  in 
religion    are    described    as    "the    possessors    of   knowledge" 


(ulu  9l'cilm).  Similarly,  Muhammad  said  that  the  savants 
(culamd)  are  the  heirs  of  the  prophets.  The  author  divides 
these  Culamd  into  three  classes :  the  Traditionists  (ashdb  al- 
hadith},  the  Jurists  (fuqahd),  and  the  Sufis.  Corresponding 
to  these  three  classes  there  are  three  kinds  of  religious  know 
ledge:  knowledge  of  the  Koran,  knowledge  of  the  Sunna, 

6  and  knowledge  of  the  realities  of  Faith.  The  last  is  identical 
with    ihsdn    (well-doing),    which,   according    to   the  definition 
imparted  to  the  Prophet  by  Gabriel,  consists  in  "worshipping 
God   as   though   thou  sawest  Him,  for  if  thou  seest  Him  not, 
yet   He   sees    thee."    Knowledge    is   joined    with  action,  and 
action    with    sincerity    (ikhlds],   and    sincerity    is  this,  that  a 
man    should    seek    God    alone    (wajh   Allah]    with   his  know 
ledge    and    his    actions.    The    three    classes  mentioned  above 
differ   in    their    theory  and  practice  and  spiritual  rank,  each 
possessing    characteristics    peculiar    to    itself,    as   the    author 

7  now  proceeds  to  explain. 

CHAPTER  II:  "Description  of  the  classes  of  Traditionists, 
their  system  of  transmission,  their  critical  sifting  of  the 
Hadith,  and  their  special  knowledge  of  it." 

The  Traditionists  attached  themselves  to  the  external  form 
of  the  Hadfth,  and  regarding  this  as  the  foundation  of  religion 
they  travelled  to  all  parts  of  the  world  and  sought  out  the 
relaters  of  Traditions,  from  whom  they  handed  down  stories 
about  the  Prophet  and  his  Companions.  They  took  pains  to 
verify  all  the  information  that  they  received,  to  discover 
whether  the  relaters  were  trustworthy  or  not,  to  arrange 
the  materials  which  they  had  collected,  and  to  distinguish 
the  genuine  Traditions  from  those  which  were  of  doubtful 

8  authority.  In  this  critical  investigation  some  achieved  greater 
success  than  others  and  gained  such  a  reputation  for  learning 
that   their    testimony   as    to    what  the  Prophet  said  and  did 
and  commanded  and  forbade  was  universally  accepted.  The 
Prophet    prayed    that    God    would  make  radiant  the  face  of 


any  man  who  heard  an  Apostolic  Tradition  and  transmitted 
it:    hence    all    Traditionists,    it    is   said,    have    shining   faces. 
CHAPTER   III:    "Account  of  the  classes  of  Jurists  and  the 
various    sciences    with    which    they    are    specially   endowed." 
9       It  is  the  function  of  the  Jurists  to  study,  interpret,  and  codify 
the  Hadith  --a  task  in  which  they  are  guided  by  the  Ko 
ran,  the  Sunna,  the  consensus  of  public  opinion,  and  analogy. 

10  CHAPTER    IV:     "Account    of  the    Sufis,    their    theory    and 
practice,  and  the  excellent  qualities  by  which  they  are  cha 
racterised." 

The  Sufis  agree  with  the  Traditionists  and  Jurists  in  their 
beliefs  and  accept  their  sciences  and  consult  them  in  diffi 
cult  matters  of  religious  law.  Should  there  be  a  difference 
of  opinion,  the  Sufis  always  adopt  the  principle  of  following 
the  strictest  and  most  perfect  course;  they  venerate  the 
commandments  of  God  and  do  not  seek  to  evade  them. 
Such  is  their  practice  in  regard  to  the  formal  sciences  handled 
by  the  Traditionists  and  Jurists,  but  having  left  these  behind 
they  rise  to  heights  of  mystical  devotion  and  ethical  self- 

1 1  culture  which  are  exclusively  their  own. 

CHAPTER  V:  "Account  of  the  moral  culture  and  spiritual 
feelings  of  the  Sufis,  and  of  the  sciences  in  which  the  other 
^ulamd  have  no  share." 

The  first  point  of  distinction  is  that  the  Sufis  renounce 
what  does  not  concern  them,  i.  e.  everything  that  hinders 
them  from  attaining  the  object  of  their  quest,  which  is  God 
only.  In  the  next  place,  they  possess  many  moral,  ascetic, 
and  mystical  qualities.  Enumeration  of  these  (pp.  11  — 13). 
13  CHAPTER  VI:  "How  the  Sufis  are  distinguished  from  the 
culamd  in  other  respects." 

The  Sufis  are  specially  distinguished  by  their  practical 
application  of  certain  verses  of  the  Koran  and  Traditions 
which  inculcate  noble  qualities  and  lofty  feelings  and  ex 
cellent  actions  such  as  formed  part  of  the  Prophet's  nature 


and  character.  The  culamd  and  the  jurists  acknowledge  the 
truth  of  these  verses  and  Traditions  without  studying  them 
closely  and  drawing  forth  their  inmost  meaning,  but  the 
Sufis  realise  the  qualities  and  feelings  referred  to,  e.  g., 

14  repentance,    abstinence,    patience,    fear,    hope,    etc.,    so   that 
each    of   these    'states'    is    represented    by  a  special  class  of 
persons  who   attain    to    diverse    degrees    therein.  Again,  the 
Sufis    are  distinguished  by  self-knowledge,  for  they  examine 
themselves    in    order    to    detect    any  trace  of  hypocrisy  and 
secret    lust    and    latent    polytheism,   that    they    may    escape 
from    those   evils   and    take    refuge   with   God.  Finally,  they 
have    derived    from    the  Koran    and    the  Traditions  mystical 
sciences  which  it  is  hard  for  the  jurists  and  culamd  to  under- 

15  stand.  Examples  are  given.  The  Sufis  are  distinguished  from 
the    rest    of   the    culamd    by    grappling  with  these  recondite 
questions  and  solving  them  and  speaking  about  them  with  the 
certainty   that  comes  of  immediate  experience.  The  whole  of 
Sufism    is    to    be   found  in  the  Koran  and  the  Traditions  of 
the  Prophet,  a  fact  which  is  not  denied  by  the  ^ulamd  when 
they    investigate    it.    Those    who    deny    it  are  the  formalists 
who    recognise    in    the    Koran    and    the    Traditions   only  the 
external    ordinances   and    whatever  will    serve   them  in  con 
troversy    with    opponents.    The    author    laments    that    in  his 
time    this    formal    theology,    inasmuch    as    it  offered  a  ready 
means  of  obtaining  power  and  worldly  success,  was  far  more 
popular   than    Sufism,  which  involves  bitterness  and  anguish 
and  self-mortification. 

16  CHAPTER    VII:    "Refutation    of  those    who  maintain  that 
the    Sufis    are    ignorant,  and  that  the  Koran  and  the  Tradi 
tions  supply  no  evidence  in  favour  of  Sufism." 

The  Koran  mentions  numerous  classes  of  men  and  women 
endowed  with  particular  qualities,  e.  g.  "the  sincere",  "the 
patient",  "those  who  trust  in  God",  "the  friends  of  God",  etc. 

In    the    Traditions,    too,    we    find    examples    not    only    of 


special  classes  but  also  of  individuals  who  are  described  as 
peculiarly  holy,  such  as  cUmar  b.  al-Khattab,  al-Bara,  Wabisa, 
Uways  al-Qarani,  and  Talq  b.  Habib.  The  circumstance  that 
these  men,  though  included  among  the  Faithful,  are  set  apart 
17  by  special  designations,  indicates  their  distinction  from  the 
mass  of  believers.  Moreover,  the  prophets,  who  occupy  a 
more  exalted  position  before  God  than  the  persons  above- 
mentioned,  are  allowed  by  the  greatest  religious  authorities 
to  have  been  like  common  men  in  respect  of  eating  and 
sleeping  and  the  ordinary  events  of  life.  The  distinction 
enjoyed  by  the  prophets  and  by  these  holy  persons  was 
the  result  of  their  intimate  communion  with  God  and  their 
exceeding  faith  in  His  Word;  but  the  prophets  are  distin 
guished  from  the  rest  by  inspiration  (wahy),  the  apostolic 
office,  and  evidences  of  prophecy. 

CHAPTER  VIII:  u Account  of  the  objection  raised  by  the 
Sufis  against  those  who  claim  the  title  of  jurist  or  divine 
(faqih),  together  with  an  argument  showing  what  is  meant 
by  'understanding  in  religion'  (al-fiqh  fi  *l-din)" 

Tradition:  "when  God  wishes  to  confer  a  blessing  on  any 
one,  He  gives  him  understanding  in  religion."  Definition  of 
faqih  by  Hasan  of  Basra.  Religion  is  a  term  comprehending 
all  the  commandments,  both  outward  and  inward,  and  the 
endeavour  to  understand  the  mystical  'states'  and  'stations' 
mentioned  above  is  no  less  profitable  than  the  endeavour  to 
become  expert  in  legal  knowledge.  The  latter  is  seldom 
required  and  can  be  obtained  from  a  lawyer  whenever  the 
1 8  occasion  for  it  arises,  but  knowledge  of  the  'states'  and 
'stations'  in  which  the  Sufis  strive  to  become  proficient  is 
obligatory  upon  all  believers  at  all  times.  The  lore  deduced 
(from  the  Koran  and  the  Traditions)  by  the  Sufis  must  be 
more  abundant  than  the  legal  deductions  drawn  by  the 
divines  from  the  same  source,  because  the  mystical  science 
is  infinite,  whereas  all  other  sciences  are  finite. 


CHAPTER  IX:   "The  permissibility  of  a  special  endowment 

19  in    the    religious   sciences,    and    the    exclusive    possession    of 
every   science    by    its    representatives.    Confutation   of  those 
who    arbitrarily    refuse    to    recognise  a  particular  science  in 
stead  of  referring  the  question  to  the  experts  in  that  science." 

Some  culamd  deny  that  there  is  any  special  endowment  in 
the  science  of  religion.  The  Prophet,  however,  said,  "If  ye 
knew  what  I  know,  ye  would  laugh  little  and  weep  much." 
Now,  if  this  knowledge  had  been  part  of  the  knowledge  which 
he  was  commanded  to  proclaim  to  mankind,  he  would  have 
proclaimed  it;  and  if  it  had  been  allowable  for  his  Com 
panions  to  ask  him  about  it,  they  would  have  asked  him. 
Hudhayfa,  one  of  the  Companions,  had  a  special  knowledge 
of  the  names  of  the  Hypocrites,  and  cAli  b.  Abi  Talib 
declared  that  he  learned  from  the  Prophet  seventy  catego 
ries  of  knowledge  which  the  Prophet  did  not  impart  to  any 
one  else.  The  truth  is  that  the  science  of  religion  is  divided 

20  amongst   the    Traditionists,    the    Jurists,    and    the   Sufis,  and 
each  of  these  three  classes  is  independent  of  the  others.  No 
traditionist  will  consult  a  jurist  upon  any  difficulty  connected 
with  the  science    of  Tradition,    nor  will  a  jurist  bring  legal 
problems  to  a  traditionist.  By  the  same  rule,  any   one   who 
desires    to    be    instructed    in    the    mysteries    of  Sufism   must 
seek   information  from  those  who  have  thoroughly  mastered 
the  subject.  Let  none  vituperate  a  class  of  men  of  whose  science 
and  feelings  and  aims  he  knows  nothing. 

CHAPTER  X:  "Why  the  Sufis  are  so  called  and  why  the 
name  is  derived  from  their  fashion  of  dress." 

The  author  explains  that  the  name  Stiff  is  not  connected 
with  any  science  or  spiritual  condition,  because  the  Suff  is  not 
characterised  by  one  particular  science  or  quality  but,  on  the 
contrary,  by  all  sciences  and  all  praiseworthy  qualities.  He  is 
continually  advancing  from  one  state  to  another,  and  his  pre- 
21  dominant  characteristics  vary  from  time  to  time,  so  that  he 


8 

cannot  be  designated  by  a  name  derived  from  them.  The 
appellation  Sufi  is  derived  from  the  garments  of  wool  (suf) 
which  used  to  be  worn  by  the  prophets  and  saints :  it  is  a 
general  term  connoting  all  that  is  praiseworthy.  Similarly  the 
disciples  of  Jesus  were  named  al-Hawdriyyun  on  account 
of  their  white  robes. 

CHAPTER  XI:  "Confutation  of  those  who  say  that  they 
never  heard  mention  of  the  Sufis  in  ancient  times  and  that 
the  name  is  modern." 

If  it    be   argued    that    there   were    no    Sufis   amongst    the 

22  Prophet's  Companions,  the   reason  is,  that  it  was  impossible 
to    apply    the    name    Sufi    to    men  who  were  known  by  the 
title    of   Companion,    which    is    of  all   titles  the  highest  and 
most  honourable.  The  statement  that  'Sufi'  is  a  name  of  re 
cent    origin    invented    by    the    people  of  Baghdad  is  absurd : 
the    name    was   current    in    the   time  of  Hasan  of  Basra  and 
Sufyan    al-Thawri,    and    according    to    a    tale    related    in  the 
History  of  Mecca   on    the  authority  of  Muhammad  b.   Ishaq 
and  others  it  existed  before  the  promulgation  of  Islam. 

23  CHAPTER  XII:  "Demonstration  of  the  reality  of  the  esoteric 
science." 

Some  formedists  recognise  only  the  science  of  the  external 
religious  law  comprised  in  the  Koran  and  the  Sunna,  and 
declare  that  the  esoteric  science,  i.  e.  Sufism,  is  without 
meaning.  In  fact,  however,  the  science  of  the  religious  law 
has  an  internal  as  well  as  an  external  aspect  and  inculcates 
inward  as  well  as  outward  actions.  The  outward  actions  are 
bodily,  such  as  hunger,  fasting,  almsgiving  and  the  like, 
while  the  inward  actions,  or  the  actions  of  the  heart,  are 
faith,  sincerity,  knowledge  of  God,  etc.  'The  esoteric  science' 

24  signifies    'the    science    of  the    actions    of  the    interior   which 
depend    on    the    interior    organ,    namely,  the  heart  (al-qalb}\ 
and   is    identical   with  Sufism.  The  inward  aspect  of  religion 
is   the    necessary    complement    of  the    outward   aspect,    and 


9 

vice  versa.  Both   aspects    are    inherent    in  the  Koran,  in  the 
Traditions  of  the  Prophet,  and  in   Islam  itself. 

CHAPTER  XIII:   "The  nature  and  quality  of  Sufism." 

25  Definitions  of  Sufism  by  Muhammad  b.  cAli    al-Qassab,  Ju- 
nayd,  Ruwaym,   Sumnun,  Abu  Muhammad  al-Jariri  l),  cAmr 
b.  cUthman  al-Makki,  and  cAli  b.  °Abd  al-Rahim  al-Qannad. 

CHAPTER  XIV:  "Description  of  the  Sufis  and  who  they  are." 
Sayings  of  cAbd  al-Wahid   b.  Zayd,  Dhu    '1-Nun    al-Misrf, 

26  Junayd,    Abu    '1-Husayn    al-Nuri.    The    people   of  Syria  call 
the    Sufis    'poor  men'  (fuqara).   Meaning  of  'Sufi'  explained 
by  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Jalla.    It  is  said  that  the  original  form 
of   the    word    was    Safawi.    According    to    Abu  '1-Hasan  al- 
Qannad    'Sufi'    is    derived    from    safd    (purity).    Anonymous 
definitions  of  'Sufi'.    The    author's    explanation    of    what    is 
really  implied  by  the  name  'Sufi'. 

27  Qannad  says  that  it  refers  to  the  dress  in  which  the  Sufis 
resemble  each  other  outwardly,  though  they  are  very  diffe 
rent    spiritually.     Shibli's    answer    to    the    question    why    the 
Sufis    were    so    named.    It    has    been    said    that    they    are    a 
remnant  of  the   Ahl  al-suffa.  Ibrahim  b.  Muwallad  al-Raqqi 
gave   more  then  a  hundred  definitions  of  Sufism.  Verses  by 
cAli    b.    °Abd   al-Rahim    al-Qannad   on  the  decay  of  Sufism. 
Three  definitions  by  an  anonymous  Shaykh  referring  to  three 

28  points  of  view  from  which  Sufism  may  be  regarded.  Definitions 
given  by  Husri  to  the  author.  Saying  of  the  Caliph  Abu  Bakr. 

CHAPTER  XV:   "On  unification  (taw hid}" 
Definitions  of  unification,  according  to  the  sense  which  the 
Moslems  generally  attach  to  it,  by  Dhu  '1-Nun  and  Junayd. 
Definitions  of  the  term,  according  to  the  sense  which  the 

29  Sufis  attach  to  it,  by  Junayd.  The  author's  comment  on  the 
saying  of  Junayd  that  "man  should  return  from  his  last  state 
to  his  first  state  and  be  as  he  was  before  he  existed".  Saying 


:)  Or  Jurayri.  See  note  on  p.  fc>,  1.  1  in  List  of  Addenda  et  Corrigenda. 


10 

30  of  Shiblf   to    the    effect  that  the  unity  of  God  is  utterly  in 
expressible  and  indefinable,  with  a  brief  explanation  by  the 
author.  Explanation  of  three  answers  of  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn 

31  al-Razf    concerning  unification.  The  author  then  calls   atten 
tion  to  another  class  of  definitions,  namely,  those  uttered  in 
the  language  of  ecstasy,  and  says  that  he  will  explain  them 
as  far  as  is  possible,  lest  any  of  his  readers  should  be  misled. 
One  must  be  a  mystic  in  order  to  understand  mystical  sym 
bolism.    Ruwaym's  saying,  that  unification  is  the  effacement 
of  human    nature,  signifies  the  transformation  of  the  nature 

32  of  the  lower  soul  (nafs).  Explanation  of  several  anonymous 
sayings    on   tawhid  and    wakddniyyat,    and    of  a   saying  by 

33  Shiblf.  Another  anonymous  definition  of  tawhid.  Description 
of  the  first  stage  of  tawhid  and  the  first  sign  of  taw  kid  by 
Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz,  together  with  the  author's  commentary. 

34  Saying  of   Shibli :   "egoism    impairs    unification".  Another 
saying  of  Shibli  to  the  same  effect,  with  the  author's  expla 
nation.    Distinction  made  by  Shibli  between  the  'unification 
of   humanity'   (tawhid  al-bashariyyat]  and  the  'unification  of 
Divinity'    (tawhid  al-ildhiyyat}.    The    author's  explanation  of 
this   saying.    Two    contradictory   sayings    of  Shibli:    on    one 
occasion    he    said    that   whoever  is  acquainted  with  an  atom 
of  the    science    of  unification    cannot    bear    the   weight  of  a 
gnat;    but    on    another    occasion  he  said  that  such  a  person 
sustains    the    whole    heaven    and    earth    on   a  single  eyelash. 
Meaning  of  the  latter  saying.  It  is  related  that  Gabriel  covers 

35  the   East  and  the  West  with  two  of  his  six  hundred  wings. 
Other  traditions  respecting  the  size  of  Gabriel  and  the  dimen 
sions  of  the  heavenly  kingdom  (malakut}.  Saying  of  Ahmad 
b.  cAta  al-Baghdadi:  "the  reality  of  unification  consists  in  for 
getting  unification,  etc."  The  author  explains  what  this  means. 

CHAPTER  XVI:  "Concerning  what  has  been  said  on  the 
subject  of  gnosis  (mcfrifat)  and  the  characteristics  of  the 
gnostic  (cdrif)" 


1 1 

Two  sources  of  gnosis  according  to  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz. 
Description  of  the  gnostic  by  Abu  Turab  al-Nakhshabi.  Two 
kinds  of  gnosis,  marifat  al-haqq  and  mafrifat  al-kaqiqat, 

36  distinguished    by    Ahmad   b.  cAta.  The  author's  explanation 
of  part    of  this  saying:  God  is  really  unknowable;  hence  it 
has    been  said  that  none  knows  Him  save  Himself,  and  the 
Caliph   Abu  Bakr  said,   "Praise  to  God  who  hath  given  His 
creatures  no  way  of  attaining  to  the  knowledge  of  Him  except 
through    their    inability    to    know    Him."    Three    sayings    of 
Shibli    on   gnosis.  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami  said,  describing  the 
gnostic,  that  the  colour  of  water  is  the  colour  of  the  vessel 

37  which    contains  it.  The  author  explains  the  meaning  of  this 
metaphor.  Saying  of  Junayd.  Anonymous  definition  of  gnosis. 
Saying  of  Junayd:  what  gnostics  desire  of  God.  Muhammad 
b.  al-Fadl  of  Samarcand  asserted  that  gnostics  desire  nothing 
and    that    they    have    no    personal    volition,    but  when  some 
one    asked    him    what    gnostics    desire    of  God  he  answered, 
uSteadfastness"(z.y/z^zwtf/) !).  Description  of  the  gnostic  byYahya 
b.    Mucadh    al-Razi.  Reply  of  Abu   '1-Husayn  al-Nuri  to  one 

38  who    asked    him    why   the    intellect    is    unable  to  apprehend 
God.    Explanation    of  this    saying    by  the  author.  Saying  of 
Ahmad    b.    cAta   (which   is  sometimes  wrongly  attributed  to 
Abu    Bakr    al-Wasiti):    "What    is  deemed    evil    is    evil    only 
through    His  occultation,  and  what  is  deemed  good  is  good 
only   through   His    manifestation,  etc."   The  author  quotes  a 
similar  saying  of  Abu  Sulayman  al-Darani  and  says  that  Ibn 

39  °Ata's   words    bear    the    same    meaning   as    the   Tradition  in 
which  it  is  related  that  the  Prophet  went  forth  with  a  scroll 
in    his   right    hand    and    another  scroll  in  his  left  hand,  and 
that  he  said,   "Here  are  written  the  names  of  the  people  of 
Paradise,    and    here   are  written  the  names  of  the  people  of 


i)  Cf.    Fliigel,    Ta'-rifdt^    p.    19,    1.    18,    where    istiqdmat  is  defined  as   "not 
preferring  anything  to  God."  The  term  is  explained  by  Qushayri,   111,27  fol. 


12 

Hell."  A  saying  of  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti  concerning  gnostics, 
with  the  author's  explanation  thereof. 

CHAPTER  XVII:  "Description  of  the  gnostic  and  what 
has  been  said  about  him." 

Three  sayings  of  Yahya  b.  Mucadh  al-Razi.  Three  signs  of 
the  gnostic  enumerated  by  Dhu  '1-Nun  al-Misri.  Anonymous 

40  sayings:  no  one  who  describes  gnosis  is  a  true  gnostic;  if  the 
gnostic  turns  from  God  towards  mankind  without  His  permis 
sion,  God  will  abandon  him;  none  can  know  God  unless  his 
heart  is  filled  with   awe.  Perfect  gnosis  defined  by  °Abd  al- 
Rahman  al-Farisi.  The  author's  explanation  of  this  definition. 

CHAPTER  XVIII:  "Concerning  the  means  by  which  God 
is  known.  The  difference  between  the  believer  and  the  gnostic." 
Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Nurf  said  that  God  is  known  only  through 
Himself,  and  that  the  intellect  cannot  know  Him.  On  being 
asked  what  is  the  first  duty  imposed  by  God  on  His  servants, 
he  replied,  "To  know  Him."  Anonymous  definition  of  gnosis. 

41  Gnosis  is  originally  a  divine  gift.  Distinction  between  the 
believer    and    the    gnostic.    The    former  sees  by  the  light  of 
God,  the  latter  through  God  Himself.  Three  kinds  of  gnosis: 
gnosis    of  acknowledgment,  gnosis   of  reality,  gnosis  of  con 
templation.  Definition  of  gnosis  by  Abu  Bakr  al-Zahirabadhi. 

BOOK  OF  THE  STATES  AND  STATIONS. 

CHAPTER  XIX:  "Concerning  the  stations  (al-maqdmdf]  and 
their  realities." 

Definition  of  the  term  maqdm. 

42  Explanation  by  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti  of  the  Tradition,  "The 
spirits    are    hosts   arrayed  (junud  mujannada)"  Examples  of 
the  qualities  to  which  the  term  'station'  is  applied. 

CHAPTER  XX:  "Concerning  the  meaning  of  'states'  (al- 
ahwdl}r 

Definition  of  the  term  ahwdl  by  the  author. 


13 

Definition  by  Junayd.  Anonymous  description  of  the 'state' 
(hdl)  as  'secret  recollection'  (al-dhikr  al-khafi}.  It  is  not 
gained,  like  the  'stations',  by  means  of  ascetic  practices  and 
works  of  devotion.  Examples  of  'states'.  The  author's  expla 
nation  of  a  saying  by  Abu  Sulayman  al-Darani:  "the  body 
obtains  relief  when  man's  dealings  with  God  pass  over  to 
the  heart." 

43  Sayings  of  Muhammad  b.  Wasic,  Malik  b.  Dinar,  and  Junayd. 
CHAPTER  XXI:    "On    the  station  of  repentance  (tawbat}" 
Definitions  of  repentance  by  Abu  Yacqub  al-Susi,  Sahl  b. 

cAbdallah  al-Tustari  ("that  you  should  not  forget  your  sins"), 
and  Junayd  ("forgetting  your  sins").  The  author  points  out 
that  the  definitions  of  al-Susi  and  Sahl  b.  °Abdallah  refer 
to  the  repentance  of  disciples  and  seekers,  whereas  that  of 
Junayd  refers  to  the  repentance  of  spiritual  adepts.  It  was 
in  the  latter  sense  that  Ruwaym  defined  repentance  as 
"repenting  of  repentance." 

44  So    Dhu    '1-Nun  said  that  common  men  repent  of  sin  but 
the    elect    repent    of   forgetting    God.    The    expressions  used 
by   gnostics   and  ecstatics  in  regard  to  repentance  are  illus 
trated    by   the   definition    of   Abu    '1-Husayn   al-Nuri:    "that 
you    should    repent   of  everything  except  God."  Dhu  '1-Nun 
alludes   to  the  above  distinction  in  his  saying,   "The  sins  of 
the    saints   (al-muqarrabiri)  are  the  good  deeds  of  the  pious 
(al-abrdr)"  Another  similar  saying:  "The  hypocrisy  of  gnostics 
is    the   sincerity    of   disciples."    Explanation   of  the  different 
spiritual  degrees. 

CHAPTER    XXII:    "On   the  station  of  abstinence  (warcf}" 
Three  classes  of  those  who  practise  abstinence. 
The  first  class  abstain  from  what  is  'dubious',  i.e.  neither 
plainly  lawful  nor  plainly  unlawful.  Saying  of  Ibn  Sirin. 

45  The  second  class  abstain  from  whatever  their  consciences 
bid    them    avoid.    Definition    of  abstinence  by  Abu  Sacid  al- 
Kharraz.    Harith    al-Muhasibi    never    ate   anything  'dubious': 


14 

a  vein  in  his  finger  throbbed  when  he  attempted  to  take  such 
food.  Story  of  Bishr  al-Haff.  Definition  of  'lawful'  by  Sahl 
b.  °Abdallah  al-Tustari  and  the  author's  comment.  Traditions 
justifying  the  appeal  to  conscience.  The  third  class,  namely, 
the  gnostics  and  ecstatics,  share  the  view  of  Abu  Sulayman 
al-Darani,  that  whatever  diverts  the  attention  from  God  is 

46  abominable.  Similar  sayings  by  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  and  Shibli. 

CHAPTER  XXIII:  "On  the  station  of  renunciation  (zuhd}" 
Renunciation  is  the  basis  of  spiritual  progress,  because 
every  sin  originates  in  love  of  this  world,  and  every  act  of 
goodness  and  obedience  springs  from  renunciation.  The  name 
of  'ascetic'  (zdhid)  is  equivalent  to  a  hundred  names  of  praise. 
Renunciation  has  reference  only  to  what  is  lawful,  since  the 
avoidance  of  unlawful  and  dubious  things  is  obligatory.  Three 
classes  of  ascetics  (zuhhdd).  The  first  class  are  the  novices 
whose  hands  are  empty  of  possessions  and  whose  hearts  are 
empty  of  that  which  is  not  in  their  hands.  Sayings  of 
Junayd  and  Sari  al-Saqati.  The  second  class  are  the  adepts 
in  renunciation  (al-mutakaqqiqun  fi  'l-zuhd),  to  whom  Ru- 

47  waym's    definition    of  zuhd  as  the  renunciation  of  all  selfish 
interests    is  applicable.  There  is  a  selfish  interest  in  renoun 
cing  the  world,  inasmuch  as  the  ascetic  gains  joy  and  praise 
and  reputation,  but  the  real  ascetic  banishes  all  these  inter 
ests   from   his  heart.  The  third  class  are  those  who  recognise 
the    utter    vanity    of   this    world    and   hold  it  so  cheap  that 
they  scorn  to  look  at  it :  hence  they  regard  even   renuncia 
tion    of   it  as  an  act  of  turning  away  from  God.  Sayings  of 
Shibli  and  Yahya  b.  Mucadh  al-Razi. 

CHAFER  XXIV:  "On  the  station  of  poverty  (faqr]  and 
the  characteristics  of  the  poor." 

Verse  of  the  Koran  describing  the  poor.  Poverty  is  a 
great  ornament  to  the  believer  (Tradition).  Saying  in  praise 

48  of  poverty    by    Ibrahim    al-Khawwas.    Three  classes  of  poor 
men  (fuqard).  The  first  class  are  those  who  possess  nothing 


15 

and  do  not  seek  outwardly  or  inwardly  anything  from  anyone, 
and  if  anything  is  offered  to  them  they  will  not  accept  it. 
Saying  of  Sahl  b.  GAli  b.  Sahl  al-Isbahani.  The  reality  of 
poverty  explained  by  Abu  cAbdallah  b.  al-Jalla.  The  question 
why  faqirs  refuse  to  accept  food  when  they  need  it  answered 
by  Abu  cAlf  al-Rudhaban  and  Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq.  Answer 
given  by  Nasr  b.  al-Hammami  to  the  question  why  the 
Sufis  prefer  poverty  to  everything  else.  The  second  class 
possess  nothing  and  do  not  beg  either  directly  or  indirectly, 
but  if  anything  is  offered  to  them  they  accept  it.  Saying  of 
Junayd :  the  sign  of  the  true  faqir.  Definition  of  the  true 
faqir  by  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  al-Tustari. 

49  Real  poverty  defined  by  Abu  cAbdallah  b.  al-Jalla.  Charac 
teristics  of  the  true  faqir  according  to  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas. 
The  third  class  do  not  possess  anything,  but  when  they  are 
in    want    they   beg  of  a  brother  Sufi  and  expiate  the  act  of 
begging  by  their  sincerity.  !).  Sayings  of  Jariri  and  Ruwaym. 

CHAPTER  XXV:   "On  the  station  of  patience  (sabr)" 
Sayings    of   Junayd    and    Ibrahim    al-Khawwas.    Dialogue 

50  between    Shibli    and    a  man    who    asked    him,   "What  is  the 
hardest  kind  of  patience  ?"  The  mutasabbir,  the  sdbir,  and  the 
sabbdr  defined  by  Ibn  Salim.  These  definitions  are  illustrated 
by    a    saying   of  al-Qannad    and    stories    of  Dhu  '1-Nun  and 
Shibli.  Verses  which  Shibli  used  to  quote. 

5  i        Tradition  as  to  the  effect  of  one  moan  uttered  by  Zakariyya, 
when  the  saw  was  laid  on  his  neck. 

CHAPTER  XX  VI:  "On  the  station  of  trust  in  God  (tawakkul}" 
Passages  in  the    Koran  showing  that  trust  in  God   is   con 
nected    with    faith.    Other   passages    referring  to  the  trust  of 
the  'elect  of  the  elect'  (khusus  al- khusus).  Three  kinds  of  trust 
52  m  God.    The  first  is   the  trust    of  the   faithful  (al-mu'minun). 


.;  ..  "    " 

i)  Read  xJJL\-o  instead  of  JLJ>L\~o  (cf.  p.  111*  1.  P.  foil.).  'Sincerity'  (jidq) 

involves  the  entire  absence  of  self-interest  and  self-regard. 


i6 

Definitions  of  this  by  Abu  Turab  al-Nakhshabi,  Dhu  '1-Nun, 
Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq,  Ruwaym,  and  Sahl  b.  GAbdallah  al- 
Tustari.  The  second  kind  is  the  trust  of  the  elect  (ahl 
al-khusus}.  Definitions  by  Ibn  cAta,  Abu  Yacqub  al-Nahrajurf, 
Abu  Bakr  al-Wasitf,  and  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  al-Tustari.  The  third 
kind  is  the  trust  of  the  elect  of  the  elect  (khusus  al-khusus}. 
Definitions  by  Shibli,  an  anonymous  Sufi,  Ibn  al-Jalla,  Junayd, 

53  Abu  Sulayman  al-Darani,  and  another  anonymous  mystic. 

CHAPTER  XXVII:  "On  the  station  of  satisfaction  (ridd) 
and  the  characteristics  of  the  satisfied." 

According  to  the  Koran  (9,  73),  God's  satisfaction  with  man 
precedes  man's  satisfaction  with  God.  Definitions  of  ridd 
by  the  author,  Junayd,  al-Qannad,  Dhu  '1-Nun,  and  Ibn  cAta. 

54  Saying  of  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasitf.  Three  classes  of  the  satis 
fied  :    (i)    those    who    strive    to  preserve  equanimity  towards 
God    in    all    circumstances    (2)    those   who  pay  no  regard  to 
their  own  satisfaction  but  consider  only  the  fact  that  God  is 
satisfied    with    them    (3)  those  who  realise  that  the  question 
whether   they    are   satisfied    with    God    and    God   with  them 
depends  absolutely  on  the  eternal  providence  of  God.  Saying 
of   Abu    Sulayman    al-Darani    in  this  sense.  Ridd  is  the  last 
of  the  'stations'  and  is  followed  by  the  mystical  'states',  of 
which  the  first  is  observation  (murdqabat). 

CHAPTER  XXVIII:  "On  the  observation  of  mystical  states 
and  the  characteristics  of  such  observers." 

55  The    observer   is    he   who    knows   that    God  is  acquainted 
with  his  most  secret  thoughts:  consequently  he  keeps  watch 
over   the    evil    thoughts    that    hinder    him    from    thinking   of 
God.  Sayings  of  Abu  Sulayman  al-Darani,  Ibrahim  al-Ajurri, 
and  Hasan  b.  cAli  al-Damaghani.  Three  types  of  murdqabat. 
The  first  is  that  of  beginners  and  is  described  in  the  saying 
of   Hasan  b.  cAlf  al-Damaghani.  The  second  is  described  in 
a  saying  of  Ibn  cAta.  The  third  is  peculiar  to  those  who  observe 
God  and  ask  Him  to  keep  their  minds  always  fixed  upon  Him. 


56  Saying  of  Ibn  cAta. 

CHAPTER  XXIX:  "On  the  state  of  nearness  to  God  (qurb)" 
Koranic  texts  declaring  that  God  is  near.  The  state  of 
nearness  belongs  to  one  who  contemplates  God's  nearness 
to  him,  and  seeks  to  draw  near  to  God  by  means  of  obedience 
to  His  commands,  and  concentrates  his  thoughts  by  constant 
recollection  of  God.  Such  persons  form  three  classes.  The 
first  class  are  those  who  seek  to  draw  near  to  God  by 
various  acts  of  devotion.  The  second  class  are  those  who 
realise  God's  nearness  to  such  an  extent  that  they  resemble 
cAmir  b.  cAbd  al-Qays  who  said,  "I  never  looked  at  any 
thing  without  regarding  God  as  nearer  to  it  than  I  was." 

57  Verses  describing  the  inward  feeling  of  nearness  produced  by 
ecstasy.  Saying  of  Junayd:  God  is  near  to  man  in  proportion 
as  man  feels  himself  near  to  God.  An  anonymous  saying  to 
the  same  effect.  The  third  and  highest  class  are  those  whose 
nearness    to  God  causes  them  to  be  unconscious  of  nearness, 
Sayings    of    Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Nuri  and  Abu  Yacqub  al-Susi. 

CHAPTER    XXX:    "On    the    state    of  love    (mahabbat}" 
It    appears   from    several  passages  in  the  Koran  that  God 

58  loves    man    and    that    God's    love    of   man    precedes   man's 
love  of  God.  The  author  describes  the  man  who  loves  God. 
Three    forms    of  love.    The    first    is    the    love    of   the    vulgar 
(al^dmmat],  which  results  from  God's  kindness  towards  them, 
according    to    the    Tradition    that    men    naturally    love    their 
benefactors.    Descriptions    of   this    form   of  love  by  Sumnun, 
Sahl    b.    cAbdallah    al-Tustari,    Husayn   b.  CAH 1,  and  an  an 
onymous  authority  on  Sufism.  The  second  form  of  love,  which 
is  the  love  of  the  sincere  (al-sddiqun\  is  produced  by  regarding 
the  majesty,  omnipotence,  and  omniscience  of  God.  Descript- 

59  ions    of  it    by    Abu   '1-Husayn  al-Nuri,  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas, 
and    Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz.  The  third  form  of  love,  i.  e.  the 


Husayn  (Hasan)  b.  CAH  al-Damaghani  is  probably  meant. 


i8 

love  of  saints  and  gnostics  (al-siddiqun  wa  'l-cdrifun)  results 
from  their  knowledge  of  the  eternal  and  causeless  Divine 
love:  hence  they  love  God  without  any  cause  for  loving 
Him.  Descriptions  of  this  exalted  love  by  Dhu  '1-Nun,  Abu 
Yacqub  al-Siisi,  and  Junayd.  Tradition:  God  becomes  the 
eye,  ear,  and  hand  of  any  one  whom  He  loves. 

60  CHAPTER  XXXI:   "On  the  state  of  fear  (khawf)." 
Nearness   to  God  (qurb)  may  produce  either  love  or  fear. 

Three  kinds  of  fear  mentioned  in  the  Koran.  While  the 
vulgar  (al-cdmmat)  fear  the  vengeance  of  God,  the  middle  class 
(al-awsdt)  fear  separation  from  God  and  the  occurrence  of 
anything  that  might  impair  their  gnosis.  Sayings  on  the 
latter  kind  of  fear  by  Shibli,  an  anonymous  gnostic  in  reply 
to  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz,  Ibn  Khubayq,  and  al-Qannad.  The 

6 1  third  class  are  the  elect  (ahl  al-khusus).  Their  fear  is  described 
by    Sahl   b.  cAbdallah  al-Tustari,  Ibn  al-Jalla,  and  al-Wasiti. 

CHAPTER  XXXII:  "On  hope  (rajd)" 

62  Tradition:    if   the    believer's  hope  and  fear  were  weighed, 
they    would    balance    each    other.    Some  one  whose  name  is 
not    given    said    that   fear    and    hope    are    the    two    wings  of 
(devotional)    work,    without    which   it  will  not  fly.  Saying  of 
Abu    Bakr    al-Warraq.    Three    kinds    of  hope:   hope  in  God, 
hope   in  the  abundance  of  God's  mercy,  and  hope  in  God's 
recompense    (thawdb).    Description  of  one  who  possesses  the 
second  and  third  kinds  of  hope.  Sayings  by  Dhu  '1-Nun  and 
an  anonymous  Sufi.  He  whose  hope  is  in  God  desires  nothing 
of  God  except  God  Himself.  Sayings  of  Shibli  and  a  woman 
who  met  Dhu  '1-Nun  in  a  desert. 

SECTION:  on  the  meaning  of  hope  and  fear. 
The    language    used    by    spiritual    adepts   concerning  hope 
and  fear  is  illustrated  by  a  saying  of  Ibn  °Ata. 

63  Another  saying  in  the  same  style  by  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti. 
Anonymous    saying,    that    love    is    not    perfect    without  fear, 
nor  fear  without  hope,  nor  hope  without  fear. 


19 

CHAPTER  XXXIII:  "On  the  state  of  longing  (shawq)" 
Tradition  on  the  longing  for  Paradise.  The  Prophet  prayed, 
that    he    might    be  filled  with  longing  to  meet  God,  and  he 

64  also    said    that    those    who    long    for    Paradise    hasten    to  do 
good    works.    Another   Tradition   giving    the  names  of  three 
persons  whom  Paradise  longed  for.  Description  of  the  mystic 
who    feels    longing.    Two    anonymous    definitions    of  shawq. 
Saying    of  Jariri   on    the   pleasure    and   pain  of  longing.   De 
scription  by  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  of  those  who  feel  longing. 
Three  classes  of  such.    The  first  class  long  for  the  blessings 
which    God    has    promised    to    His    friends,   the  second  class 
long  for  Him  whom  they  love,  and  the  third  class,  contem 
plating    God    as    present    with    them,    not   absent,    say    that 
longing   is    felt    only    in    the    absence   of  the  desired  object; 
hence  they  lose  consciousness  of  the  longing  which  charact 
erises  them  in  the  eyes  of  their  brethren. 

CHAPTER  XXXIV:  "On  the  state  of  joy  or  intimacy  (uns)" 

The  author's  definition  of  uns:  reliance  on  God  and  seeking 

help  from  Him;  he  adds  that  no  further  explanation  is  pos- 

65  sible.   Letter    written  by  Mutarraf  b.  °Abdallah  to  °Umar  b. 
GAbd    al-°Aziz.    Anonymous    saying    to    the  effect  that  those 
who  enjoy  uns  with  God  feel  no  fear  of  aught  except  Him. 
Description  of  one  who  is  in  the  state  of  uns.  Three  classes 
of  'intimates'.    The    first    class    are    intimate    with  the  recol 
lection    (dhikr)    of  God  and  with  obedience  to  Him.  Saying 
of  Sahl    b.    GAbdallah    al-Tustari.   The  second  class  are  inti 
mate    with    God    and    shrink  from  all  thoughts  that  distract 
them  from  Him.  Sayings  of  Dhu  '1-Nun  and  Junayd. 

66  Ibrahim    al-Marastani    defined    uns   as    the    heart's   joy    in 
the    Beloved.    The    third    class   are    they   whose    feelings    of 
awe    in    the    presence    of  God    cause    them    to    become    un 
conscious     of    being     'intimate'.     Saying    of   an    anonymous 
gnostic,    the    answer    written    by   Dhu  '1-Nun  to  a  man  who 
had    said    in   a  letter  to  him,   "May  God  grant  thee  the  joy 


20 

of  being  near  to  Him!",  and  a  definition  of  uns  by  Shibli. 
CHAPTER  XXXV:  "On  the  state  of  tranquillity  (itma'ninat)" 
Saying  of  Sahl  b.  °Abdallah  al-Tustari. 

67  Explanation    of  the  text,  'Those  whose  hearts  are  at  rest 
in    the    recollection    of  God'  (Kor.    13,  28),  by  Hasan  b.  cAli 
al-Damaghani.    Shibli's    interpretation    of   a    saying   of  Abu 
Sulayman    al-Darani.    Characteristics    of   the    tranquil    man. 
Three   kinds  of  tranquillity.   The   first  belongs  to  the  vulgar 
who  find  peace  in  thinking  of  God;  the  second  to  the  elect 
who  resign  themselves  to  the  Divine  decree  and  are  patient 
in    tribulation,    but   at   the  same   time  are  conscious  of  their 
devotional   acts;  the  third  to  the  elect  of  the  elect  who  reve 
rently   acknowledge   that    their  hearts  cannot  rest  with  God 

68  inasmuch  as  He  is  infinite  and  unique:  therefore  they  advance 
in   their  ardent  search  and  fall  into  the  unimaginable  Sea. 

CHAPTER  XXXVI:  "On  the  state  of  contemplation  (mush- 
dhadat}." 

Mystical  interpretation  of  Kor.  85,  3  by  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasitf. 
Sayings  on  contemplation  by  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  and  cAmr 
b.  cUthman  al-Makkf.  Saying  of  the  Prophet:  "worship  God  as 
though  thou  sawest  Him."  Explanation  of  shahid  (Kor.  5,  306). 

69  Three    more    sayings    by    cAmr   al-Makkf.    Three   kinds  of 
contemplation  indicated  respectively  by  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasitf, 
Abu    Sacfd    al-Kharraz,    and  cAmr  al-Makkf  in  his  Kitdb  al- 
mushdhadat. 

70  CHAPTER    XXXVII:    "On   the  state   of  certainty  (yaqiri)" 
Three    forms    of  yaqin    are  mentioned  in  the  Koran:  cilm 

al-yaqin,  cayn  al-yaqin,  and  kaqq  al-yaqin.  Tradition:  "ask 
God  for  certainty  in  this  world  and  the  next."  The  Prophet 
also  said  that  if  Jesus  had  possessed  more  yaqin  he  would 
have  walked  in  the  air.  Saying  of  cAmir  b.  °Abd  Qays :  "if 
the  veil  were  lifted  my  certainty  would  not  be  increased." 
Saying  of  Abu  Yacqub  al-Nahrajuri.  The  author  says  that 
yaqin  is  revelation  (mukdshafat),  which  is  of  three  kinds: 


21 


(a)  ocular  vision  on  the  Day  of  Resurrection  (£)  revelation 
to  the  heart  by  real  faith  (c)  revelation  of  the  Divine  Power 
by  means  of  miracles.  Three  classes  of  those  who  possess 
yaqin.  The  yaqin  of  the  first  class  is  described  by  an  anony 
mous  Sufi,  Junayd,  Abu  Yacqub  (al-Nahrajuri),  and  Ruwaym. 

71  The   yaqin    of  the  second  class   is  described  by  Ibn  °Ata, 
Abu    Yacqub    al-Nahrajuri,  and  Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Nuri;   that 
of  the   third    class    by  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al-Makki  and  Abu 
Yacqub  al-Nahrajuri.    Yaqin  is  the  beginning   and  end  of  all 
the    'states':  its  extreme  point  is  a  profound  and  real  belief 
in  the  Unseen.   Saying  of  al-Wasiti. 

72  THE  BOOK  OF  THE  PURE  IN  UNDERSTANDING 

AND  OBEDIENCE  TO  THE  BOOK  OF  GOD. 

CHAPTER  XXXIII:    "On  conformity  to  the  Book  of  God." 
Tradition  of  the  Prophet  on  this  subject.  Saying  of  cAbd- 

allah    b.    Mascud.    The    Koran    is  a  guide  to  those  who  fear 

God  and  believe  in  the  Unseen  (Kor.  2,  i). 

73  Verses    of  the    Koran    from    which   the    Sufis   infer  that  a 
hidden  meaning  lies  beneath  every  word  of  the  Holy  Book, 
and  that  this  meaning  can  he  found  only  by  means  of  deep 
thought  and  attentive  study. 

74  Such    thought    and    study    demand    a    sound    heart    (qalb 
salim),    i.  e.,    a    heart    in    which    there    is    nothing    but    God. 
Saying    of   Sahl    b.    cAbdallah    al-Tustari    to    the  effect  that 
the  hidden  meanings  of  the  Koran  are  inexhaustible,  because 
it  is  the  Word  of  God,   who  is  infinite:  it  cannot  be  under 
stood   by  human  minds,  except  in  so  far  as  God  reveals  its 
meanings  to  those  whom  He  loves. 

CHAPTER  XXXIX:  "On  the  particular  application  of  the 
term  call  (dacwat),  and  the  nature  of  election  (istifa)." 

Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  said  in  reference  to  Kor.  10,  26,  that 
call  is  general  and  guidance  (hidayat)  special.  Many  are 
called  but  few  chosen. 


22 

75  It    appears    from    two    passages    of  the    Koran    (22,74  and 
35,  29)   that  the  elect  are  (a)  the  Prophets  (b)  certain  of  the 
Faithful.   The  Prophets  are  distinguished  by  sinlessness,  the 
revelation  of  God's  Word  to  them,  and  the  apostolic  office; 
the  other  believers  by  their  pure  devotion,  self-mortification, 
and  cleaving  to  spiritual  realities.  All  the  Faithful  are  com 
manded  to  hasten  to  good  works. 

76  Verses  of  the  Koran  specifying  different  kinds  of  good  works. 

77  CHAPTER    XL:    "On   the  diversity  of  those  who  hear  the 
Divine    admonition   and    their    various    degrees  in  respect  of 
receiving  it." 

Some  hear  the  Divine  command  but  are  hindered  from 
fulfilling  it  by  worldliness  and  sensuality.  Verses  of  the 
Koran  referring  to  such  persons. 

78  Others  hear  the  Divine  command  and  comply  with  it  and 
repent  and  become  active  in  good  works  and  devote  them 
selves   sincerely  to  the  pursuit  of  moral  and  spiritual  excel 
lence.    Verses  of  the  Koran  referring  to  persons  of  this  sort. 
The    meaning    of  laghw    (Kor.    23,  3)   explained  by  cAmr  b. 
cUthman    al-Makkf.    A    third    class    are    the   savants  ^ulama] 
who  fear  God  (Kor.  35,  25).  Among  these,  again,  are  a  special 
class,  whom  the  (Koran   3,  5)  describes  as   "well  grounded  in 
knowledge." 

79  Explanation   by  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti  of  the  characteristics 
of  those  who  are  "well  grounded  in  knowledge".    The  words 
of  al-Wasiti   are    elucidated    by    a    saying    of  Abii  Sacid  al- 
Kharraz.    "To    follow    what    is    best    in    God's   Word"  (Kor. 
39,19)    refers  to  the  wonderful  things  which  are  revealed  to 
the  hearts  of  mystics  who  hear  the  Koran  with  understanding. 

80  CHAPTER  XLI:  "How  the  hidden  meaning  of  the  Koran  is  eli 
cited  by  listening  with  studious  attention  when  it  is  read  aloud." 

According  to  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz,  there  are  three  ways 
of  listening  attentively  to  the  recitation  of  the  Koran:  (i) 
when  you  listen  as  though  the  Prophet  were  reading  it  to 


23 

you  (2)  when  you  listen  as  though  you  heard  Gabriel  reading 
it  to  the  Prophet  (3)  when  you  listen  as  though  you  heard 
God  reading  it.  In  the  last  case,  understanding  is  produced  - 
you  being  absent  from  wordly  concerns  and  from  your 
'self  -  by  power  of  contemplation  and  purity  of  recollec 
tion  (dhikr]  and  concentration  of  thought. 

8 1  This  explanation  is  drawn  from  a  verse  of  the  Koran  (2,  2) 
referring    to    belief  in    the    Unseen.   Saying  of  Abu  Sacid  b. 
al-Acrabi.  Definition  of  the  Unseen  by  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz : 
"that    which    God    causes   men's  hearts  to  behold  of  convic 
tion    as    to   His  attributes,  whether  described   by  Himself  or 
conveyed    by  Tradition.  Since  the   ultimate  apprehension  of 
the    divine   attributes,  no  less  than  of  the  divine  essence,  is 
impossible  to  man,  mystical  theologians  are  agreed  that  'the 
Unseen'    (al-ghayb]    includes   all  the   manifold  experiences  of 
theosophists,  ecstatics,  gnostics,  and   Unitarians." 

82  CHAPTER    XLII:    "Description    of  the    way    in    which  the 
Koran  is  understand  by  mystics." 

Mystical    interpretation    of    Kor.    5,39;    23,    57 — 59.    The 
words  khashyat  and  ishfdq  distinguished  and  defined. 

83  According  to  the  mystic  sense  of  Kor.  7,  158,  there  is  no 
limit    to    the    increase    of   faith,  and  all  mystical'  experience, 
from  beginning  to  end,  is  the  fruit  of  real  and  infinite  faith. 
Again,  from  Kor.   23,  61,  it  appears  that  those  who  fear  God 
and    believe    in    Him  are  free  from  polytheism  (shirk}.    This 
shirk,    as    mystics    interpret    it,   consists  in  having  regard  to 
one's  acts  of  devotion  and  in  seeking  recompense  for  them; 
it   is    a    thing   insidious    and    hard    to    detect,    and    the   only 
means    of  discovering    and    removing  it  is  ikhlds,  that  is  to 
say,    a    purely  disinterested  belief  in  God  alone.  Sayings  on 
ikhlds  by  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  al-Tustari. 

84  The  Koran  (23,  62)  mentions  those  whose  hearts  are  terror- 
stricken    by    the    thought    that    they    shall    at   last  return  to 
God,    notwithstanding    their    piety    and    zeal    in    doing  good 


24 

works.  Mystics  interpret  this  terror  (wajal)  as  being  due  to 
the  inscrutable  fact  that  God,  in  His  eternal  foreknowledge, 
has  doomed  them  either  to  happiness  or  to  misery  hereafter. 
They  cannot  know  what  their  fate  shall  be,  hence  they  turn 
to  God  with  supplication  and  utter  poverty  of  spirit.  The 
words  of  the  Koran  quoted  above  do  not  refer  to  evil-doers, 
as  is  proved  by  the  Prophet's  answer  to  a  question  which 
cA'isha  asked  him. 

CHAPTER  XLIII:  "Account  of  the  sdbiqun  and  the  mu- 
qarrabun  and  the  abrdr  according  to  the  method  of  mystical 
interpretation." 

The    author    cites    a    number  of  passages  in  the  Koran  in 

85-86which  these  classes  of  persons  are  mentioned,  and  using  the 

method    called    instinbdt    (that    is,    drawing    out    the    hidden 

sense),    he    shows    that    the    muqarrabun    are  superior  to  the 

sdbiqmi  and  the  abrdr. 

CHAPTER  XLIV:  "How  the  duty  of  exerting  one's  self 
to  the  utmost  (tashdid)  is  set  forth  in  the  Koran." 

The  Koran  says  (64,  16)  "Fear  God  with  all  your  might". 
This  obligation  in  its  real  nature  is  such  that,  even  if  men 
should  perform  all  the  works  of  the  angels  and  prophets  and 
saints,  that  which  they  had  done  would  be  less  than  that 
which  they  had  left  undone.  The  angels  themselves  say, 
"Glory  to  Thee,  O  Lord!  We  have  not  worshipped  Thee 
as  Thou  oughtest  to  be  worshipped." 

87  The  true  meaning  of  "Fear  God  with  all  your"  might". 
If  you  performed  a  prayer  of  a  thousand  ralfas  and  were 
able  to  perform  one  ratfa  more,  but  postponed  it  to  another 
time,  you  would  have  failed  to  pray  'with  all  your  might'. 
Similarly  in  the  case  of  recollection  (dhikr)  or  almsgiving. 
A  passage  of  the  Koran  (4,  68)  implies  that  any  inward 
reluctance  to  accept  the  decision  of  the  Prophet,  even  were 
it  a  sentence  of  death  against  one's  self,  constitutes  a  depar. 
ture  from  the  Faith. 


25 

88  CHAPTER  XLV:  "Concerning  what  is  said  on  the  subject 
of  the  mystical  sense  of  the  Words  (in  the  Koran)  and  the 
Divine  Names." 

It  is  said  that  whatever  lies  within  the  range  of  knowledge 
and  understanding  is  derived  from  two  phrases  at  the  be 
ginning  of  the  Koran,  viz.,  'Bismillatt  (in  the  name  of  God) 
and  al-hamd  lillah  (the  praise  to  God),  because  the  faculties 
of  knowledge  and  understanding  are  not  self-subsistent  but 
are  through  God  and  to  God.  When  Shibli  was  asked  to 
explain  the  mystical  sense  of  the  B  in  Bismillah,  he  replied 
that  spirits,  bodies,  and  actions  subsist  in  God,  not  in  them 
selves.  In  answer  to  the  question,  "What  is  that  in  which 
the  hearts  of  gnostics  put  their  trust?"  Abu  VAbbas  b. 
cAta  said,  "In  the  first  letter  of  God's  Book,  i.e.,  the  B  in 
Bismillah  al-Rahmdn  al-Rakim:  for  it  signifies  that  through 
God  all  things  appear  and  pass  away  and  through  His  mani 
festation  are  fair,  and  through  His  occultation  are  foul; 
because  His  name  Allah  expresses  His  awfulness  and  majesty, 
and  His  name  al-Rahmdn  expresses  His  love  and  affection, 
and  His  name  al-Rakim  expresses  His  help  and  assistance." 
The  author  explains  that  good  things  are  called  good  only 
because  God  accepts  them,  and  that  evil  things  are  called 
evil  only  because  God  rejects  them.  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti 

89  said  that  every  divine  Name  (attribute)  can  be  used  as  a 
means  of  forming  one's  character  except  the  names  Allah 
and  al-Rahmdn  which,  like  the  attribute  of  Lordship  (szma- 
diyyat],  are  beyond  human  comprehension.  It  has  been  said 
that  the  Greatest  Name  of  God  is  Allah  (JJV)  because  when 
the  initial  alif  is  removed,  there  remains  Ilk  (=  lillah,  to 
Allah),  and  when  you  remove  the  first  lam,  there  remains 
lh  (=  lahu,  to  Him),  and  when  you  remove  the  second 
lam,  there  remains  h,  in  which  all  mysteries  are  contained, 
inasmuch  as  h  means  huwa  (He).  Thus  the  name  Allah  is 
unlike  ail  the  other  names  of  God,  which  become  meaning- 


26 

less  when  a  single  letter  is  taken  away  from  them.  Sahl  b. 
cAbdallah  al-Tustari  said  that  alif  is  the  first  and  chief  of 
the  letters,  because  it  signifies  Allah  who  united  (allafa 
bayn]  all  things  and  is  Himself  separated  from  all  things. 
Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  said  that  when  a  man  is  concentrated 
on  God,  he  reads  the  Koran  with  real  understanding,  which 
is  greater  in  proportion  to  his  love  of  God  and  his  feeling  of 
nearness  to  Him.  Saying  of  Abu  Sulayman  al-Darani :  rap 
ture,  not  reflection,  is  necessary  for  understanding  the  Koran. 
Saying  of  Wuhayb  b.  al-Ward  on  the  emotional  effects  pro 
duced  by  reading  and  study  of  the  Koran. 

90  CHAPTER  XL VI:  "Description  of  the  right  and  wrong 
methods  of  mystical  interpretation  (istinbdf)" 

A  sound  interpretation  must  be  based  on  the  following 
principles:  (a)  that  the  interpreter  shall  not  change  the  order 
of  the  words  in  the  Koran  (b)  that  he  shall  not  overpass  the 
limits  suitable  to  one  who  is  a  faithful  and  obedient  servant 
of  God  (c)  that  he  shall  not  pervert  the  form  or  meaning 
of  the  sacred  text.  Examples  of  such  perversion  (Kor.  21, 
83;  93,6;  18,  no).  The  sound  method  of  interpretation  is 
illustrated  by  Abu  Bakr  al-Kattani's  explanation  of  bi-qalbin 
salim1'1  (Kor.  26,  89). 

QJ  The  author  elucidates  the  meaning  of  a  phrase  occurring 
in  al-Kattani's  explanation,  viz.,  "he  passes  away  from  God 
through  God"  (faniya  cani  'llah  billah).  Further  examples 
of  sound  interpretation:  (i)  Shah  al-Kirmani  on  Kor.  26, 
78—80;  (2)  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti  on  Kor.  13,28;  (3)  Shibli 
on  Kor.  24,30;  (4)  Shibli  on  Kor.  50,36. 

92  Another  kind  of  interpretation  is  indirect  and  allusive 
(ishdrat).  Specimens  of  this  are  given  :  two  from  Abu  'l-cAbbas 
b.  cAta,  and  others  from  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami,  Junayd, 
Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari,  and  Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq.  Abu  Yazid 
al-Bistami,  when  some  one  questioned  him  concerning  gnosis, 
replied  by  quoting  Kor.  27,34:  "Lo,  when  kings  enter  a 


27 

city  they  spoil  it  and  abase  the  mighty  men  of  its  people", 
meaning  to  say  that  when  gnosis  enters  the  heart  it  con 
sumes  and  casts  out  everything  besides.  The  author  declares 
that  such  interpretations  are  sound,  though  he  adds  that 
God  knows  best. 

93  THE  BOOK  OF  IMITATION  OF  THE 

APOSTLE  OF  GOD. 

CHAPTER  XL VII:  "Description  of  the  Pure  (Sufis)  in 
respect  of  their  understanding  (the  Koran)  and  their  con 
formity  and  obedience  to  the  Prophet." 

The  Prophet  was  sent  to  all  mankind  (Kor.  7,  157),  that 
he  might  teach  them  "the  Book  and  the  Wisdom"  (Kor- 
62,  2),  i.  e.,  the  Koran  and  the  Sunna.  God  has  commanded 
all  mankind  to  obey  him  (Kor.  24,  53),  and  has  promised 

94  that    those  who  obey  him  will  be  rightly  guided,  while  the 
disobedient    will    suffer   a    grievous  punishment.  The  love  of 
God    towards    the    Faithful    depends    on    their   following  the 
Prophet    (Kor.    3,  29).    He    is    held    up   as  a  pattern  to  true 
believers   (Kor.    33,  21),    who    must    accept  as  binding  every 
Tradition    that  has  come  down  to  them  from  him  on  trust 
worthy    authority.    Those    who    act    in    conformity  with  the 
Koran    but    do    not    follow  the  Sunna  are  really  at  variance 
with    the    Koran.    Imitation    of  the  Prophet  in  his  character 
and   actions,  in  doing  what  he  commands  and  in   not  doing 
what    he    forbids,    is    incumbent    on    his    followers,    save    in 

95  certain    cases    which   the    Koran  or  the  Traditions  expressly 
mention    as    exceptions    to    the  general  rule.  Whereas  theo 
logians    and    lawyers    have    codified    the    religious    and    legal 
ordinances    of  the  Prophet  and  are  the  recognised  defenders, 
propagandists,    and  exponents  of  the  religious  law,  the  elect 
among    them  (namely,  the  Sufis)  have  laid  upon  themselves 
the    duty    of  imitating  his  moral  and  spiritual  character.  The 
Prophet's  character,  as  cA'isha  said,  is  the  Koran,  i.  e.,  con- 


28 

formity  with  the  Koran:  he  describes  himself  as  having  been 
sent  "with  a  noble  disposition"  (bi-makdrim  al-aklddq]. 

96  CHAPTER   XL VIII:   "What  is  related  concerning  the  cha 
racter    and    actions    and    feelings   with    which    God  endowed 
the  Apostle." 

Traditions  regarding  the  excellence  of  the  Prophet's  con 
duct,  his  knowledge  and  fear  of  God,  his  humility,  his 
asceticism,  his  trust  in  God. 

97  He    would    not    allow    food  to  be  kept  for  the  next  day's 
meal.    He    never    found    fault    with    his    food.    Signs    of  his 
humility.    How   he    prayed    for    lowliness.   Description  of  his 
manners  and  appearance  by  Abu  Sacid  al-Khudri. 

98  Saying  of  cA'isha  about  his  liberality.  It  was  said  of  him 
that  he  gave  like  one  who  had  no  fear  of  being  poor. 

He  always  behaved  with  the  utmost  humility  and  meekness. 
Stories  illustrating  his  frugality  and  dislike  of  ostentation. 

99  He  said  that  he  loved  equally  those  on  whom  he  bestowed 
and    those    from    whom    he   withheld  his  bounty.   His  praise 
of   the   faqirs    of   Medina.    He   said  that  the  poor  Moslems 
shall    enter    Paradise    five    hundred    years    before    the    rich. 
Religious    men    suffer    tribulation,    the    prophets  most  of  all. 
Sayings  and  anecdotes  showing  his  unworldliness.  The  nobility 
of  his  character. 

100  List  of  the  virtues  which  he  possessed.  He  was  habitually 
sorrowful  and  thoughtful.  In  order  that  he  might  render  due 
thanks    to    God,    he    stood    in    prayer    until   his  feet  became 
swollen.    He   did    not  revenge  himself  upon  his  enemies  but 
returned  good  for  evil.  His  kindness  to  widows  and  orphans. 
His    clemency  described  by  Anas  b.  Malik,  and  exemplified 
by  his  treatment  of  the  Quraysh  when  he  conquered  Mecca. 

101  CHAPTER    XLIX:    "On    the    Apostolic  Traditions  relating 
to    the    indulgences   and    alleviations  which  God  has  granted 
to  the  Moslem  community." 

Under   this    head    the    author    enumerates    various  articles 


29 

of  luxury  owned  by  the  Prophet  and  quotes  the  words 
which  he  addressed  to  his  Companions,  "Eat  your  fill".  Had 
such  indulgences  not  been  granted  by  God,  His  creatures 
would  have  been  undone,  for  He  calls  them  not  to  money- 
making  and  industry  and  commerce  (which  are  only  per 
mitted  as  a  concession  to  human  weakness),  but  to  obey 
and  worship  Him  and  trust  in  Him  and  entirely  devote 
themselves  to  Him. 

102  In  this  respect  the  prophets  are  not  as  other  men.  Whereas 
the    majority    of   mankind   betake  themselves  to  indulgences 
on  account  of  the  weakness  of  their  faith  and  their  propen 
sity    to    pleasure,    and    consequently    are  sometimes  led  into 
sin,    the    prophets    have    within    them    a   God-given  strength 
that    raises    them    above    self-interest.    Moslems  comply  with 
the    Koran    and    obey   the  Prophet  in  different  ways.  Three 
classes  may  be  distinguished:  (i)  those  who  avail  themselves 
of  indulgences;   (2)  those  who  base  their  conduct  on  know 
ledge  of  the  religious  law;  (3)  those  whose  knowledge  of  the 
law  does  not  extend  beyond   what  is  indispensable,  but  who 
set   their  minds  on  spiritual  states  and  good  works  and  noble 
dispositions,    and    strive  after  perfection  and  truth  and  such 
real    faith    as    Haritha    attained.    It    is    said    that    the    whole 

103  theory   of   mysticism    is    founded  upon  four  Traditions,  viz., 
those  of  Gabriel,  °Abdallah  b.  c  Abbas,  Wabisa,  and  Nucman 
b.    Bashir.    The    author   adds    a    fifth,  namely,  the  saying  of 
the    Prophet,    "No    Moslem    shall   do    harm  to  another  with 
or  without  provocation." 

CHAPTER  L:  "On  what  is  recorded  of  the  leading  Sufis 
in  regard  to  their  following  the  Apostle  of  God". 

Saying  of  Junayd  :  "Sufism  is  intimately  connected  with  the 
Apostolic  Traditions".  Saying  of  Abu  cUthman  al-Hiri.  Story  of 
Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami:  how  be  turned  his  back  without  cere 
mony  on  a  celebrated  ascetic  who  spat  on  the  floor  of  a  mosque. 

104  Another  story  of  Abu  Yazid:  from  respect  for  the  Prophet 


30 

he  would  not  ask  God  to  relieve  him  of  the  pains  of  hunger 
and  lust,  and  God  rewarded  him  by  making  him  utterly  in 
sensible  to  the  charms  of  women.  Anecdote  of  Shibli:  when 
he  was  dying  and  unable  to  speak  he  seized  the  hand  of 
his  servant,  who  was  washing  him,  and  passed  it  through 
his  beard  in  order  that  the  ablution  might  be  performed 
in  the  manner  prescribed  by  the  Prophet.  Abu  °Ali  al-Rudha- 
bari  mentioned  the  names  of  his  teachers  in  four  subjects: 
Sufism,  theology,  grammar,  and  the  Apostolic  Traditions. 
Dhu  '1-Nun  said:  "I  know  God  through  God  Himself  and  I 
know  all  besides  God  through  the  Apostle  of  God".  Sahl  b. 
°Abdallah  al-Tustari  declared  that  no  ecstasy  is  real  unless 
it  is  attested  by  the  Koran  and  the  Sunna.  Saying  of  Abu 
Sulayman  al-Darani  to  the  same  effect. 

105  THE  BOOK  OF  MYSTICAL  INTERPRETATIONS 

(al-mustanbatdt). 

CHAPTER  LI:  "On  the  method  by  which  the  Sufis  elicit 
the  true  meanings  of  the  Koran  and  the  Traditions,  etc." 

Definition  of  mustanbatdt.  They  are  derived  by  men  of 
profound  spiritual  intelligence  who,  alike  in  theory  and 
practice,  conform  to  the  Koran  and  obey  the  Prophet.  When 
such  men  act  upon  that  which  they  know,  God  endows 
them  with  the  knowledge  of  that  which  they  did  not  know 
before,  a  knowledge  peculiar  to  themselves,  and  removes 
from  their  hearts  the  rust  produced  by  sin  and  passion  and 
worldliness.  Then  they  utter  on  their  tongues  the  myste 
rious  lore  which  flows  into  their  hearts  from  the  Unseen. 

106  The  key  to  this  knowledge  is  attentive  study  of  the  Koran 
(Kor.  4,   84).    Its    possessors   constitute  an  elect  class  among 
the    *ulamd    (Kor.    4,    85).    Only   those    who    are  thoroughly 
grounded    in  the  rudiments  of  religious  knowledge  can  reach 
the  higher    knowledge    that  belongs  to  mystics,  as  is  shown 


by  the  Prophet's  reply  to  a  man  who  sought  instruction  in 
the  latter.  The  Moslem  lawyers  and  divines  have  their  own 
mustanbatdt,  which  they  use  for  controversial  purposes;  and 
so  have  the  scholastic  theologians.  All  these  interpretations 
are  good  in  the  opinion  of  the  people  who  make  them,  but 
the  interpretations  of  the  Sufis  are  still  more  excellent. 

107  CHAPTER  LII:    "On    the    nature   of   the   difference   in  the 
interpretations    of  mystics  concerning  the  meanings  of  their 
sciences  and  states." 

The  Sufis  differ  in  their  interpretations  just  as  the  formal 
ists  do,  but  whereas  the  differences  of  the  latter  lead  to 
error,  differences  in  mystical  science  do  not  produce  this 
result.  It  has  been  said  that  difference  of  opinion  amongst 
the  authorities  on  exoteric  science  is  an  act  of  divine  mercy, 
because  he  who  holds  the  right  view  refutes  and  exposes 
the  error  of  his  adversary.  So,  too,  the  difference  of  opinion 
amongst  mystics  is  an  act  of  divine  mercy,  because  each 
one  speaks  according  to  his  predominant  state  and  feeling: 
hence  mystics  of  every  sort  -  -  whether  novices  or  adepts, 
whether  engaged  in  works  of  devotion  or  in  spiritual  medi 
tation  -  -  can  derive  profit  from  their  words.  This  statement 
is  illustrated  by  the  varying  definitions  of  the  true  faqir 

108  (al-faqir   al-sddiq)  given  by  Dhu  '1-Nun,   Abu  "Abdallah  al- 
Maghribi,  Abu  '1-Harith  al-Awlasi,  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn,   Hu- 
sayn    b.    Mansur   (al-Hallaj),    Nuri,    Sumnun,    Abu    Hafs    al- 
Naysaburi,    Junayd,   and  Murtacish.  All  these  definitions  are 
different   in  accordance  with  the  different  states  and  feelings 
of  their  authors,    yet  all  are  good ;    and  every  single  defini 
tion  is  suitable  and  instructive  to  mystics  of  a  certain  class. 

109  CHAPTER   LIII:    "On    the    Sufistic   interpretations    of  the 
Koran  concerning  the  peculiar  excellence  of  the  Prophet  and 
his  superiority  to  other  prophets." 

no       Interpretations  of  Kor.    12,  108  and  7,28. 

Interpretation   of  Kor.  41,  53,  confirmed  by  a  line  of  La- 


32 

bid  which  the  Prophet  described  as  "the  truest  word  that 
the  Arabs  have  spoken".  The  Prophet's  superiority  to  Moses 
is  shown  by  a  comparison  of  Kor.  20,  26 — 27,  and  Kor.  94,  I 
foil.;  his  superiority  to  Abraham  by  a  comparison  of  Kor. 
26,  87  and  Kor.  66,  8.  Moreover,  while  God  calls  Muham 
mad  to  regard  Himself  (Kor.  25,  47).  He  bids  all  His  other 
creatures  consider  His  kingdom  and  glory  and  the  wonders 
of  His  creation. 

1 1 1  Again,    love    is    more    intimate    than    friendship,    for    love 
effaces    from    the    heart    all    that  is  not  itself:  therefore  Mu 
hammad,  the  Beloved  (Habib)  of  God,  is  superior  to  Abra 
ham,    who     was    His    Friend    (Khalil).    Furthermore,    it    ap 
pears    from   several  passages  in  the  Koran  that  whereas  the 
sins    of  other    prophets    are    mentioned  before  the  fact   that 
God    forgave    them,    in  Muhammad's  case  the  forgiveness  is 
mentioned  before  the  sin,  i.  e.,  his  sins  were  forgiven  before 
they    were    committed.    Muhammad    wrought    not    only    the 
same    miracles   as    the    former    prophets   did,  but  also  many 
others    which  God  vouchsafed  to  him  alone.    God   bestowed 
on    him    no   special    attribute  such  as  He  bestowed  on  each 
of  the  former  prophets  (e.g.,  on  Abraham  friendship,  on  Job 
patience) :  He  attached  nothing  to  Muhammad  except  Him 
self,  and  He  said,   "Thou  didst  not  throw  when  thou  threw- 
est,  but  God  threw"  (Kor.  8,  17). 

112  Mystical    interpretation  of  Koran   18,  17  by  Shibli.   As  re 
gards    the    meaning    of  the    words    describing    Muhammad's 
Ascension,  "He  transported  His  servant  by  night"  (Kor.  17,  i), 
it  has  been  said   that  if,  as  his  opponents  alleged,  the  Pro 
phet  had  ascended  to  heaven  in  the  spirit  only,  God  would 
not    have    applied   to    him  the  name  of  'servant',  which  ne 
cessarily   includes   the    spirit   and    the    body   together.   "The 
great  favour  that  God  conferred  on  the  Prophet"  (Kor.  4,  113) 
consisted  in  his  being  chosen  by  God,  for  the  prophetic  and 
apostolic    offices    are    not    conferred    as   a   reward  for  merit: 


33 

otherwise  Muhammad  would  not  have  been  judged  superior 
to  the  rest  of  the  prophets,  who  lived  longer  and  performed 
a  larger  amount  of  good  works.  God  demands  patience  from 
His  creatures  on  the  ground  of  the  recompense  which  they 
shall  receive  hereafter,  but  He  bade  Muhammad  be  patient 
inasmuch  as  he  was  in  God's  eye  (Kor.  52,48).  That  is  to 
say,  God  honoured  him  too  much  to  require  him  to  do 
anything  that  entailed  recompense.  His  position  is  one  of 
unique  distinction. 

113  CHAPTER  LIV:  "On  the  Sufistic  interpretations  of  Apos 
tolic  Traditions  relating  to  the  peculiar  distinction  of  the 
Prophet  and  his  superiority  to  other  prophets". 

Mystical  interpretation  of  the  Tradition,  "I  take  refuge 
from  Thine  anger  in  Thy  good  pleasure,  and  from  Thy  chas 
tisement  in  Thy  forgiveness,  and  from  Thee  in  Thyself:  I 
cannot  praise  Thee:  Thou  art  even  as  Thou  dost  praise  Thyself". 

H4  Meaning  of  the  Traditions,  "If  ye  knew  what  1  knew,  ye 
would  laugh  little  and  weep  much,  etc.,"  and  "I  am  not 
as  one  of  you ;  I  am  with  my  Lord,  who  gives  me  food  and 
drink."  The  Prophet  implored  God  to  tend  him  as  a  child 
and  never  leave  him  to  himself  for  a  single  moment.  Saying 
of  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti.  Explanation  of  the  words  which 
were  uttered  by  the  Prophet  on  his  deathbed,  "O  my  grief!" 

H5  The  Prophet  said,  "I  am  the  chief  of  the  children  of 
Adam,  but  I  make  no  boast  of  it."  Explanation  of  this 
saying  by  Abu  Muhammad  al-Jariri.  The  point  of  the  Prophet's 
words  concerning  Zaynab,  the  wife  of  Zayd,  explained  by 
Junayd.  Explanation  by  Junayd  of  the  Traditions,  "I  ask 
pardon  of  God  and  turn  towards  Him  a  hundred  times  daily," 
and  "May  God  have  mercy  upon  my  brother  Jesus!  Had 
his  faith  been  greater,  he  would  have  walked  in  the  air." 
Comment  by  Husrf  on  the  Tradition,  "Sometimes  I  am  with 
God  in  a  state  which  I  do  not  share  with  anything  other 
than  God." 

c 


34 

116  CHAPTER    LV:    "On    the    meanings    derived   by  the  Sufis 
from  certain  Apostolic  Traditions." 

Explanation  by  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad  b.  Salim  of  the 
Tradition,  "A  man's  best  food  is  that  which  his  hand  hath 
earned". 

Explanation  by  Shibli  of  the  Tradition,  "My  daily  bread 
is  set  under  the  shadow  of  my  sword." 

117  Explanation  by  Junayd  of  the  Tradition,   "If  ye  had  trust 
in    God   as  ye  ought,  He  would  feed  you  even  as  He  feeds 
the    birds,   etc."  Explanation  by  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al-Makki 
of  the  words  addressed  by  the  Prophet  to  cAbdallah  b.  cUmar, 
"Worship  God  as  though  thou  sawest  Him,  for  if  thou  seest  Him 
not,  yet  He  sees  thee".  Explanation  by  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti  of 
the  Tradition,  "The  friend  (wall)  of  God  is  created  with  a  dispo 
sition  to  generosity  and  good-nature."  Explanation  by  Shibli  of 

118  the  Tradition,  "When  the  lower  soul  (nafs)  is  assured  of  her 
sustenance,    she    becomes  quiet."  Explanation  by  Junayd  of 
the    Tradition,    "Thy   love    for    anything    makes   thee    blind 
and    deaf."    Explanation   by  Shibli  of  the  Tradition,   "When 
ye    see   the    afflicted,    ask   God  to  make  you  free  from  tribu 
lation."    Explanation    by    Shibli    of  the   Tradition,   "A  heart 
ruled    by    the    present    world    is    debarred    from    feeling  the 
sweetness  of  the  world  to  come."  Explanation  by  Muhammad 
b.  Musa  al-Farghani  of  the  Prophet's  advice  to  Abu  Juhayfa, 
"Question  the  savants  and  be  on  terms  of  sincere  friendship 
with     the    sages    and    associate    with    the    great    (mystics)." 
Explanations    by  Sahl   b.  cAbdallah  al-Tustari  of  the  Tradi 
tions,    "The    true    believer    is    he    who    is   made  glad  by  his 
good  actions  and  grieved  by  his  evil  actions",  and  "Accursed 
is    the    world    and   accursed    all    that    is    therein    except  the 
recollection  (dhikr)  of  God." 

The  author  declares  that  the  principle  of  Sufistic  divina 
tion  (istinbdt)  is  founded  on  the  Tradition  that  the  Prophet 

119  asked    a    number    of   his    Companions,    amongst    whom    was 


35 

cAbdallah  b.  cUmar,  "What  tree  resembles  Man?"  cAbdallah 
divined  that  the  Prophet  was  referring  to  the  date-palm, 
but  since  he  was  the  youngest  man  present,  he  felt  ashamed 
to  answer.  This  proves  that  mystical  divination  does  not 
depend  on  age  or  experience  but  on  knowledge  of  the 
Unseen  which  is  communicated  by  God. 

BOOK  OF  THE  COMPANIONS. 

CHAPTER  LVI:  "Concerning  the  Companions  of  the  Prophet 
and  their  good  qualities." 

1 20  Explanation  of  the  Prophet's  saying,  "My  Companions  are 
like  the  stars:  whomsoever  of  them  ye  take  as  your  pattern, 
ye  will  be  rightly  guided."  Their  authority  as  regards  matters 
of  practice  is  well-known.  The  Prophet  recognised  the  pre 
eminence   of  particular  Companions  in  certain  details  of  ex 
ternal  conduct.  His  description  of  their  spiritual  characteris 
tics    under   four  heads.    Muhammad    b.    cAli    al-Kattani  enu 
merates    the    different    religious    and    moral    qualities  which 

121  prevailed  in  the  first  four  generations  of  Islam. 

CHAPTER  LVII:  "Account  of  Abu  Bakr  the  Veracious 
and  how  he  was  distinguished  from  the  other  Companions 
of  the  Prophet  by  states  which  the  Sufis  imitate  and  model 
themselves  upon." 

A  saying  of  Abu  Bakr  showing  the  intensity  of  his  fear 
as  well  as  the  greatness  of  his  hope.  His  words  to  the  Mos 
lems  immediately  after  the  death  of  the  Prophet.  Definition 
of  the  term  rabbdni.  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti  said  that  Abu 
Bakr  was  the  first  Moslem  who  spoke  mystically,  alluding 

122  to  the  fact  that,  when  he  abandoned  all  his  possessions  and 
the    Prophet    asked    him    what    he    had    left    behind    for  his 
family,    he    replied,    "Allah    and    His    Apostle".    This    is    a 
sublime    allegory    for  Unitarians.  His  being  firmly  grounded 
in    unification  (tawhid]  is  also  indicated  by  his  speech  to  the 
people  after  the  Prophet's  death.  When  the  Prophet  implored 


36 

God  to  help  the  Moslems  on  the  field  of  Badr,  Abu  Bakr 
calmed  him,  saying,  "God  will  fulfil  unto  thee  His  promise." 
Such  was  the  reality  of  his  faith  in  God.  The  author  explains 
the  reason  why  the  Prophet  showed  agitation  and  Abu  Bakr 
equanimity,  although  the  Prophet  was  more  perfect  than 
Abu  Bakr.  Moreover,  Abu  Bakr  was  endowed  in  a  peculiar 

123  degree    with    inspiration    (ilhdm)  and  insight  (firdsaf).  Three 
occasions    on    which    he    displayed    these    qualities.    Bakr  b. 
GAbdallah  al-Muzani  said  that  Abu  Bakr  surpassed  the  Com 
panions    of  the  Prophet,  not  in  the  amount  of  his  fasts  and 
prayers,    but    in    something    that    was  within  his  heart.  It  is 
said  that  this  thing  was  the  love  of  God. 

124  Other    sayings    of  Abu    Bakr.    Three   verses  of  the  Koran 
by  which  his  mind  was  occupied.  Lines  by  Abu  'l-cAtahiya 
attributed    to    him.    Junayd    declared  that  the  loftiest  saying 
on    unification   is  that  of  Abu  Bakr,    "Glory  be  to  Him  who 
hath   given   His   creatures    no    means    of  knowing  Him  save 
their  inability  to  know  Him." 

125  CHAPTER  LVIII:   "Account  of  cUmar  b.  al-Khattab." 
cUmar   was  described  by  the  Prophet  as  an  inspired  man 

(mukaddath).  Evidence  of  his  inspiration  afforded  by  the 
story  of  his  crying  out,  "O  Sariya!  the  hill,  the  hill."  Anec 
dotes  and  sayings  of  cUmar. 

126  Characteristics    in    respect   of  which    cUmar    is  taken  as  a 
pattern    by    the    Sufis.     Discussion    of   his    attitude    towards 
quietists    (mutawakkilun).    Four    things    which,    according   to 
him,  constitute  devotion  ^ibddat). 

127  CHAPTER  LIX:   "Account  of  cUthman." 

He  was  specially  distinguished  by  the  quality  of  firm 
ness  (tamkin),  which  is  one  of  the  highest  spiritual  de 
grees.  Although  he  was  brought  into  contact  with  the  things 
of  this  world,  he  really  dwelt  apart  from  them,  as  the  true 
gnostic  does:  he  used  his  wealth  to  benefit  others,  not  for 
his  own  pleasure.  Therefore  he  liked  spending  money  better 


37 

than  amassing  it.  Instances  of  his  generosity.  Definition  by 
Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  al-Tustari  of  the  person  who  is  justified 
in  departing  from  the  rule  of  poverty.  Sahl  b.  °Abdallah 
said  that  sometimes  a  man  who  possesses  great  wealth  is 

128  more  ascetic  than  any  of  his  contemporaries,  e.  g.,  cUmar  b. 
cAbd  al-°Aziz.  Hence  those  who  exalt  wealth  above  poverty 
are    mistaken,    for    wealth    does  not  consist  in  abundance  of 
wordly   goods,    nor    poverty    in    the    lack  of  such :   it  is  true 
wealth    to  have  God,  and  true  poverty  to  need  God.  Anec 
dotes  illustrating  the  asceticism  of  cUthman.  His  steadfastness 
appeared  in  his  behaviour  on  the  day  when  he  was  murdered. 

129  Saying   of  Junayd  concerning  firmness  (tamkin).  Four  things 
in  which  cUthman  found  spiritual  good  comprised. 

CHAPTER  LX:  "Account  of  CAH  b.  Abi  Talib." 
Junayd  said  that  if  cAli  had  been  less  occupied  with  war 
he  would  have  imparted  to  the  Moslems  much  of  the  esoteric 
knowledge  that  was  bestowed  upon  him.  This  esoteric  know 
ledge  was  possessed  by  Khadir  (Kor.  18,  64),  hence  the 
erroneous  doctrine  that  saintship  is  superior  to  prophecy. 

130  Characteristics    of  °Ali  which  are  imitated  by  the  Sufis.  His 
definition    of  the    nature    of  God.  The  mystery  of  Creation. 
Sayings  on  faith.  His  analysis  of  'states'  (ahwdl)  and  'stations' 
(maqdmdt] :  if  it  be  genuine,  he  was  the  first  who  discoursed 
on    the  subject.  His  answer  to  the  question,   "Who  is  safest 
from    faults?"    On    one   occasion    cAli   pointed   to    his    breast 
and   exclaimed,   "Here   is  a  secret  knowledge,  if  I  could  but 
find  any  one  worthy  to  receive  it !" 

131  CAH    was    distinguished    from    the    rest  of  the  Companions 
by   his    power   of  elucidating  mystical  ideas  such  as  unifica 
tion    and    gnosis.    Exposition    (baydri]   is  a  great  gift.  Saying 
on    friendship.  His  asceticism:  when  cAli  was  murdered,  his 
son   Hasan  announced  that  the  whole  of  the  worldly  wealth 
which  he  had  left  behind  was  a  sum  of  400  dirhems.  At  the 
hour    of    prayer    he    used  to  tremble  and  turn  pale  for  fear 


33 

that    he    might    fail    in    the    trust    committed    to    him    (Kor. 
33,  72). 

132  Comparison  of  the  passions  (nafs)  to  a  flock  of  sheep  which 
as    soon    as    they    are    collected  on  one  side  break  away  on 
the  other.  Statement  of  the  characteristics  in  respect  of  which 
each    one    of  the    four    Orthodox    Caliphs    is   an  example  to 
the    Sufis.    Saying    of  GAli    concerning    four    things    wherein 
spiritual  good  entirely  consists. 

CHAPTER  LXI:  "Description  of  the  People  of  the  Bench 
(AM  al-Suffa)" 

133  Passages  of  the  Koran  in  which  they  are  mentioned.  God 
rebuked  the   Prophet  for  treating  one  of  their  number  scorn 
fully.   Marks  of  respect  shown  towards  them  by  the  Prophet. 
Their  ascetic  dress  and  food. 

134  The  Prophet  approved  of  their  quietism  and  did  not  com 
mand  them  to  work  or  trade. 

CHAPTER  LXII:  "Account  of  the  other  Companions  from 
this  point  of  view." 

The  author  illustrates  the  asceticism  and  quietism  of  the 
Companions  of  the  Prophet  by  relating  anecdotes  and  sayings 
of  the  following:  Talha  b.  °Ubaydallah,  Mucadh  b.  Jabal, 
clmran  b.  Husayn,  Salman  al-Farisi, 

135  Abu  '1-Darda,    Abu  Dharr,  Abu  cUbayda  b.  al-Jarrah, 

136  cAbdallah  b.  Mascud,  Bara  b.  Malik,  cAbdallah  b.  al-cAbbas, 
Kacb  al-Ahbar, 

137  Haritha,  Abu  Hurayra,  Anas  b.  Malik,  cAbdallah  b.  cUmar, 
Hudhayfa   b.  al-Yaman, 

138  cAbdallah    b.    Jahsh,    Safwan    b.    Muhriz    al-Mazini,    Abu 
Farwa,    Abu    Bakra,    cAbdallah    b.   Rawaha,   Tamim  al-Darf, 
cAdi  b.  Hatim,  Abu   Ranc  the   Prophet's  client, 

139  Muhammad    b.    Kacb,    Zurara    b.    Awfa,  Hanzala  al-Katib, 
al-Lajlaj    (Abu   Kuthayyir),    Abu  Juhayfa,  Hakfm  b.  Hizam, 

140  Usama,    Bilal,    Suhayb,    cAbdallah    b.    Rabfa,    Muscab    b. 
cUmar,  cAbd  al-Rahman  b.  cAwf,  Sacd  b.  al-Rabic. 


39 


I4i       BOOK  OF  THE  MANNERS  (dddb)  PRACTISED  BY 
THOSE  WHO  SEEK  TO  BECOME 


CHAPTER  LXIII:   "Concerning  Manners." 

142  The    Prophet   said,    "No    sire    ever    begot  a  son  more  ex 
cellent    than  Good   Manners",  and  he  also  said,   "God  disci 
plined   me  and  made  my  manners  good."  Answer  given  by 
Muhammad    b.    Sirin    to    one  who  asked  him  what  manners 
bring  a  man  nearest  to  God  and  most  advance  him  in  God's 
sight.  Answer  given  by  Hasan  b.  Abi  '1-Hasan  al-Basri  to  the 
question,  "What  manners  are  most  useful  in  this  world  and  bring 
one  nearest  to  God  in  the  next  world?"  Sayings  of  Sacid  b. 
al-Musayyib  and  Kulthum  al-Ghassani.  Ibn  al-Mubarak  said, 
"We    have    more    need    of   a    little    manners    than    of  much 
knowledge."  Another  saying  of  Ibn  al-Mubarak. 

The  author  divides  men,  as  regards  their  manners,  into 
three  classes:  the  worldly,  the  religious,  and  the  elect 
among  the  religious.  The  manners  of  the  worldly  consist, 
for  the  most  part,  in  such  polite  accomplishments  as  elegant 

143  speech,    learning,    poetry   and    rhetoric.  The  manners  of  the 
religious    are    mostly    a    discipline   of  soul    and    body  :  they 
keep    the    commandments,    refrain    from    lusts,    and    devote 
themselves    to    piety    and    good    works.    Sayings    of  Sahl  b. 
cAbdallah    and    others    on    this    topic.    The    manners   of  the 
elect   among  the  religious  (i.  e.,  the  Sufis)  consist  mainly  in 
purity    of  heart,    spiritual    meditation,  faithful  observance  of 
that  which  they  have  promised  to  perform,  concentration  on 
their     mystical     'states',     etc.    Saying    of    al-Jalajili    al-Basri. 
Definition  of  adab  by  Abu  VAbbas  b.   cAta. 

144  The    Sufis   are   distinguished  from  other  people  and  recog 
nised  amongst  themselves  by  their  manners,  which  enter  into 
every  detail  of  their  practical  lives. 

CHAPTER  LXIV:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  ablution 
and  purification." 


40 

The  first  thing  requisite  is  to  know  what  is  obligatory, 
what  is  recommended,  and  what  is  most  excellent  in  itself. 
Ordinary  men  should  be  excused  if  they  take  advantage  of 
the  indulgences  and  remissions  which  are  granted  to  them, 

145  but  there  is  no  excuse  for  Sufis  who  fall  below  the  highest 
standard    of  outward    purity    and     cleanliness.     The    author 
mentions    the    exemplary    practice    of  some    Sufis    whom  he 
had  seen.  It  belongs  to  the  manners  of  the    Sufis  that  they 
should    always    be    in    a   state    of   purity    both  at  home  and 
abroad,  so  as  to  avoid  the  risk  of  dying  unclean.  Saying  of 
Husri  explained  by  the  author.  Anecdote  of  Abu  °Abdallah 
al-Rudhabari.   Saying  concerning  the  endeavour  of  Satan  to 
get  something  for  himself  out  of  every  human  action. 

146  Story  of  Ibn  al-Kurrini  (al-Karanbi)  the  teacher  of  Junayd. 
Why    Sahl  b.  °Abdallah  urged  his  disciples  to   drink  plenty 
of  water  and  pour  as  little   as  possible  on    the    ground.   De 
scription    of  the    rule  of  purity   observed    by  Abu  GAmr  al- 
Zajjaji    during    his    thirty    years'    residence    at    Mecca.    How 
Ibrahim    al-Khawwas    preferred    to    suffer    from   thirst  rather 
than    neglect    his    ablutions    in  the  desert.  Various  practices 

147  adopted    or    rejected    by   Sufis    for    the    sake  of  purification. 
Account    of  the  manner  in  which  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas  used 
to   journey    from   Mecca  to  Kufa.  Certain  eminent  Sufis   dis 
liked  entering  public  baths,  and  when  obliged  to  do  so,  took 

148  strict  precautions  that  decency  should  be  observed.  Practices 
connected    with    ablution    and    cleanliness.  The  most  puncti 
lious  attention  to  these    rules  does  not  constitute  waswasat 

149  which  the  author  defines  as  a  misplaced  zeal  for  superfluities 
that    causes    neglect  of  what  is  obligatory.  The  right  course 
in  such  matters  depends  on  circumstances,  e.  g.  the  quantity 
of  water  available.  Stories  of  Sufis  who  persevered  in  ablution 
though  it  was  hurtful  to  them. 

150  Stories  of  Ibrahim  b.  Adham  and  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas. 
CHAPTER  LXV:   "Concerning  their  manners  in  prayer". 


The    knowledge    necessary    for    the    due    performance    of 

151  prayer.     Sufis     should     make    themselves    ready   for    prayer 
before  the  hour  arrives.  Consequently  they  need  some  know 
ledge  of  astronomy  and  geography. 

152  Sahl  b.  GAbdallah    used    to   say  that   it  was  a  sign  of  the 
sincere    mystic    to    have    an    attendant    Jinni    who    impelled 
him    to    pray    at    the    proper  time,  and  awakened   him   if  he 
were  asleep.  Some  Sufis  engaged  in  devotional  exercises  by 
day   and    night,    and    through   force  of  habit  never  failed  to 
perform  them  at  the  appointed  time.  Description  of  the  initial 
rites    of  prayer.    Sayings    of  Junayd    and    Ibn  Salim  on  the 
importance  of  intention  (niyyat).  Answer  given  by  Abu  Sacfd 
al-Kharraz    to    the    question,    "How    should    one   enter  upon 
prayer?"    Anonymous  sayings  describing   the  reverence  that 

153  should  be  felt  by  one  who  begins  to  perform  the  service  of 
prayer.  At  this  time  there  must  be  no  thought  of  anything 
except    God.    Quotation    from    a    book    on    the    manners    of 

154  prayer  by  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz,  with  explanations  bySarraj. 

The  holy  meditation  and  concentration  of  mind  which 
prayer  demands  should  commence  before  the  prayer  itself 
and  remain  after  it,  so  that  the  worshipper  when  he  begins 
to  pray  only  proceeds,  as  it  were ,  from  one  prayer  to  an 
other,  and  when  he  has  ceased  to  pray,  nevertheless  continues 
in  the  mental  attitude  of  prayer. 

J55  Saying  of  the  Prophet  on  this  subject.  Awe  of  God  causes 
some  to  blush  or  grow  pale  when  they  begin  to  pray.  Story 
of  a  man  whose  concentration  in  prayer  was  such  that  he 
could  not  count  the  number  of  genuflexions  which  he  per 
formed  :  accordingly  he  used  to  make  one  of  his  friends  sit 
beside  him  and  count  for  him.  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  was  too 
weak  to  rise  from  his  place,  but  when  the  hour  of  prayer 
arrived  his  strength  was  restored  and  he  stood  erect  throughout 
the  service.  Anecdote  of  a  man  who,  though  he  was  alone 
in  the  desert,  performed  his  devotions  with  the  same  punc- 


42 

tilious  ceremony  as  at  home.  Account  of  a  hermit  who  used 
to  perform  a  prayer  of  two  ra&as  whenever  he  ate  or  drank 
or  put  on  a  garment,  or  entered  or  quitted  the  mosque,  or 
felt  joy  or  sorrow  or  anger. 

156  Story   of  Abu    cAbdallah    b.   Jaban.    The    Sufis    dislike  to 
act  as  Imam  (leader  in    prayer),  to  pray  in   the  first  row  in 
the    mosque,    and    to    make   their  prayers  too  long.   Even  if 
one    of  them    knew   the  whole    Koran  by   heart,    he    would 
prefer    as   Imam    someone    who  could  only  recite  the  Jdtiha 
and    another   chapter,    because    the    Imam,    as    the    Prophet 
said,  is  responsible  (for  the  correctness  of  the  prayer). 

The  reason  why  the  Sufis  dislike  to  pray  in  the  first  row 
and  to  make  long  prayers.  Junayd ,  notwithstanding  his 
great  age,  refused  to  forgo  his  prayers,  by  means  of  which 
(he  said)  he  had  attained  to  God  in  the  beginning  of  his 
religious  life.  Four  qualities  which  belong  to  prayer. 

157  CHAPTER  LXVI :  "Concerning  their  manners  in  almsgiving." 
It    is    not    obligatory  on  the  Sufis  either  to  pay  the  legal 

tithes  (zakdt)  or  to  give  the  voluntary  alms  (sadaqa) ,  because 
God  has  removed  from  them  the  worldly  wealth  that  would 
make  it  incumbent  on  them  to  give  such  alms.  Saying  of 
Mutarraf  b.  cAbdallah  b.  al-Shikhkhir.  God  has  bestowed 
a  greater  favour  on  the  Suffs  by  taking  wealth  away  from 
them  than  He  would  have  bestowed  by  endowing  them 
with  much  wealth.  Verse  of  a  poet  who  boasts  that,  in  con- 

158  sequence    of  his   generosity,  he  is  too  poor  to  be  liable  for 
the  payment  of  tithes.  Reply  given  by  Shibli  to  Ibrahim  b. 
Shayban,  who  asked  him  what  amount  of  tithes  was  payable 
on    five  camels.  Some  Sufis  neither  ask  for  alms  nor  accept 
them    when    offered.  Their  motive  in  acting  thus.  Anecdote 
of   Muhammad    b.    Mansur.    Story    of  a  Sufi  who  expended 
1000    dinars  every  year  upon  his  poor  brethren.  Munificence 
of  Abu  cAli  al-Mushtuli  towards  the  Sufis.  Story  of  an  eminent 

159  Sufi    and    a    rich    man.    Extract    from    a   letter  written  by  a 


43 

celebrated  Imam  to  a  poor  Sufi.  It  is  not  proper  that  Sufis 
should  refuse  to  accept  alms  that  have  been  freely  offered 
by  strangers.  Tradition  of  the  Prophet  on  this  subject.  Such 
alms  are  a  gift  from  God  and  may  either  be  used  to  purchase 
food  or  handed  to  any  one  whom  the  recipient  knows  to 
be  more  deserving  than  himself.  Anecdote  of  Abu  Bakr  al- 
Farghani.  Anonymous  saying  on  the  principle  that  should 
be  followed  in  giving  and  receiving  alms.  The  true  crfterion 
of  the  Sufi  who  gives  or  takes  or  refuses  alms  for  God's 
sake  alone  is  that  he  feels  no  difference  whether  alms  are 
given  to  him  or  withheld  from  him.  Another  class  of  Sufis 

160  choose    to   receive    alms    rather   than    presents,    arguing  that 
when    they   receive    alms    they    only  receive  what  is  due  to 
the    poor   from    the    rich,    and  that  the  refusal  to  take  alms 
is   a   sort  of  pride  and  shows  a  dislike  of  poverty.   Story  of 
Abu  Muhammad  al-Murtacish.  The  Prophet  said  that  it  is  not 
allowable  to  give  alms  to  the  rich.  Those  who  hold  that  the 
Sufis    ought    not    to    accept    alms    base  their  objection  upon 
this    Tradition,    for    the    Sufis,    though    poor   from  a  worldly 
point    of   view,    are    spiritually    rich.    Saying    of  cAli  b.  Sahl 
al-Isbahani.    Another    interpretation    of  the  Tradition  quoted 
above.  Derivation  of  the  word  faqr  (poverty). 

161  Although    it    is    said    that    alms    are    filth,    the    poor    may 
accept  them  without  loss  of  dignity.  If  a  man  has  no  worldly 
wealth  and  is  unable  to  give  alms  of  that  sort,  let  him  give 
alms  of  kind  words  and  deeds.  Bishr  b.  al-Harith  urged  the 
Traditionists   to    pay    a    tithe    on  the  Traditions  which  they 
wrote  down  and  committed  to  memory,  i.  e.t  to  practise  five 
out  of  every  two  hundred  Traditions.  Four  things  necessary 
for   those    who    pay    tithes.   The  rich  who  pay  tithes  to  the 
poor    are  only  restoring  what  really  belongs  to  the  latter. 

CHAPTER  LXVII:   "Concerning  their  manners  in  fasting." 

Explanation    of  the    Tradition    that  God  said,   "Fasting  is 

Mine    and    I    give    recompense    for  it."  Other  Traditions  on 


44 

fasting.  The  author  defines  the  qualities  which  constitute 
good  manners  in  fasting.  Description  of  the  fasting  of  Sahl 
b.  cAbdallah  al-Tustari. 

163  How  Abu  cUbayd  al-Busri  fasted  during  Ramadan.  Volun 
tary    fasts.    Some    eminent    Sufis    used    to    fast    continually, 
whether    they    were    staying    at    home    or    travelling:    their 
object   was    to    protect    themselves    from  the  Devil  and  lust 
and    passion.    Story    of  Ruwaym    and    a    girl    of    whom    he 
begged    a    drink    of   water.    Other    Sufis    adopt   the    fast    of 
David,    i.  e.,    they   fast    every   second    day.    The   author  ex 
plains    why   the    Prophet  declared  this  method  of  fasting  to 
be  the  best. 

164  Saying  of  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah.  Anecdote  of  Abu  cAbdallah 
Ahmad  b.  Jaban,   who  fasted  continually  for  more  than  fifty 
years.   Some  dislike  continual  fasting  on  the  ground  that  the 
lower    'self    (nafs)    is   gratified    by    every   habitual  act,  even 
though  it  be  an  act  of  devotion.  Story  of  Ibrahim  b.  Adham, 
showing   the    importance    of   'lawful'    food.   The  state  of  the 
dervishes    who   are    entirely    detached    from    this    world   and 
depend  on  God  for  their  daily  bread  is  more  excellent  than, 
the  state  of  those  who,  when  they  break  their  fast,  partake 
as    usual    of  the    food    prepared    for  them.  The  dervishes  of 
the    former   class    have    their    own    manners    in    fasting.    For 
example,    none    of  them    will    fast    without    having  obtained 
permission  from  his  companions,  who  need  not  wait  for  him 

165  to    complete    his    fast,    unless   he  is  an  invalid  or  a  spiritual 
director.    Anecdote   of  Junayd.  It  is  said,   "When  you  see  a 
Sufi    fasting   voluntarily,  hold  him  in  suspicion,  for  he  must 
have  got  with  him  something  of  this  world."  Rules  of  fasting 
applicable    to  a  company  of  dervishes  amongst  whom  there 
is  a  novice  or  a  Sheykh.  Story  of  a  Sheykh  who  fasted  for 
the  sake  of  one  of  his  disciples.  The  author  relates  that  Abu 

1 66  '1-Hasan  al-Makki,  whom  he  saw  at  Basra,  became  celebrated 
for    his    fasting,    and    that  Ibn  Salim  banished  him  from  his 


45 

presence  on  that  account.  Anecdote  of  a  Sufi  of  Wasit. 
Saying  of  Shibli. 

CHAPTER  LXVIII:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  making 
the  Pilgrimage." 

The  first  rule  is  that  they  should  make  every  possible 
effort  to  perform  the  Pilgrimage  once  at  least  during  their  lives. 

167  Want    of  provisions    and    means    of   conveyance   does  not 
relieve    them    from   this    duty,  since  it  is  a  rule  of  the  Sufis 
to    fulfil  the  utmost  obligations  laid  upon  them  by  the  reli 
gious   law.    Sufis    who   make  the  Pilgrimage  may  be  divided 
into    three    classes.    The    first   class    are    those    who   perform 
only    one    Pilgrimage,    and    for    the    rest    of  their    lives    are 
content    with    mystical    experiences.    Sahl    b.    cAbdallah   and 
other  eminent  Sufis  followed  this  rule.  The  second  class  are 
those  who  cut  themselves  free  from  all  worldly  ties  and  set 
out    to    make    the    Pilgrimage,    penniless  and   unprovisioned; 
they  journey  alone  through  pathless  deserts,  trusting  in  none 
but    God,    and    never    tire    of  going  as  pilgrims  to  His  holy 

168  temple.    Anecdotes    illustrating    the    manners    of   Sufis    who 
belong     to    this    class.    Hasan    al-Qazzaz    al-Dmawari    made 
twelve  pilgrimages  with  bare  feet  and  uncovered  head.  Stories 
of  Abu  Turab  al-Nakhshabi,  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Maghribi,  Jacfar 
al-Khuldi,  and  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas. 

169  Another  story  of  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas,  who  quitted  Mecca 
with    the    resolution     not    to     touch     food     until    he    should 
arrive  at  Qadisiyya.  The  third  class  are  those  who  by  their 
own  choice  become  residents  at  Mecca  or  in  the  neighbour 
hood,  either  on  account  of  the  sanctity  of  the  place  or  from 
ascetic    motives.  Their  manners  are  illustrated  by  anecdotes 
of  Abu  cAbdallah  b.  al-Jalla, 

170  Abu   Bakr  al-Kattani,  Abu  cAmr  al-Zajjaji,  and   al-Duqqi. 
It    is   said    that   anyone    who    can    endure    hunger  at  Mecca 
for   a    day  and  a  night  can  endure  it  for  three  days  in  the 
rest  of  the  world.  There  used  to  be  a  saying  that  residence 


46 

at  Mecca  alters  the  disposition  and  reveals  the  inmost  nature, 
and  that  only  true  mystics  can  live  there  uncorrupted.  Story 
of  a  dervish  who  refused  some  money  which  Ibrahim  al- 
Khawwas  offered  to  him.  Tho  reasons  why  Sufis  willingly 

i/1  undergo  hardships  in  travelling  to  Mecca.  Story  of  some 
dervishes  who  found  fault  with  one  of  their  number  for  cir 
cumambulating  the  Kacba  in  the  daytime,  because  they 
fancied  that  he  did  so  in  the  hope  of  receiving  alms.  Another 
rule  of  the  Sufis  is  this,  that  when  they  have  vowed  to 
make  the  Pilgrimage  they  keep  their  word  even  though  it 
should  cost  them  their  lives.  Story  of  Ahmad  b.  Dillawayh. 
Also,  while  crossing  the  desert,  they  perform  the  obligatory 
acts  of  devotion,  so  far  as  they  can,  no  less  punctiliously 
than  at  home.  They  do  not  travel  by  regular  stages  or  com 
plete  the  journey  within  a  fixed  time,  but  set  out  when  God 
causes  them  to  set  out  and  halt  when  God  causes  them  to 
halt.  Every  rite  connected  with  the  Pilgrimage  should  be  ac 
companied  by  the  spiritual  action  or  feeling  appropriate  to  it. 
172-3  Exemplifying  this  principle  in  detail,  the  author  describes 
the  allegorical  meaning  of  the  various  ceremonies,  such  as 
the  ikrdm,  the  talbiyat,  the  kissing  of  the  Black  Stone,  the 
standing  at  cArafat,  the  casting  of  the  pebbles  at  Mina,  and 
indicates  the  right  way  of  performing  them.  Story,  related 
by  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas,  of  a  Sheykh  who  taught  the  doctrine 
of  trust  in  God  but  proved  false  to  it  in  practice.  Anecdote 
of  al-Zaqqaq :  though  starving,  he  would  not  accept  food 
from  some  soldiers  whom  he  met  in  the  Desert  of  the 
Israelites. 

174       Another    story    of  al-Zaqqaq:    how    he    lost    the    sight  of 
one  eye. 

CHAPTER  LXIX:  "Concerning  the  manners  of  dervishes 
in  their  mutual  intercourse,  and  the  principles  which  they 
observe  at  home  and  abroad". 

Two  sayings   of  Junayd.    Sayings   of  the  above-mentioned 


47 

Abu    Bakr  al-Zaqqaq    and  Abu  cAbdallah  b.  al-Jalla.  Three 
rules  of  conduct    for    dervishes    stated  by  Sahl  b.  GAbdallah 

175  and  by  an  anonymous    Sufi.  Three  things  necessary  for  the 
dervish,    according    to  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah.  Saying  of  Junayd. 
Twelve    qualities  of  the  dervish  enumerated  by  Ibrahim  al- 
Khawwas.  Anonymous  sayings  on  poverty.  It  is  a  breach  of 
manners   for  a  dervish  to  say  anything  that  suggests  egoism. 
Anecdotes    of   Ibrahim    b.    Shayban,  Abu  GAbdallah  Ahmad 
al-Qalanisi,  and  Ibrahim  b.  al-Muwallad  al-Raqqi. 

176  Three    fundamental    principles   of   Sufism  according  to  al- 
Qalanisi    and    another    whose    name    is  not    mentioned.    An 
onymous  saying  on  the  false  dervish.  Saying  of  Ibrahim  al- 
Khawwas :    the    dervish    must   not    regard    secondary    causes 
(asbdb).  Saying  of  Junayd :  how  to  treat  dervishes. 

CHAPTER  LXX:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  compan 
ionship." 

Saying  of  Ibrahim  b.  Shayban:  "We  were  not  used  to 
associate  with  anyone  who  said,  'My  shoe'  or  'My  bucket'. 
Sayings  of  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  and  Dhu  '1-Nun  al-Misri  to 
the  effect  that  God  is  the  best  companion  for  the  Sufi. 

177  Sayings    by    Dhu    '1-Nun    and   Ahmad  b.  Yusuf  al-Zajjaji. 
Disagreement    condemned.    Abu    Sa'id    al-Kharraz   said    that 
he  consorted  with  the  Sufis  for  fifty  years  and  never   quar 
relled   with  them,  because  he  always  sided  with  them  against 
himself.  Junayd  said  that  he  preferred  a  good-natured  liber 
tine   to  an  ill-natured  pietist.  Story  of  Abu  Hafs.  How  Abu 
Yazid    and    Abu  cAli  al-Sindi  instructed  one  another.  Story 
of   Abu    Hafs   and    Abu  cUthman  (al-Hiri).  Answer  given  by 
Sahl    b.   GAbdallah  to  his  pupil,  Ibn  Salim,  who  complained 
that  Sahl  had  never  pointed  out  to  him  any  of  the  Abddl. 

178  Story   told    by   Ibrahim  b.  Shayban  of  his  companionship 
with    Abu  cAbdallah    al-Maghribi.    Sahl    b.  cAbdallah    would 
not    take    as    his  companion  anyone  who  was  afraid  of  wild 
beasts.    Dhu    '1-Nun's   answer    to  the  question,   "With  whom 


48 

shall  I  associate  ?"  Three  conditions  imposed  by  Ibrahim 
b.  Adham  on  those  who  desired  his  company.  How  Abu 
Bakr  al-Kattani  overcame  the  dislike  which  he  felt  towards 
one  of  his  friends.  The  duty  of  a  true  companion  exem 
plified  by  cAbdallah  al-Marwazi  while  travelling  with  Abu 
cAli  al-Ribati. 

179  Three  classes  of  men  whose  society,   according  to  Sahl  b. 
cAbdallah,  should  be  avoided. 

CHAPTER  LXXI:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  discussing 
mystical  topics". 

Sayings  of  Abu  Muhammad  al-Jariri,  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami, 
Junayd,  Abu  Jacfar  b.  al-Faraji,  and  Abu  Hafs. 

Story  of  Abu  GAbdallah  b.  al-Jalla  who  refused  to  speak 
on  the  subject  of  trust  in  God  (tawakkul]  until  he  had  giv 
en  away  four  small  coins  which  he  possessed. 

1 80  Anecdote  of  Abu  °Abdallah  al-Husri  and  Ibn  Yazdaniyar. 
Saying  of  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas   on    the   qualifications   neces 
sary   for    those    who    discuss    the    theory    of  mysticism.  Abu 
Sacid  al-Kharraz  rebuked  a  man  for  using  symbols  (ishdrat] 
in  reference  to  God.  Junayd  said  that  he  did  not  know  any 
theory   and    practice    more    excellent    than    the    theory    and 
practice  of  Sufism.  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari  declared  that  the 
knowledge  of  the  mystic  cannot  be  expressed  in  plain  words. 
Anecdote  of  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  and  Abu  Hatim  al-cAttar. 
Saying  of  Junayd. 

181  Shiblf  told  those  who  were  listening  to  his  discourse  that 
the    angels    would    like    to   be  in  their  place.  When  Sari  al- 
Saqati   heard    that  Junayd  gathered  round  him  an  audience 
of  Sufis  in    the  mosque,    he    said,    "Alas,    you  have  become 
a    resort    for    idle  folk".  How  Sari  asked  Junayd  to  explain 
the  meaning  of  thanksgiving  (shukr).  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  would 
not     speak    in    public    so    long    as    Dhu    '1-Nun    was    alive. 
Sayings    of    Abu    Sulayman    al-Darani    and    Abu    Bakr    al- 
Zaqqaq   on  the  value  of  oral  instruction  in  Sufism.  Why  al- 


49 

Jalla,  the  father  of  Abu  cAbdallah  b.  al-Jalla,  was  so  named. 

182  Saying  of  Harith  al-Muhasibi.  How  Junayd  used  to  answer 
those    who    questioned    him    on    matters    which   lay  beyond 
their   spiritual    capacity.  Abu  cAmr  al-Zajjaji  said  that  it  is 
better  to  commit  a  gross  breach  of  etiquette  than  to  inter 
rupt    a    Sheykh    in    his    discourse.    Saying    of  Ibn  al-Kurrini 
(al-Karanbi)  to  Junayd.  Sayings  of  Shibli  and  Sari  al-Saqati. 

CHAPTER  LXXII:  "Concerning  their  manners  at  meal 
time  and  in  their  gatherings  and  entertainments". 

Three  occasions,  enumerated  by  Junayd,  when  the  divine 
mercy  descends  upon  Sufis. 

183  Muhammad    b.    Mansur   al-Tusi   said    to    his    guest,   "Stay 
three   nights    with    us,    and    if   you    stay   longer  it  will  be  a 
gift  of  alms   from    you    to    us."  Saying  of  Sari  al-Saqati  on 
the  difficulty  of  obtaining  'lawful'  food.  Saying  of  Abu  cAli 
al-Nawribati  on  the  way  to  treat  dervishes,  theologians,  and 
ascetics    when    they    enter   a  house.    Story    of   Abu    Hamza 
and  Sari  al-Saqati.  Sayings  of  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari  in  praise 
of  dervishes    who    meet   together.   Eating  after  a  meal  con 
demned    by    Jacfar    al-Khuldi.    Another    saying   of  Jacfar  on 
gluttony.  Two  sayings  of  Shibli. 

How  one  should  behave  when  eating  with  friends,  men 
of  the  world,  and  dervishes.  The  author's  account  of  the 
manners  which  it  is  proper  for  the  Sufi  faqirs  to  observe  in 
eating.  A  Sheykh  who  had  eaten  no  food  for  ten  days  was 
reproached  by  his  host  because  he  ate  with  two  fingers 
instead  of  three.  Saying  of  Ibrahim  b.  Shayban.  Abu  Bakr 
al-Kattani  would  not  eat  any  food  that  was  not  offered  spon 
taneously.  Saying  of  Junayd.  How  Abu  Turab  al-Nakhshabi 
was  punished  for  refusing  an  offer  of  food.  Saying  of  Junayd 
on  the  importance  of  purity  as  regards  food,  clothing,  and 
dwelling-place.  Sari  al-Saqati  said  that  the  Sufis  eat  like 
sick  men  and  sleep  like  men  who  are  in  danger  of  being 
drowned.  Saying  of  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Husri.  Anecdote  of 

d 


50 

Fath    al-Mawsili,    describing    the    manner   in    which    he    was 
entertained  by  Bishr  al-Hafi. 

185  Macruf  al-Karkhi  accepted  every  invitation,  saying  that  he 
was    only    a    guest    in    the    world    and  had  no  home  except 
the  house  that  he  was  bidden  to  enter.  Description  by  Abu 
Bakr   al-Kattani    of  a    gathering    of  three    hundred   Sufis  at 
Mecca:  instead  of  talking  about  religion  they  acted  towards 
each  other  with  good-nature  and  kindness  and  unselfishness. 
Saying  of  Abu  Sulayman  al-Darani:  eating  deadens  the  heart. 
Ruwaym    said    that    during   twenty   years    he  never  thought 
of  food    until    it   was  set  before  him.  Story  of  Abu  cAli  al- 
Rudhabari.  Anecdote  related  by  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Rudhabari  of 
a    man    who   entertained    a    party    of  guests    and    lighted    a 
thousand    lamps;    on    being    charged    with    extravagance,    he 
successfully    challenged    his    accuser   to  extinguish  any  lamp 
that  had  not  been  lighted  for  God's  sake.  Anecdote  of  Ahmad 
b.  Muhammad  al-Sulami. 

1 86  CHAPTER  LXXIII:  "Concerning  their  manners  at  the  time 
of  audition  (sama]  and  ecstasy." 

Junayd  mentioned  three  things  necessary  in  audition,  and 
if  these  were  absent,  he  disapproved  of  it.  Saying  of  Harith 
al-Muhasibf.  Story  of  Dhu  '1-Nun's  ecstasy  on  hearing  some 
erotic  verses  recited.  When  Ibrahim  al-Marastani  was  asked 
about  dancing  and  rending  the  garments  in  audition,  he 
quoted  the  word  of  God  that  was  revealed  to  Moses,  "Rend 
thy  heart  and  do  not  rend  thy  garments."  The  author  says 
that  this  subject  will  be  fully  set  forth  in  a  subsequent 
chapter. 

187  Junayd    said   that    excess    of  ecstasy    combined  with  defi 
ciency    of   religious    knowledge    is    harmful.    Explanation    of 
this    saying    by    the    author.  Ecstasy,  provided  that  it  is  in 
voluntary,    is    not    improper    for    dervishes    who  are  entirely 
detached    from    worldly    interests.    No   one,  however,  should 
seek   to   produce  ecstasy  in  himself  by  joining  a  number  of 


persons  already  enraptured  and  by  participating  in  their 
audition.  This,  if  it  become  a  habit,  is  most  destructive  to 
spiritual  illumination.  So  long  as  the  heart  is  polluted  with 
worldliness,  audition  is  idle  and  vain. 

CHAPTER    LXXIV:    "Concerning  their  manners  in  dress." 

Three    sayings    of   Abu    Sulayman  al-Darani.  Reply  given 

by    a    young    Sufi    to    Bishr   b.    al-Harith  (al-Hafi),  who  had 

expressed    the    opinion    that    Sufis    should  not  wear  patched 

frocks  (muraqqci'di}. 

1 88  Story  related  by  al-Jariri  of  a  dervish  who  wore   the  same 
garment    both    in    summer    and    winter    because    of  a  vision 
which    he    had    seen.    Saying   of  Abu   Hafs  al-Haddad.  Abu 
Yazid's    criticism    of   Yahya    b.    Mucadh  al-Razi.  Abu  Yazid 
left    nothing    behind    him    except    the    shirt    which    he    was 
wearing  at  the  time  of  his  death.  Description  of  the  patched 
frock    belonging    to    Ibn    al-Kurrini    (al-Karanbi).     The    fine 
clothes   worn   by   Abu    Hafs  al-Naysaburi.  The  author  men 
tions   the   general    rules  observed  by   dervishes  in  regard  to 
dress. 

189  CHAPTER  LXXV:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  travelling." 
Counsel  given  by  Abu   cAli  al-Rudhabari  to  a  man  who  was 
setting  out  on  a  journey.  Ruwaym's  advice  to  the  traveller. 
Muhammad  b.  Ismacil  describes  a  journey  on  which  he  was 
accompanied    by   Abu    Bakr    al-Zaqqaq    and    Abu    Bakr    al- 
Kattani.    Saying    of   Abu    '1-Hasan  al-Muzayyin.  Ibrahim  al- 
Khawwas    would    not   allow  al-Muzayyin  the  Elder  to  kill  a 
scorpion    that   was    crawling   on  his  thigh.  What  Shibli  said 
to  his  disciples  who  suffered  hardships  in  travelling. 

190  Three    rules   observed  by  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Nasibi  during 
thirty    years    of  travel.    The    author    enumerates  the  various 
reasons    for    which    Sufis    travel;    he  says  that  they  perform 
their    religious    duties  just  as  carefully  as  when  they  are  at 
home,    and    if  a    party    of   dervishes  are  travelling  together, 
they  show  the  utmost  consideration  to  their  weaker  brethren. 


52 

Other  Sufis  follow  a  stricter  rule,  which  is  illustrated  by 
sayings  of  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas  and  Abu  clmran  al-Tabari- 
stani.  According  to  Abu  Yacqub  al-Susi  there  are  four  qualities 
that  are  indispensable  to  the  traveller:  religious  knowledge, 
piety,  enthusiasm,  and  good-nature.  Abu  Bakr  al-Kattani 
said  that  the  Sufis  refuse  to  associate  with  any  one  of  their 
number  who  journeys  to  Yemen  more  than  once.  Derivation 
of  safar  (travel). 

IQ1  CHAPTER  LXXVI:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  sacrificing 
prestige  (honour,  influence,  popularity),  and  in  begging,  and 
in  acting  for  the  sake  of  their  friends." 

The  author  quotes  a  saying  related  by  the  pupils  of  Abu 
°Abdallah  al-Subayhi  to  the  effect  that  it  behoves  the  dervish 
to  sacrifice  the  prestige  that  accrues  to  him  in  consequence 
of  his  having  resigned  all  worldly  goods;  but  he  is  not 'entirely 
'poor'  until  he  has  made  a  further  sacrifice,  namely,  the 
sacrifice  of  'self.  Story  of  al-Muzaffar  al-Qarmisini  and  another 
Sufi  who  made  themselves  so  despised  that  no  one  would 
give  them  anything.  Ibrahim  b.  Shayban's  praise  of  al- 
Muzaffar  al-Qarmisinf.  Anecdote  of  a  Sufi  who  abased  him 
self  by  begging,  which  he  disliked  intensely.  Story  of  a 
novice  whose  devotion  and  austerities  had  gained  for  him  a 
great  reputation :  he  was  told  by  a  certain  Sheykh  that  he 
must  go  from  door  to  door  and  beg  his  bread  and  eat 
nothing  else,  but  he  found  himself  unable  to  obey;  and 
when  he  was  reduced  to  beggary  in  his  old  age,  he  regarded 
this  as  a  punishment  for  having  disobeyed  the  Sheykh. 

192  Story  of  an  eminent  Sufi  who  never  broke  his  fast  except  with 
pieces  of  bread  that  he  had  begged.  Anecdote  of  Mim- 
shadh  al-Dinawari.  How  Bunan  al-Hammal  learned  that  he  was 
a  parasite.  Story  of  a  novice  who  begged  food  for  his  com 
panions  and  partook  of  it  with  them :  on  this  account  he 
was  blamed  by  some  Sheykhs  who  said  that  he  had  really 
begged  for  himself.  The  author  explains  the  true  principles 


53 

of  begging.  Anecdote  of  a  Sheykh  who  refrained  from  begging 
for  fear  that  he  might  endanger  the  spiritual  welfare  of  a 
fellow-Moslem,  in  accordance  with  the  tradition  that  he  who 
repulses  a  sincere  beggar  will  not  prosper. 

193  CHAPTER  LXXVII:  "Concerning  their  manners  when  they 
receive  a  gift  of  worldly  goods". 

Story  of  a  dervish  who  lost  his  faith  and  his  spiritual 
feeling  (hdl)  in  consequence  of  receiving  a  gift.  Another  story 
of  a  dervish  who,  for  the  same  reason,  was  deprived  of  the 
tribulation  which  mystics  hold  dear.  Abu  Turab  al-Nakhshabi 
said  that  any  one  upon  whom  much  bounty  was  bestowed 
ought  to  weep  for  himself.  How  Bunan  al-Hammal  refused 
a  thousand  dinars. 

Story  of  Ibn  Bunan :  four  hundred  dirhems  were  brought 
to  him  while  he  was  asleep,  but  he  was  warned  in  a  dream 
not  to  take  more  than  he  needed.  Story  of  Abu  '1-Husayn 
al-Nurf :  he  dropped  three  hundred  dinars,  one  by  one,  into 
the  Tigris.  Anecdote  of  Ibn  Ziri,  a  pupil  of  Junayd,  who 

194  came  into  possession  of  some  money  and  left  his  companions. 
Abu    Ahmad    al-Qalanisi    would    not  let  his  pupils  visit  one 
of  their  number  who  had  travelled  and  returned  with  money. 
How    Abu    Hafs   al-Haddad  spent  a  thousand  dinars  on  the 
dervishes    of  Ramla.  Story  of  Shibli,  who  bestowed  on  der 
vishes  nearly  all  the  money  that  was  given  him  to  buy  food 
for  his  starving  children.  Story  of  a  Sufi  Sheykh  who  saved 
four    dirhems    in    order    that    he    might  return  them  to  God 
on  the  Day  of  Judgment  and  say,  "These  are  all  the  worldly 
goods  Thou  hast  given  me." 

195  Shibli     received     a     sum     of    money    from    the    vizier    of 
al-Muctadid    to    distribute    amongst    the    Sufis    of   Baghdad; 
when    every    one    had    taken    as    much    he    wanted,    Shibli 
said,    "The    more    ye    have    taken,    the    farther    are  ye  from 
God,    and    the    more    ye    have    rejected,    the    nearer    are    ye 
to  God." 


54 

CHAPTER  LXXVIII:  "Concerning  the  manners  of  those 
who  earn  their  livelihood." 

Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  said  that  while  it  is  an  offence  against 
the  Sunna  to  condemn  work,  it  is  an  offence  against  the 
Faith  to  condemn  trust  in  God.  Saying  of  Junayd.  How 
Ishaq  al-Maghazili  rebuked  Bishr  b.  al-Harith  for  earning 
his  livelihood  by  spinning  thread.  The  reply  of  Ibn  Salim 
to  one  who  asked  him  whether  it  is  the  duty  of  Moslems 
to  earn  their  livelihood  or  to  trust  in  God. 

196  Two    sayings    of  GAbdallah    b.    al-Mubarak  in  justification 
of  earning.  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  once  passed  a  whole  night 
mending  the  shoes  of  the  dervishes  with  whom  he  was  tra 
velling.    Saying    of  Abu  Hafs  (al-Haddad).   Story  of  a  negro 
at   Damascus    who  was  a  follower  of  the  Sufis.  Anecdote  of 
Abu    '1-Qasim    al-Munadi.    Sayings    of   Ibrahim    al-Khawwas, 
and    Ibrahim    b.    Adham.    General    rules    to  be  observed  by 
Sufis  who  work. 

197  Abu    Hafs   al-Haddad    earned    a   dinar  every  day  and  be 
stowed    it    upon    the    Sufis.    Saying    of  Shibli    to    a  cobbler. 
Dhu    '1-Nun    said  that  the  true  gnostic  does  not  attempt  to 
gain  a  livelihood. 

CHAPTER  LXXIX:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  taking 
and  giving  and  in  showing  courtesy  to  the  poor." 

A  short  way  to  Paradise  described  by  Sari  al-Saqati.  Saying 
of  Junayd:  none  has  the  right  to  take  money  unless  he 
prefers  spending  to  receiving.  Saying  of  Abu  Bakr  Ahmad 
b.  Hamawayh:  money  should  be  accepted  or  rejected  for 
God's  sake,  not  from  any  other  motive.  Story  of  al-Zaqqaq 
and  Yusuf  al-Sa'igh.  Anecdote  showing  the  tact  and  deli 
cacy  with  which  Ibn  Rufayc  of  Damascus  bestowed  a  gift  of 
money  upon  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari. 

198  Sayings  of  Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq  and  Abu  Muhammad  al- 
Murtacish.    How   Junayd    induced  Ibn  al-Kurrini  (al-Karanbi) 
to    accept    some    money   from  him.  Whenever  Abu  T-Qasim 


55 

al-Munadi  saw  smoke  issuing  from  a  neighbour's  house,  he 
used  to  send  and  ask  for  food.  Story  of  Junayd  and  Husayn 
b.  al-Misri.  Answer  given  by  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn  to  the 
question  whether  one  is  justified  in  bestowing  all  one's  pro 
perty  upon  a  brother  in  God. 

CHAPTER  LXXX:  "Concerning  the  manners  of  those  who 
are  married  and  those  who  have  children." 

Story  of  the  marriage  of  Abu  Ahmad  al-Qalanisi.  How 
Muhammad  b.  cAli  al-Qassar  trained  his  little  daughter  to 
trust  in  God.  Story  of  Bunan  al-Hammal  and  his  son.  Ibra 
him  b.  Adham  said  that  a  man  who  marries  embarks  on  a  ship, 
and  that  he  suffers  shipwreck  when  a  child  is  born  to  him. 

Saying  of  Bishr  b.  al-Harith.  Story  of  a  woman  who 
offered  herself  in  marriage  to  Abu  Shucayb  al-Barathi  and 
refused  to  enter  his  hut  until  he  removed  a  piece  of  matting. 
The  author  says  that  a  married  Sufi  must  not  commit  his 
wife  and  children  to  the  care  of  God  but  must  provide  for 
their  needs  unless  they  are  in  the  same  spiritual  state  as 
he  is.  Sufis  ought  to  wed  poor  women  and  not  take  advan 
tage  of  rich  women  who  desire  to  marry  them.  One  day 
when  Path  al-Mawsili  kissed  his  son  he  heard  a  heavenly 
voice  saying,  "O  Path,  art  not  thou  ashamed  to  love  another 
besides  Me?"  The  author  points  out  that  although  the  Pro 
phet  used  to  kiss  his  children  and  clasp  them  to  his  bosom, 
his  spiritual  rank  and  endowments  were  unique;  and  that  God 
is  jealous  of  the  Sufis  when  they  turn  their  thoughts  towards 
any  one  except  Himself. 

CHAPTER  LXXXI:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  sitting 
alone  or  with  others." 

Sitting  in  mosques  condemned  by  Sari  al-Saqati.  His  defi 
nition  of  generosity  (muruwwat).  Saying  of  a  Sufi  Sheykh: 
"the  prayer-mat  of  the  dervish  ought  to  be  on  his  buttocks." 
Stories  of  Abu  Yazid  and  Ibrahim  b.  Adham  which  indicate 
that  it  is  a  breach  of  manners  to  stretch  out  one's  feet  or 


56 

to  cross  one's  legs.  Story  of  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas  and  a 
dervish  who  had  an  excellent  way  of  sitting.  Saying  of 
Yahya  b.  Mucadh  (al-Razi)  on  sitting  with  the  unspiritual. 
Anecdote  of  Ibn  Mamlula  al-°Attar  al-Dinawari.  Anonymous 
saying:  a  man's  friends  show  his  character.  Hasan  al-Qazzaz, 
who  often  sat  awake  during  the  night,  said  that  Sufism  is 
founded  on  three  things:  hunger,  silence,  and  sleeplessness. 
Junayd  preferred  sitting  with  Sufis  to  prayer. 

202  CHAPTER  LXXXII:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  hunger". 
Two    sayings    of    Yahya    b.    Mucadh    on    hunger.    Sahl    b. 

cAbdallah  used  to  be  strong  when  he  abstained  from  eating 
and  weak  when  he  ate.  Saying  of  Sahl  b.  GAbdallah.  Abu 
Sulayman  (al-Darani)  said  that  hunger  is  one  of  God's  trea 
sures  which  He  bestows  upon  those  whom  He  loves  dearly. 
A  saying  of  Sahl  b.  'Abdallah  on  hunger  repeated  to  the 
author  by  Ibn  Salim.  Saying  of  clsa  al-Qassar.  Why  a  Sufi 
Sheykh  said,  "Thou  art  a  liar",  to  a  man  who  said,  "I  am 
hungry".  Another  Sheykh's  rebuke  to  a  Sufi  who  came  to 
visit  him  after  having  eaten  no  food  for  five  days. 

203  CHAPTER  LXXXIII :  "Concerning  their  manners  in  sickness." 
Anecdote    of    Mimshadh    al-Dinawari.    It    is   related  of  al- 

Kurdi  that  part  of  his  body  was  infested  by  worms,  and 
when  a  worm  fell  to  the  ground  he  would  put  it  back  in 
its  place.  Story  of  Dhu  '1-Nun  and  a  sick  disciple  to  whom 
he  paid  a  visit.  Advice  which  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  used  to 
give  to  his  disciples  when  they  were  ill.  How  Abu  Yacqub 
al-Nahrajuri  refused  to  let  himself  be  cured  of  a  disease  in 
his  stomach  by  means  of  cautery.  Saying  of  al-Thawri  to  a 
disciple  who  made  excuses  for  delay  in  visiting  him.  Sahl 
b.  GAbdallah  know  a  remedy  for  piles  but  would  not  use  it. 

204  When  Bishr   al-Hafi  described  his  symptoms  to  the  phys 
ician,    he    was    asked    whether    he    was    not    complaining  (of 
God):    his    reply.    Saying    of   Dhu  '1-Nun  quoted  by  Junayd 
when  he  was  suffering  from  a  severe  illness. 


57 

CHAPTER  LXXXIV :  "Concerning  the  manners  of  the 
Sheykhs  and  their  kindness  to  their  disciples". 

Saying  of  Junayd.  How  Bishr  al-Hafi  sympathised  with 
the  poor  when  he  was  unable  to  help  them.  Courtesy  shown 
by  al-Zaqqaq  to  a  party  of  dervishes.  Story  of  Junayd  and 
al-Jariri. 

Story  of  Abu  Ahmad  al-Qalanisi  and  a  disciple.  Anec 
dote  of  Junayd  and  a  man  who  wished  to  abandon  all  his 
wealth.  How  Abu  '1-Hasan  al-GAtufi  procured  food  for  his 
companions  in  the  desert.  How  Abu  Jacfar  al-Qassab  fol 
lowed  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  from  Ramla  to  Jerusalem  in 
order  to  obtain  his  forgiveness. 

CHAPTER  LXXXV:  "Concerning  the  manners  of  disciples 
and  novices". 

Saying  on  wisdom  (hikmat)  cited  from  a  book  by  Abu 
Turab  al-Nakhshabi.  Saying  of  Junayd :  anecdotes  (of  holy 
men)  strengthen  the  hearts  of  disciples. 

Saying  of  Yahya  (b.  Mucadh)  on  wisdom.  Sayings  of 
Mimshadh  al-Dinawari,  Abu  Turab  al-Nakhshabi,  and  Abu 
cAli  b.  al-Katib  concerning  those  who  aspire  to  become 
Sufis.  Saying  of  Shibli  on  two  kinds  of  amazement  ((kayrat) 
felt  by  disciples.  How  Shibli,  when  he  was  a  novice,  pre 
vented  himself  from  being  overcome  by  sleep.  Manners  and 
signs  of  the  sincere  disciple  according  to  Abu  Sacid  al- 
Kharraz.  Saying  of  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  on  the  things  which 
should  occupy  the  disciple's  mind. 

Description  by  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn  of  the  signs  by  which 
the  disciple  is  known.  Saying  of  Abu  Bakr  al-Barizi. 

CHAPTER  LXXXVI:  "Concerning  _the  manners  of  those 
who  prefer  to  live  alone". 

Saying  of  Bishr  al-Hafi.  How  al-Darraj  met  the  hermit, 
Abu  '1-Musayyib,  and  brought  him  to  Shibli.  Saying  of  Ju 
nayd  on  the  solitary  life.  Abu  Yacqiib  al-Susi  said  that  only 
men  of  great  spiritual  power  can  endure  solitude,  and  that 


58 

it  was  better  for  people  like  himself  to  perform  their  devo 
tions  in  the  sight  of  one  another. 

208  Story    of  Abu  Bakr  b.  al-Mucallim  who  retired  to  Mount 
Lukkam    near    Antioch    and    found    that    be    was    unable   to 
perform  his  customary  devotions;  he  remained  ten  years  in 
solitude    before    he    could    perform  them  as  well  as  he  used 
to  do  amongst    his  acquaintances.  A  similar  experience  was 
communicated   to   Ibrahim  al-Khawwas  by  a  man  whom  he 
met  in  the  desert. 

CHAPTER  LXXXVII:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  friend 
ship  and  affection". 

Sayings  of  Dhu  '1-Nun  and  Abu  cUthman  (al-Hiri).  Answer 
given  by  Ibn  al-Sammak  to  a  friend  who  quarrelled  with 
him.  Sayings  on  the  nature  of  affection. 

209  Sayings  of  Yahya  b.  Mucadh,  Junayd,   Nuri,  and  Abu  Mu 
hammad  al-Maghazili. 

CHAPTER  LXXXVIII:  "Concerning  their  manners  in  the 
hour  of  death". 

Verses  recited  by  Shibli  on  the  night  before  he  died.  Only 
two  of  the  hundred  and  twenty  disciples  of  Abu  Turab  al- 
Nakhshabi  died  in  'poverty',  namely,  Ibn  al-Jalla  and  Abu 
cUbayd  al-Busri.  Description  of  the  death  of  Ibn  Bunan  al- 
Misri. 

210  Story    related    by  Abu  GAli  al-Rudhabari  of  a  youth  who 
expired    on  hearing  a  verse  of  poetry.  Saying  of  Abu  Yazid 
(al-Bistami)    on    his    deathbed.    Saying   of   Ibn  al-Kurrini  (al- 
Karanbi)    reported    by   Junayd,  who  was  his  pupil.  Descrip 
tion  of  the  death  of  Junayd  by  Abu  Muhammad  al-Jariri.  The 
death    of  Shibli    described  by  Bakran   al-Dfnawari.  Account 
of   the    death    of   Abu    '1-Husayn   al-Nuri.    A  saying  of  Abu 
Bakr  al-Zaqqaq  which  was  immediately  followed  by  his  death. 

211  How  Ibn  cAta  was  killed.  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas  died  while 
performing  an  ablution.  The  corpse  of  Abu  Turab  al-Nakh- 
shabi    was   seen   standing  erect  in  the  desert,  untouched  by 


59 

wild  beasts.  Description  of  the  death  of  Yahya  al-Istakhri. 
Junayd's  remark  when  he  was  told  that  Abu  Sacid  al- 
Kharraz  fell  into  an  ecstasy  before  he  died. 

CHAPTER  LXXXIX:  "Concerning  the  differences  of  doc 
trine  shown  in  their  answers  to  questions  on  mystical  sub 
jects". 

212  Question    concerning    concentration    (Jamc)    and   dispersion 
(tafriqat). 

The  author's  definition  of  these  terms.  Their  meaning  ex 
plained  by  Abu  Bakr  cAbdallah  b.  Tahir  al-Abhari.  Verses 
by  Junayd.  Saying  attributed  to  Niirf. 

213  Anonymous    doctrines    on    the  subject.  Sayings  of  Junayd 
and  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasitf. 

Question  concerning  passing-away  (fand)  and  continuance 
(baqd). 

Two  sayings  of  Abu  Yacqub  al-Nahrajuri:  the  true  theory 
of  / 'and  and  baqd  requires  that  Man's  normal  relation  to  God 
—  the  relation  of  a  slave  to  his  master  —  should  be  maintained. 
The  author  says  that  fand  and  baqd  are  the  attributes  of 
those  who  declare  God  to  be  One,  and  who  ascend  in  their 
unification  to  a  particular  degree,  which  is  not  reached  by 
ordinary  Moslems.  He  explains  the  original  meaning  and 
application  of  the  terms.  Two  sayings  of  Sumnun. 

214  Sayings    of  Abu   Sacid  al-Kharraz,  Junayd,  Ibn  °Ata,  and 
Shibli.    Saying    attributed    to    Ruwaym.   The    author  enume 
rates  five  stages  of  fand. 

215  Question  concerning  the  realities  (al-kaqd'iq). 
Description  by  Sari  al-Saqati  of  those  who  seek  the  real 
ities.    Sayings    of   Junayd,    Abu    Turab    (al-Nakhshabi)    and 
Ruwaym.    Three    kinds    of  reality  (haqiqat]  distinguished  by 
Abu  Jacfar  al-Saydalani.    Anecdote  of  Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq : 
"every  reality  that  contradicts  the  religious  law  is  an  infid 
elity".    Ruwaym's    answer    to    the    question,    "When    does  a 
man  realise  the  meaning  of  servantship  ^ubudiyyat)^  Another 


6o 

saying  of  Ruwaym.  A  saying  of  Junayd.  Definition  by  al- 
Muzayyin  al-Kabir  of  the  nature  of  God  as  conceived  by 
the  Sufis. 

216  Saying  of  cAbdallah  b.  Tahir  al-Abhari,  in  which  he  iden 
tifies    reality    with    positive    religion   (cilm).  Distinction  made 
by    Shibli    between    cilm,    haqiqat,    and   haqq.  The  reality  of 
'humanity'    (insdniyyat]    explained    by   Abu  Jacfar  al-Qarawi. 
Anonymous  definition  of  the  reality  of 'union'  (wusul).  Reality 
described    by  Junayd  as  that  which  removes  every  obstacle 
in  the  mystic's  way.  Saying  of  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti. 

Question  concerning  veracity  (sidq). 

Saying  of  Junayd.  Definition  of  veracity  given  by  Abii 
Sacid  al-Kharraz  to  two  angels  whom  he  saw  in  a  dream. 
A  detailed  definition  by  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn. 

217  Sayings    of  an    anonymous    sage,    Dhu   '1-Nun,  Harith  (al- 
Muhasibi),    Junayd,    Abu    Yacqub,    and  another  whose  name 
is  not  mentioned. 

Question  concerning  the  fundamental  principles  (usul)of  Sufism. 

Five  qualities  enumerated  by  Junayd.  Two  principles  men 
tioned  by  Abu  cUthman  (al-Hiri).  Saying  of  Junayd  on  the 
importance  of  taking  care  not  to  fail  in  fundamental  prin 
ciples.  Three  principles  of  the  Sufis,  according  to  Abu 
Ahmad  al-Qalanisi.  Seven  principles  of  Sufism  enumerated 
by  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah. 

218  List    of  six    principles,    according   to    Husri,    and   another 
list  of  seven  principles,  according  to  an  anonymous  dervish. 

Question  concerning  sincerity  (ikhlds). 

Definitions  by  Junayd,  Ibn  cAta,  Harith  al-Muhasibi,  Dhu 
'1-Nun,  and  Abu  Yacqub  al-Susi.  Two  sayings  of  Sahl  b. 
cAbdallah.  Definitions  by  Junayd  and  an  anonymous  Sheykh. 
Three  signs  of  the  sincere  man.  Definition  of  sincerity  attrib 
uted  to  Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Nuri. 

219  Question  concerning  recollection  (dhikr). 

Ibn  Salim  distinguished  three  kinds  of  recollection :  (a)  with 


6i 

the  tongue,  (b)  with  the  heart,  (c)  recollection  which  he 
defined  as  "being  filled  with  love  and  shame  because  of 
nearness  to  God".  Ibn  cAta  said  that  recollection  causes  the 
human  nature  (bashariyyat)  to  disappear.  Two  sayings  of 
Sahl  b.  cAbdallah.  Three  verses  of  the  Koran  in  which  the 
Moslems  are  commanded  to  recollect  God.  There  are  differ 
ent  kinds  of  recollection,  corresponding  to  the  different 
language  used  in  these  verses.  Saying  of  an  anonymous 
Sheykh.  Verbal  recollection  (repetition  of  the  formulas  "There 
in  no  god  but  Allah"  and  "Glory  be  to  Allah!"  or  recitation 
of  the  Koran)  and  spiritual  recollection  (concentration  of  the 
heart  upon  God  and  His  attributes). 

220  Recollection  assumes  various  forms  in  accordance  with  the 
predominant    'state'    or    'station'    of  each  mystic.  Shibli  said 
that    real    recollection    is    the    forgetting  of  recollection,  i.  e., 
forgetfulness  of  everything  except  God. 

Question  concerning  spiritual  wealth  (ghind). 

Junayd  said  that  spiritual  poverty  and  wealth  are  comple 
mentary,  and  that  neither  is  perfect  without  the  other.  The 
signs  of  spiritual  wealth  described  by  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn. 
Saying  of  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al-Makki  on  the  spiritual  wealth 
which  consists  in  being  independent  of  spiritual  wealth. 

221  Saying  of  Junayd. 

Question  concerning  poverty  (faqr). 

Junayd  said  that  poverty  is  a  sea  of  tribulation  but  that 
all  its  tribulation  is  glorious.  Description  by  Junayd  of  the 
true  faqir  who  enters  Paradise  five  hundred  years  before 
the  rich.  Ibn  al-Jalla  said  that  poverty  must  be  accompanied 
by  piety  (warac).  Sayings  of  Junayd  and  al-Muzayyin. 

Question  concerning  the  spirit  (ruk)  and  the  doctrines  of 
the  Sufis  on  the  subject. 

222  Two    sayings   of  Shibli.  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti  distinguished 
two    spirits,  viz.,  the  vital  spirit  and  the  spirit  whereby  the 
heart  is  illumined.  Other  sayings  of  al-Wasiti.  Abu  cAbdallah 


62 

al-Nibaji  said  that  there  are  two  spirits  in  the  gnostic  who 
has  attained  to  union  with  God.  Distinction  between  the 
human  spirit  (al-ruh  al-bashariyyd]  and  the  eternal  spirit  (al~ 
ruh  al-qadima]  in  man.  Traditions  illustrating  this  doctrine. 

223  The    author    declares    it    to    be    false.    Ibn   Salim  asserted 
that  the  spirit  and  the  body  together  produce  good  or  evil, 
and    that    both   are    liable    to    reward   or  punishment.  Those 
who    believe    in    metempsychosis    and    the    eternity    of   the 
spirit  go  far  astray  from  the  truth. 

Qttestion  concerning  symbolic  allusion  (ishdrat). 

The  meaning  of  ishdrat.  Sayings  of  Shibli  and  Abu  Yazfd 
al-Bistami  to  the  effect  that  God  cannot  be  indicated  by 
means  of  symbols.  How  a  man  rebuked  Junayd  for  raising 
his  eye  to  heaven.  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al-Makki  said  that  the 
symbolism  of  the  Sufis  is  polytheism  (shirk).  Junayd  said 
to  a  certain  man,  "How  long  will  you  give  indications  to 
God?  Let  God  give  indications  to  you." 

224  Abu    Yazid    (al-Bistami)    condemned    both  theological  and 
mystical    symbolism.   Zaqqaq  said  that  ishdrat  is  proper  for 
novices,    but    the    adept    finds    God    by  abandoning  ishdrat. 
Saying    of   Shibli    on    nearness  to  God.  Saying  of  Yahya  b. 
Mucadh  on  the  different  kinds  of  symbolism  used  by  different 
classes    of   religious    men.   Sufism  described  by   Abu  °Ali  al- 
Rudhaban  as  an  ishdrat.  The  use  of  ishdrat  disapproved  by 
Abii  Yacqub  al-Susi. 

Diverse  questions.  Question  concerning  elegance  (zarf). 

Definition  of  the  term  by  Junayd. 

Question  concerning  generosity  (muruwwat). 

Definition  by  Ahmad  b.  cAta. 

Question  concerning  the  reason  why  the  Sufis  are  so  called. 

225  Sayings  by  Ibn  cAta  (who  connects  'Sufi'  with  safd),  Nuri, 
Shibli,  and  an  anonymous  mystic. 

Question  concerning  the  daily  bread  (rizq). 

Sayings  of  Yahya  b.  Mucadh  and  another  whose  name  is 


63 

not  mentioned.  Various  opinions  as  to  the  cause  ot  rizq. 
How  Abu  Yazid  (al-Bistami)  rebuked  a  theologian  who 
questioned  him  about  the  source  of  rizq. 

Question.  Junayd's  answer  to  a  question  concerning  the 
disappearance  of  the  name  of  'servant'  and  the  subsistence 
of  the  power  of  God,  (as  happens  in  fand). 

Question.    Junayd    was   asked,   "When  is  a  man  indifferent 

226  to  praise  and  blame?"  His  answer. 

Question.  Answer  given  by  Ibn  °Ata  when  he  was  asked, 
"What  is  the  means  of  obtaining  security  of  mind  (saldmat 
al-sadr}r 

Question.  "What  is  the  explanation  of  the  grief  which  a 
man  feels  without  knowing  its  cause?"  Answer  by  Abu 
cUthman  (al-Hiri). 

Question  concerning  sagacity  (firdsat). 

Comment  by  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn  on  the  Tradition,  "Be 
ware  of  the  sagacity  of  the  true  believer,  for  he  sees  by 
the  light  of  God." 

Question  concerning  the  imagination  (wahm). 

Definition  of  wahm  by  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas. 

227  Question.  Explanations  by  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami  and  other 
mystics  of  the  words  sdbiq,  muqtasid,  and  zdlim  in  Kor.  35,  29. 

Question  concerning  wishing  (tamanni). 

Ruwaym  said  that  the  disciple  may  hope,  but  that  he 
should  not  wish.  The  reason  of  this  distinction. 

Question  concerning  the  secret  of  the  soul  (sirr  al-nafs). 

Sahl  b.  GAbdallah  said  that  the  secret  of  the  soul  was 
never  revealed  in  any  created  being  except  in  Pharaoh  when 
he  said,  "I  am  your  supreme  Lord." 

228  Question.  Human  and  divine  jealousy  (ghayrat]  distinguished 
by  Shibli. 

Question.  Fath  b.  Shakhraf  asked  Israfil,  the  teacher  of 
Dhu  '1-Nun,  whether  secret  thoughts  (asrdr)  are  punished 
before  actual  sins.  The  answer  given  by  Israfil. 


64 

Question.  Three  different  'states'  of  the  heart  described  by 
Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti. 

Question.  Three  kinds  of  tribulation  (bald)  described  by 
Jariri. 

Question   concerning  the  difference  between  the  lower  and 
higher  degrees  of  love  (hubb  and  wudd). 
229       Question  concerning  weeping  (bukd). 

Saying  of  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz.  Eighteen  causes  of  weeping. 

Question  concerning  the  term  shdhid. 

Definitions  by  Junayd  and  the  author. 
2 3°       Question  concerning  the  sincere  practice  of  devotion. 

Abu  '1-Husayn  cAli  b.  Hind  al-Qurashi,  when  questioned 
on  this  subject  by  the  Sheykhs  of  Mecca,  replied  that  sin 
cerity  in  devotion  depends  on  the  knowledge  of  four  things, 
viz.,  God,  self,  death,  and  retribution  after  death. 

Question  as  to  the  nature  of  the  generous  man  (karim). 

Definitions  of  the  generous  man  by  Harith  (al-Muhasibi) 
and  Junayd. 

Question  concerning  generosity  (kardmat). 

Two  anonymous  definitions. 

Question  concerning  reflection  (fikr). 

Definitions    of  fikr    and    tafakkur    by    Harith    al-Muhasibi 
and  others.  Distinction  between  fikr  and  tafakkur. 
231        Question  concerning  induction  (ftibdr). 

Definitions  by  Harith  al-Muhasibi  and  others. 

Question  as  to  the  nature  of  intention  (niyyat). 

Definitions  by  Junayd  and  others. 

Question  as  to  the  nature  of  right  (sawdb). 

Definitions  by  Junayd  and  another. 

Question.  Junayd's  explanation  of  what  is  meant  by  com 
passion  towards  the  creatures  (shafaqat  cala  'l-khalq). 

Question  concerning  fear  of  God  (taqiyyat). 

Five  definitions  of  the  word. 

Question  concerning  the  ground  of  the  soul  (sirr). 


65 

Definitions.  Saying  of  Husayn  b.  Mansur  al-Hallaj. 

232  Two   sayings    of  Yusuf  b.    al-Husayn.    Verses    concerning 
the  sirr  by  Nuri  and  others. 

The  author  remarks  that  the  questions  discussed  by  the 
Sufis  are  too  numerous  to  mention.  Saying  of  cAmr  b. 
cUthman  al-Makki:  "One  half  of  knowledge  is  question,  and 
the  other  half  is  answer." 

CHAPTER  XC:  "Concerning  the  letters  sent  by  Sufis  to  one 
another". 

233  Words  written  by  Mimshadh  al-Dinawari  on  the  back  of  a 
letter    which   Junayd  wrote  to  him.   Letter  from    Abu    Sacid 
al-Kharraz    to    Ahmad    b.    cAta.    Part    of  a  letter    addressed 
by   cAmr   b.    cUthman    al-Makki    to    the    Sufis    of    Baghdad, 
together    with    the   observations    made    upon    it    by   Junayd, 
Shibli,  and  Jariri.  Part  of  a  letter  sent  by  Shibli  to  Junayd. 

234  Junayd's    reply.    The    author    relates    how    he    and    other 
Sufis  asked  Abu  cAbdallah  ')  al-Rudhabari  to  write  a  letter  to 
a  certain   Hashimite  at   Ramla,   begging  him  to  permit  them 
to  hear  a  singing-girl  who  was  famous  for  the  beauty  of  her 
voice.  Copy  of  the  letter  which  al-Rudhabari  wrote  impromptu 
on  this  occasion.  Verses  inserted  by  Abu  cAli  b.  Abi  Khalid 
al-Suri  in  a  letter  which  he  wrote  to  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari. 

235  Verses  written  by  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari  in   reply  to  the 
above.  Answer  sent  by  Dhu  '1-Nun  to  a  sick  man  who  had 
asked    him    to    invoke    God    on    his    behalf.    Another   letter 
written    by  Dhu   '1-Nun.   Letter  written  by  Sari  al-Saqati  to 
Junayd    containing    some    verses    which    he    heard    a    camel- 
driver  chanting  in  the  desert. 

236  Letter  written  to  (Abu  cAbdallah)  al-Rudhabari  by  one  of 
his  friends.  Part  of  a  letter  from  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Rudhabari 
to  a  friend.  Letter  written  by  an  eminent  Sufi  to  a  certain 
Sheykh.    Extract    from    a    letter  addressed  by  Abu   '1-Khayr 

i)  This  is  the  correct  reading. 


66 

al-Tinati  to  Jacfar  al-Khuldi.  Letter  written  by  a  certain 
sage  in  answer  to  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn,  who  had  complained 
of  being  a  prey  to  worldly  feelings  and  dispositions. 

237  Letter    written    by   one    sage   to    another    who    had  asked 
him  by  what  means  he  might  gain  salvation.  Part  of  a  letter 
written    by    Ahmad    b.    GAta   to    Abu    Sacid  al-Kharraz,  and 
the  latter's  reply.  Letter  of  a  lover  to  his  beloved.  Quotation 
from  a  letter  written  by  a  certain  Sheykh. 

238  Part    of  a    letter    written    to    Husayn   b.    Jibril  al-Marandi 
by  one   of  his  pupils,  relating  how  he  became  friendly  with 
a    gazelle  and  shared  his  food  with  it.   Letter  sent  by  Shah 
al-Kirmani    to  Abu  Hafs  (al-Haddad)  and  the  latter's  reply. 
Letter  written  by  Sari  al-Saqati  to  a  friend.  Part  of  a  letter 
from  Junayd  to  cAli  b.  Sahl  al-Isbahani. 

239  The    author   says   that    it   is    impossible   for  him  to  quote 
the  long  epistles  which  celebrated  Sufis  have  written  to  one 
another,   such  as  the  epistle  of  Nuri  to  Junayd  on  the  sub 
ject  of  tribulation  (bald),  etc.,  but  that  he  will  give  the  text 
of  one    short    epistle    written    by   Junayd    to    Abu    Bakr  al- 
Kisa'i  al-Dmawari. 

240  Continuation  of  the  epistle  of  Junayd  to  Abu  Bakr  al-Kisa'i. 

241  Conclusion  of  the  same. 

CHAPTER  XCI :    "Concerning   the   introductions  (sudur)  of 
books  and  epistles". 
241-3      Five  introductions  by  Junayd. 

243  Specimens  by  Abu  GAli  al-Rudhabari  and  Abu  Sacid  b.  al- 
Acrabi. 

244  Two    more   specimens  by  Ibn  al-Acrabf,  and  one  by  Abu 
Sacid  al-Kharraz. 

245  Another   by  al-Kharraz  and  a  third  which  the  author  at 
tributes    to    him.    An    introduction    by    al-Kurdi    of  Urmiya. 

Another  by  Abu  Bakr  al-Duqqi. 

246  Another  by  the  same  hand.  Two  anonymous  specimens. 
CHAPTER  XCII:   "Concerning  their  mystical  poems". 


6; 

247  Verses  by  Dhu  '1-Nun  and  Junayd. 

248  Verses  by  Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Nuri  and  Junayd. 

249  Verses  by  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari. 

250  Verses  by  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas.  Verses  describing  ecstasy 
by  Sumnun  al-Muhibb.  Two  more  verses  by  Sumnun. 

251  Some  verses  which  Sari  al-Saqati  often  used  to  recite. 
Verses  which  Sari  recited  while  he  was  engaged  in  sweep 
ing    his    room.    Another    verse    frequently    quoted    by    Sari. 
Verses   spoken    by   Shibli    on    his    deathbed.    Verses  by  the 
same. 

252  Verses  composed  or  quoted  by  Shibli  on  various  occasions. 

253  Two  verses  by  Shibli.  Verses  on  patience  which  are  said 
to    have    been    composed    by   Sahl    b.  cAbdallah.  Verses  by 
Yahya    b.    Mucadh   al-Razi.    Verses    on   thanksgiving  (shukr] 
by  Abu  V  Abbas  b.  cAta. 

254  More    verses    by    Ibn    cAta.    Verses    by    Abu    Hamza    (al- 
Khurasani)    on    being    rescued    by    a    lion    from   a   well  into 
which  he  had  fallen. 

255  Verses   by   Bishr  b.  Harith  (al-Hafi),  Yusuf  b.  Husayn  al- 
Razi,    and    Abu  °Abdallah  al-Qurashi.  Verses  written  to  the 
last-named  by  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Haykali. 

256  Verses   by   Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz.  Verses  written  in  reply 
to  al-Haykali  by  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Qurashi  or,  according  to 
others,    by    Abu    Sacid    al-Kharraz.    Verses    written   by  Abu 
'1-Hadid    to    Abu  cAbdallah  al-Qurashi.  Reply  of  al-Qurashi. 

257  CHAPTER  XCIII:   "Concerning  the  prayers  and  invocations 
which  the  most  eminent  of  the  ancient  Sufis  addressed  to  God." 

Two  prayers  by  Dhu  '1-Nun. 

258  A    prayer    by    Yusuf   b.    al-Husayn   (al-Razi).   Prayer  of  a 
certain  sage  which  was  overheard  by   Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn. 

259  Verse    recited    by   a  Sufi  Sheykh  in  the  hearing  of  Yusuf 
b.  al-Husayn.  A  prayer  of  Junayd,  extracted  from  the  Kitdb 
al-Mundjdt. 

260  A  prayer  of  Abu  Sacid  al-Dinawari  which  the  author  heard 


68 

him    utter    at    Atrabulus.    A    prayer    of    Shibli.    Prayers    of 
Yahya  b.   Mucadh   (al-Ra/i). 

261  A    number    of   prayers    by   the  same.  Answer  given  by  a 
certain   Shaykh  to  cUmar  al-Malati  who  had  begged  him  to 
invoke    God  on   his  behalf.   Mow   Ibrahim   b.  Ad  hum   refused 
to  pray  for   his  fellow-passengers  when  they  were  overtaken 
by  a  storm  at  sea. 

262  Anonymous    saying    on    the    effect  of  sincerity    in  prayer. 
Prayer    of  Sari    al-Saqati.    Prayer    of   Sari    in  answer  to  the 
request  of  Abu  I  him/a.  A  prayer  which  Ibrahim  al-Marastanf 
learned  from  al-Khadir,   whom  he  saw  in  a  dream.  A  prayer 
which    Abu    cUbayd    al-Husn    learned    from   cA'isha   who  ap 
peared    to    him    while    he    was    asleep.    Prayer    of  a  Sheykh 
whose  name  is  not   mentioned.  Answer  given  to  the  author 
by  a    certain    Sheykh    whom    he    questioned  concerning  the 
real  purpose  of  prayer. 

A  prayer  of  Junaycl. 

263  CHAPTER    XCIV:    "Concerning  their  precepts  (was<ij><i)  to 

one  another." 

Precepts  by  Ruwaym  and  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn  (al-Razi). 

264  Precepts  by  Sari  al-Saqati,  Abu  Bakr  al-Barizi,  Abu  'l-cAbbas 
b,  cAtii,  Junayd,  and  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz. 

265  '  Precepts  by  Dim  '1-Ni'm,  Junayd,  Abu  cAbdallah  al-Khayyat 
al-Dinawari,  and  Abu  Bakr  al-Warraq.  Dim  '1-Nun's  reason  for 
refusing  to  give  a  precept  to  a  man  who  had  asked  him  for  one. 

266  Story    of  Abu    Muhammad   al-Murtacish :    when   dying,  he 
gave  instructions  that  his  debts  should  be  paid ;  and  the  sale 
of   the    clothes    on    his   corpse    produced    eighteen    dirhams, 
exactly    the    amount    of  his  debts.  A  precept  of  Ibrahim  b. 
Shayban.    Precept    by    an    anonymous    Sheykh. 

Precepts  by  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti,  by  an  unnamed  §ufi,  by 
a  man  whom  Dim  '1-Niin  met  on  Mount  Muqattam,  and  by 
Dhu  '1-Nun  himself. 

267  Precept  by  Junayd. 


THE  HOOK  OF  AUDITION  (savufj. 

OiAi'TEK  XCV:  "Concerning  the  beauty  of  the  voice,  and 
audition,  and  the  difference  of  those  who  practise  it." 

The  Prophet  said  that  all  the  prophets  before  him  had 
fine  voices. 

Further  Traditions  showing  that  the  Prophet  held  a  sweet 
voice  in  high  esteem  and  that  he  liked  to  hear  the  Koran 
read  with  a  musical  intonation.  The  author's  explanation  of 
the  Tradition,  "Beautify  the  Koran  by  your  voices." 

Sayings  on  this  subject  by  Dhu  '1-Nun,  Yahya  b.  Mucadh 
al-Razi,  an  anonymous  Sheykh,  Harith  al-Muhasibi,  and 
Bundar  b.  al-Husayn.  The  subtle  influence  of  sweet  sounds 
is  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  they  lull  sick  children  to  sleep 
and  restore  the  health  of  persons  suffering  from  melancholia. 
Moreover,  the  camel-driver's  chant  has  a  marvellous  effect 
upon  camels  worn  out  by  fatigue. 

Story,  related  to  the  author  by  al-Duqqf,  of  a  negro  slave 
whose  master  had  thrown  him  into  chains  because  the  sweet 
ness  of  his  voice  excited  the  heavily  laden  camels  to  rush 
along  with  such  speed  that  all  of  them,  except  one,  died  on 
arriving  at  the  end  of  their  journey.  ') 

Definition  of  the  expert  singer  by  Ishaq  b.  Ibrahim  al- 
Mawsili. 

CHAPTER  XCVI:  "Concerning  audition  and  the  various 
opinions  of  the  Sufi's  as  to  its  nature." 

Definition  by  Dhu  '1-Nun.  Saying  of  Abu  Sulayman  al- 
Darani  on  the  recitation  of  poetry  with  a  musical  accom 
paniment.  Definitions  by  Abu  Yacqub  al-Nahrajuri  and  an 
anonymous  mystic.  Description  of  samdc  by  Abu  '1-Husayn 
al-Darraj. 


l)  The  same  story  is  told  by  Hujwiri,  on  the  authority  of  Ibrahim  al-Khaw- 
was.  See  my  translation  of  the  Kashf  al-Mahjub  p.  399. 


70 

272  Sayings    of   Shibli,  Junayd,  and  an  unnamed  Sufi.  Junayd 
said    that    audition    is    one    of  the  three  occasions  on  which 
the    mercy    of  God   descends  upon  dervishes.  Audition  con 
demned    by  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari.    Abu    '1-Husayn    al-Nuri 
defined  the  Sufi  as  one  who  practises  audition.  Abu  '1-Husayn 
b.  Ziri    used    to    stay    and    listen   to  music  (samdc)  if  he  ap 
proved    of  it;    otherwise    he    would    take    up    his   shoes  and 
go.    Al-Husri    wished    for    a   samdc   that  should  never  cease, 
and  should  be  more  desired  the  more  it  was  enjoyed. 

273  CHAPTER  XCVII:   "Concerning  the  audition  of  the  vulgar 
(al-cdmmat)  and  its  permissibility  when  they  listen  to  sweet 
sounds    which    inspire    them    with    hope    or    fear   and    impel 
them  to  seek  the  afterworld". 

Saying  of  Bundar  b.  al-Husayn  on  the  pleasure  and  law 
fulness  of  audition  when  it  is  not  connected  with  any  evil 
purpose.  Quotations  from  the  Koran  showing  that  audition 
is  lawful.  The  five  senses  enable  us  to  distinguish  things 
from  their  opposites,  and  the  ear  can  distinguish  sweet 
sounds  from  harsh. 

274  Sweet  sounds  form  part  of  the  pleasures  of  Paradise  which 
are    enumerated    in    the    Koran.    Audition    is    not  like  wine- 
drinking:  the  latter  is  forbidden  in  this  world,  but  the  former 
is  permitted.  The  Prophet  allowed  two  singing-girls  to  play 
the  tambourine  in  his  house. 

275  Verses  recited  by  Abu  Bakr,  Bilal,  and  cA'isha.    Many  of 
the    Prophet's    Companions    recited    poetry.    Fourteen  verses 
are    quoted    from    the    famous    poem,    Bdnat   Su^ddu,    which 
Kacb  b.  Zuhayr  recited  in  the  presence  of  the  Prophet. 

276  The  Prophet  said,   "Wisdom  is  sometimes  to  be  found  in 
poetry".  Since  poetry  may  be  recited,  there  is  no  objection 
to  reciting  it  with   musical  notes  and  melodies  and  with  an 
agreeable  intonation.  Various  divines  and  lawyers  have  pro 
nounced    in    favour    of  audition,  e.  g.,   Malik  b.  Anas.   Story 
of  Malik   and  a  man  whom    he    rebuked    for    singing  badly. 


71 

It    is    well-known    that    Malik  l)    and    the    people   of  Medina 
did  not  dislike  audition. 

277  Shafici  was  of  the  same  opinion.  Ibn  Jurayj  departed  from 
Yemen  and  settled  at  Mecca  in  consequence  of  hearing  two 
verses    of  poetry.    He    declared    that    audition    is    neither    a 
good    nor   an   evil    act,  but   resembles   an  idle  word  (laghw) 
for  which  a  man  will  not  be  punished  hereafter  (Kor.  2,  225). 
The  author  sums  up  the  discussion  by  stating  that  audition 
is    lawful,    if  it    has    no    corrupt   end  in  view  and  if  it  does 
not  involve  the  use  of  certain  musical  instruments  forbidden 
by  the   Prophet. 

CHAPTER  XCVIII:  "Concerning  the  audition  of  the  elect 
and  their  various  degrees  therein." 

Description  by  Abu  cUthman  Sacfd  b.  cUthman  al-Razi  of 
three  kinds  of  audition:  (i)  that  of  novices  and  beginners; 
(2)  that  of  more  advanced  mystics  (siddiqin) ;  and  (3)  that 
of  gnostics  ^drifin). 

278  Three    classes    of  auditors    described    by  Abu    Yacqub  al- 
Nahrajuri.    Three    kinds    of  audition    defined    by    Bundar  b. 
al-Husayn:    some    hear   with    their   natures  (tafr],  some  with 
their    spiritual   feelings  (hdl),  and    some  through  God  (haqq}. 
The  author's  explanation  of  this  saying. 

279  The  author's  explanation  continued.  Three  classes  of  aud 
itors    distinguished  by  an  anonymous  Sufi:   (i)  the   followers 
of  realities  (abnd  al-kaqd'iq) ;  (2)  those  who  depend  on  their 
spiritual    feelings;    (3)    the    poor    (fuqard)    who    are    entirely 
detached  from  worldly  things. 

280  CHAPTER  XCIX:  "Concerning  the  different  classes  of  aud 
itors". 

Those  who  prefer  to  listen  the  Koran. 


i)  The  contrary  opinion  is  attributed  to  Malik  and  the  Medina  school  by 
Ghazali  (Ihya,  Bulaq,  1289  A.  IL,  II,  247,  17),  but  cf.  Goldziher,  Muhamm. 
Studien,  II,  79,  note  2. 


72 

Verses  of  the  Koran  and  Traditions  of  the  Prophet  which 
prove  that  listening  to  the  Koran  is  allowable. 

281  Further  Traditions  on  this  subject.  The  Koran  condemns 
those  who  listen  only  with  their  ears  and  praises  those  who 
listen    with    attentive    minds.    Examples  of  the  emotion  pro 
duced  by  listening  to  the  Koran.  In  some  cases  the  listeners 
die.    Answer   given    by  Shibli  to  Abu  GAli  al-Maghazili  who 
complained    that    the    effect    produced    by    listening    to    the 
Koran  was  not  permanent. 

282  Abu    Sulayman    al-Darani    said    that    he    sometimes   spent 
five    nights    in    pondering    over   a  single  verse  of  the  Koran 
and    that    unless   he  had  ceased  to  think  about  it  he  would 
never  have  continued  his  reading. 

Junayd  saw  a  man  who  had  swooned  on  hearing  a  verse 
of  the  Koran.  He  recommended  that  the  same  verse  should 
be  read  to  him  again ;  whereupon  the  man  recovered  his 
senses.  A  certain  Sufi  repeated  several  times  the  verse, 
"Every  soul  shall  taste  death"  (Kor.  3,  182).  He  heard  a 
voice  from  heaven  saying,  "How  long  wilt  thou  repeat  this 
verse  which  has  already  killed  four  of  the  Jinn  ?"  Abu 
'1-Tayyib  Ahmad  b.  Muqatil  al-GAkki  describes  the  terror 
and  anguish  of  Shibli  on  hearing  a  verse  of  the  Koran. 

283  Those  who  lack  the  spiritual  emotion  which  accords  with 
the    hearing    of  the    Koran    and   is  excited  thereby  are  like 
beasts:  they  hear  but  do  not  understand. 

CHAPTER  C:  "Concerning  those  who  prefer  listening  to 
odes  and  verses  of  poetry". 

Traditions  of  the  Prophet  in  praise  of  poetry.  The  con 
siderations  which  lead  some  Sufis  to  listen  to  poetry  rather 
than  to  the  Koran  are  stated  by  the  author  as  follows.  The 
Koran  is  the  Word  of  God,  /.  e.  an  eternal  attribute  of  God, 
which  men  cannot  bear  when  it  appears,  because  it  is  un 
created.  If  God  were  to  reveal  it  to  their  hearts  as  it  really 

284  is,    their    hearts    would    crack.    It    is,    however,    a   matter    of 


73 

common  knowledge  that  a  man  may  read  the  whole  Koran 
many  times  over  without  being  touched  with  emotion,  whereas 
if  the  reading  is  accompanied  by  a  sweet  voice  and  plain 
tive  intonation  he  feels  emotion  and  delight  in  hearing  it. 
These  feelings,  then,  are  not  caused  by  the  Koran,  but  by 
sweet  sounds  and  melodies  which  accord  with  human  tem 
peraments.  The  harmonies  of  poetry  are  similar  in  their 
nature  and  their  effects  and  easily  blend  with  music.  Since 
a  certain  homogeneity  exists  between  them  and  the  spirit 
of  man,  their  influence  is  much  less  powerful  and  dangerous 
than  that  of  God's  Word.  Those  who  prefer  listening  to 
poetry  are  animated  by  reverence  for  the  Koran. 

"It  is  more  fitting",  they  say,  "that  so  long  as  we  retain 
our  human  nature  we  should  take  delight  in  poetry  instead 
of  making  the  Koran  a  means  of  indulging  ourselves".  Some 
theologians  have  regarded  with  dislike  the  practice  of  trill 
ing  the  Koran,  but  if  this  is  done,  the  reason  is  that  men 
shrink  from  hearing  and  reciting  the  Koran  because  it  is  a 
reality  (haqq),  and  they  intone  it  musically  in  order  that  the 
people  may  be  drawn  to  listen  when  it  is  read. 

CHAPTER  CI:  "Concerning  the  audition  of  novices  and 
beginners". 

Story  of  a  young  man,  a  pupil  of  Junayd,  who  used  to 
shriek  whenever  he  heard  any  dhikr.  Junayd  threatened  to 
dismiss  him  if  he  did  so  again,  and  after  that  time  he  used 
to  put  such  restraint  on  himself  that  a  drop  of  water  trickled 
from  every  hair  of  his  body,  until  one  day  he  uttered  a 
loud  cry  and  expired.  A  saying  of  Junayd  related  by  Abu 
'1-Husayn  al-Sirawani. 

Story  related  by  al-Darraj  of  a  youth  who  died  on  hearing 
a  slave-girl  sing  two  verses  of  poetry  !).  Another  story  of 
the  same  kind  related  by  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhaban. 

i)  This  story  occurs  in  my  translation  of  Hujwiri's  Kashf  al-Mahjub,  p. 
408  seq. 


74 

287  Abu  cAbdallah  b.  al-Jalla  mentions  two  marvellous  things 
which    he   saw  in  the  Maghrib:  (i)  a  Sufi  begging  for  alms; 
(2)    a    Sheykh    named    Jabala,    one    of  whose    disciples    had 
died  on  hearing  a   passage  of  the  Koran,  came  to  the  reader 
on  the  next  day  and  asked  him  to  a  recite  part  of  the  Koran. 
While    he    was   reciting,   Jabala  gave  a  shriek  which   caused 
him  (the  reader)  to  fall  dead  on  the  spot.  Anecdote  of  Jacfar 
al-Mubarqac.    The    author   states  the  conditions  under  which 
it  is  proper  for  novices  to  practise  samdc. 

288  If  the    beginner   is   ignorant  of  these  conditions,  he  must 
learn    them   from    a  Sheykh,  lest  he  should  be  seduced  and 
corrupted. 

CHAPTER  CII :  "Concerning  the  audition  of  the  Suff  Sheykhs." 
Israfil,  the  teacher  of  Dhu  M-Nun,  asked  al-Tayalisi  al- 
Razi  whether  he  could  recite  any  poetry.  On  receiving  a 
negative  answer,  Israfil  said  to  him,  "Thou  hast  no  heart." 
Ruwaym  described  the  state  of  the  Sufi  Sheykhs  during 
audition  as  resembling  that  of  a  flock  of  sheep  attacked  by 
wolves.  Abu  '1-Qasim  b.  Marwan  al-Nahawandi,  who  had 
taken  no  part  in  the  samcf  for  many  years,  attended  a 

289  meeting    where   some   poetry  was  recited.  The  audience  fell 
into  ecstasy.   When  they  became  quiet  again,  Abu  '1-Qasim 
questioned  them  concerning  the  mystical  meaning  which  they 
attached    to    the    verse,    and    finally    gave   his  own  interpre 
tation.    Story    of   Abu    Hulman,    who    swooned    on    hearing 
the    street-cry    of   a   herb-seller.  The  author  points  out  that 
the  influence  of  same?  depends  on  the  spiritual  state  of  the 
hearer.    Thus,    the  same  words  may  be  regarded  as  true  by 
one    mystic    and    as    false    by   another.    Story   of  cUtba    al- 

29°  Ghulam.  Anecdote  of  Dhu  '1-Nun  al-Misrf,  who  was  over 
come  by  ecstasy  on  hearing  some  verses  recited,  but  rebuked 
a  man  who  followed  his  example.  Some  Sheykhs  possess 
insight  into  the  spiritual  state  of  those  below  them;  in  that 
case,  they  should  not  permit  them  to  claim  a  higher  state 


75 

than  that  which  really  belongs  to  them.  Account  of  Nuri's 
ecstasy  a  few  days  before  his  death.  The  ecstasy  of  °Ali  b. 
al-Muwaffaq. 

2Q1  Description  of  a  visit  which  Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Darraj  paid 
to  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn  at  Rayy.  The  latter  burst  into  tears 
on  hearing  two  verses  which  al-Darraj  recited,  though  he 
had  previously  read  aloud  to  himself  a  large  portion  of  the 
Koran  without  any  such  sign  of  emotion. 

292  A    verse   that  used  to  throw  Shiblf  into  ecstasy.  Another 
verse  that  had  the  like  effect  on  al-Duqqi. 

CHAPTER  CIII:  "Concerning  the  characteristics  of  the  per 
fect  adepts  in  audition." 

During  sixty  years  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  never  changed  coun 
tenance  when  he  heard  the  dhikr  or  the  Koran  or  anything 
else ;  it  was  only  the  weakness  of  old  age  that  at  last  caused 
him  to  show  emotion.  Another  similar  anecdote  of  Sahl  b. 

293  cAbdallah.    The    answer    given    by    Sahl    to    Ibn    Salim   who 
asked    what    it    is    that    makes   a  man  spiritually  strong  and 
enables    him    to  retain  his  composure.  Saying  of  the  Caliph 
Abu  Bakr.  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  said  that  his  state  during  prayer 
was    the  same  as  his  state  before  he  began  to  pray.  Expla 
nation    of  this   saying    by    the    author.    Sahl    was    the    same 
after    audition    as    he    had    been    before    it,    i.  e.,    his  ecstasy 
continued  without  interruption.  Story  of  Mimshadh  al-Dina- 
wari,  who  said  that  all  the  musical  instruments  in  the  world 
could  not  divert  his  thoughts  from  God. 

294  The   author  observes  that  when  Sufis  attain  to   perfection 
their   senses    are    purified    to    such  an  extent  that  they  take 
no  pleasure  in  music  and  singing.  Verse  of  the  Koran  quoted 
by    Junayd    in    reply    to    one    who    noticed    how    quiet    and 
unmoved    he    was    during    the  samcf.  Various  reasons  which 
induce  spiritual  adepts  to  attend  musical  concerts. 

295  CHAPTER    CIV:   uOn  listening  to  dhikr  and  sermons  and 
moral  sayings." 


The  profound  impression  made  upon  Abu  Bakr  al-Zaqqaq 
by  a  saying  of  Junayd.  Answer  given  by  Junayd  to  the 
question,  "When  does  a  man  regard  praise  and  blame  with 
equal  indifference?"  Saying  on  Wisdom  (hikmat]  by  Yahya 
b.  Mucadh.  It  is  said  that  when  words  come  from  the  heart 
they  penetrate  to  the  heart,  but  when  they  proceed  from 
the  tongue  they  do  not  pass  beyond  the  ears.  Many  further 
examples  might  be  given  of  the  ecstasy  and  enthusiasm 
caused  by  listening  to  dhikr  or  moral  exhortations.  Saying 
of  Abu  cUthman  (al-Hiri).  Influences  from  the  unseen  world, 
whether  they  be  audible  or  visible,  produce  a  powerful  effect 
upon  the  heart  when  they  are  in  harmony  with  it,  i.e.,  when 
the  heart  is  pure;  otherwise,  their  effect  is  weak. 

296  The  adepts,  however,  are  not  affected  in  this  way,  although 
sometimes  their  spiritual  life  is  renewed  and  replenished  by 
hearing  words  of  wisdom.  The  object  of  the  Sufis  in  audition 
is    not   solely    the    delight    of  listening   to  sweet  voices  and 
melodies,  but  rather  the  inward  feeling  of  something  homo 
geneous    with    the    ecstasy    already    existent    in  their  hearts, 
since  their  ecstasy  is  strengthened  by  feeling  it. 

CHAPTER  CV:  "Further  observations  concerning  audition." 
The  influence  of  samcf  depends  on,  and  corresponds  with, 
the  spiritual  state  of  the  hearer.  Hence  the  Sufis,  when  they 
listen  to  poetry,  do  not  think  of  the  poet's  meaning,  nor 
when  the  Koran  is  read  aloud  are  they  distressed  by  the 
negligence  of  the  reader  whilst  they  themselves  are  alert. 

297  If  speaker  and  hearer  are  one  in  feeling  and  intention,  the 
ecstasy    will   be    stronger;    but    the    Sufis    are  safe  from  any 
evil    consequences  so  long  as  the  divine  providence  encom 
passes  them.  Stories  illustrating  this.   Muhammad  b.  Masruq 
of  Baghdad  was  singing  a  verse  in  praise  of  wine  when  he 
heard    some   one    say    in    the    same   metre    and   rhyme:    "In 
Hell   there    is    a    water    that   leaves   no  entrails  in  the  belly 
of  him    whose  throat  shall  swallow  it,"  This  was  the  cause 


77 

of  his  conversion  to  Sufism.  Abu  '1-Hasan  b.  Razcan(?)  heard 
a  mandoline-player  singing  some  erotic  verses,  but  a  friend 
with  whom  he  was  walking  improvised  a  mystical  variation 
of  them.  Here,  says  the  author,  we  have  a  proof  that  verses 
of  which  the  intention  is  bad  may  be  interpreted  in  a  sense 
that  accords  with  the  inward  feelings  of  the  hearer. 

Shibli's  answer  to  a  man  who  asked  him  to  explain  the 
meaning  of  "God  is  the  best  of  deceivers"  (Kor.  3,47). 

CHAPTER  CVI:  "Concerning  those  who  dislike  the  samtf 
and  dislike  to  be  present  in  places  where  the  Koran  is 
recited  with  a  musical  intonation,  or  where  odes  are  chanted 
and  the  hearers  fall  into  an  artificial  ecstasy  and  begin  to 
dance." 

Different  reasons  for  such  dislike:  (i)  samcf  is  condemned 
by  some  great  religious  authorities ;  (2)  samdc  is  very  danger 
ous  for  novices  and  penitents:  it  may  lead  them  to  break 

299  their  vows  and  indulge  in  sensual  pleasures;  (3)  listening  to 
quatrains   (rubcfiyydt]    is   the    mark    of  two    classes    of  men, 
either  the  frivolous  and  dissolute  or  the  adepts  in  mysticism 
who   have  mortified  their  passions  and  are  entirely  devoted 
to  God.  Accordingly,  some  Sufis  reject  samdc  on  the  ground 
that  they  are  not  yet  fit  for  it.  They  think  it  better  to  occupy 
themselves   with    performing  their   religious   duties   and  with 
avoiding  forbidden  things.    Saying  of  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabarf 
on    the    dangers    of  samd^.    Saying    of  Sari  al-Saqati  on  the 
recitation  of  odes.  (4)  samd^  is  apt  to  lead  astray  the  vulgar 
who    misunderstand    the  purpose  of  the  Sufis  in  listening  to 
music;   (5)  samdc  may  bring  a  man  into  bad  company. 

300  (6)  Some  abstain  from  samdc  on  account  of  the  Tradition 
that   a   good    Moslem    leaves    alone    what    does   not  concern 
him;  (7)  some  advanced  gnostics  are  so  fully  occupied  with 
inward    communion    that    they    have    no  room  for  the   out 
ward  experience  of  audition. 


BOOK  OF   ECSTASY  (wajd). 

CHAPTER  CVII:  "Concerning  the  different  opinions  of  the 
Sufi's  as  to  the  nature  of  ecstasy." 

Definition  of  wajd  by  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al-Makki. 

301  The    meaning    of  wajd  explained  by  Junayd.  It  has  been 
said    that    wajd   is  a  revelation  from  God.  In  some  cases  it 
produces    symptoms   of  violent  emotion,  while  in  others  the 
subject  remains  calm.  One  of  the  ancient  Sufis  distinguished 
two  kinds  of  ectasy:  wajdu  mulk  and  wajdu  laqd.  Explana 
tion    of   these    terms    by    another    mystic.    Abu   '1-Hasan  al- 
Husri    enumerated    four   classes   of  men,  the  last  class  being 
"ecstatics  who  have   passed  away  from  themselves."  Sahl  b. 
cAbdallah    said    that    if  an    ecstasy   is    not   attested    by   the 
Koran  and  the  Traditions,  it  is  worthless. 

302  Three    quotations    from    Abu    Sacid    Ibn    al-Acrabi    on  the 
nature  of  ecstasy. 

CHAPTER  CVIII:  "On  the  characteristics  of  ecstatic  persons." 
The  Koran  and  the  Traditions  show  that  fear  and  trembling 
and  shrieking  and  moaning  and  weeping  and  swooning  are 
among  the  characteristics  of  such  persons.  Ecstasy  may  be 
either  genuine  (wajd)  or  artificial  (tawdjud).  The  author 
divides  those  whose  ecstasy  is  genuine  (al-wdjidun)  into 
three  classes: 

303  (i)    those    whose    ecstasy  is  disturbed  at  times  by  the  in 
trusion    of  sensual  influences;  (2)  those  whose  ecstasy  is  in 
terrupted    only  by  the  delight  which  they  take  in  audition ; 
(3)  those  whose  ecstasy  is  perpetual  and  who,  in  consequence 
of  their  ecstasy,  have  utterly  passed  away  from  themselves. 

Also,  there  are  three  classes  of  those  whose  ecstasy  is 
artificial  (al-mutawdjidun). 

(i)  those  who  take  pains  to  induce  ecstasy  and  imitate 
others,  and  those  who  are  frivolous  and  despicable;  (2) 
ascetics  and  mystics  who  endeavour  to  excite  lofty  states 


79 


(of  ecstasy).  Although  it  might  become  them  better  not  to 
do  this,  such  ecstasy  is  approved  in  them  since  they  have 
renounced  worldly  things,  and  their  ecstasy  is  the  result  of 
the  joy  which  they  feel  in  austerities  and  asceticism.  They 
are  justified  by  the  Tradition,  "Weep,  and  if  ye  weep  not, 
then  try  to  weep!"  (3)  mystics  of  the  weaker  type  who,' 
being  unable  to  control  their  movements  or  to  hide  their 
inward  feelings,  fall  into  artificial  ecstasy  as  a  means  of 
throwing  off  a  burden  which  they  find  intolerable.  The  last 
words  of  Husayn  b.  Mansur  (al-Hallaj). 

304  The    criterion    of  'sound'  and  'unsound'  ecstasy  according 
to  Abu  Yacqub  al-Nahrajuri. 

CHAPTER  CIX:  "Concerning  the  artificial  ecstasy  (tawdjud) 
of  the  Sheykhs  who  are  sincere." 

305  Two  anecdotes  of  Shibli.  Story  of  Nuri. 

He  threw  a  whole  company  into  ecstasy  by  his  recitation 
of  some  erotic  verses.  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  was  frequently 
overcome  by  ecstasy  when  he  meditated  on  death. 

The  reason  of  this  explained  by  Junayd.  Explanation  by 
an  unnamed  Sheykh  of  the  difference  between  wuj4d  and 
tawdjud.  Those  who  dislike  ecstasy,  because  of  seeing  some 
defect  in  the  person  whose  ecstasy  is  induced  by  artificial 
means,  follow  the  authority  of  Abu  cUthman  al-Hfri. 

306  He    said    to   a    man    whom    he    saw    in   an  ecstasy  of  this 
kind,   "If  you  are  sincere,  you  have  divulged  His  secret,  and 
if  you   are   not  sincere,  you  are  guilty  of  polytheism."  The 
author    suggests    what    Abu    cUthman   may   have    meant    by 
these  words. 

CHAPTER  CX:  "Concerning  the  mighty  power  and  trans 
porting  influence  of  ecstasy." 

Sari  al-Saqati  expressed  his  conviction  that  if  a  man  who 
had  fallen  into  a  deep  fit  of  ecstasy  were  struck  on  the  face 
with  a  sword,  he  would  not  feel  the  blow.  According  to 
Junayd,  such  a  person  is  more  perfect  than  one  who  devotes 


8o 

himself  to  the  religious  law;  but  on  another  occasion  he  said 
that  abundance  of  positive  religion  is  more  perfect  than  abun 
dance  of  ecstasy.  A  saying  of  Junayd  to  the  effect  that  the 
state  of  quiet  in  ecstasy  is  superior  to  the  transport  which 
precedes  it,  and  that  the  ecstatic  transport  is  superior  to  the 
state  of  quiet  which  precedes  it.  Explanation  by  the  author. 

307  The  ecstasies  of  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  described  by  Ibn  Salim. 
Junayd's    criticism  of  Shiblf.  A  story,  related  by  Junayd,  of 
Sari   al-Saqati  who  said  that  his  love  of  God  had  shrivelled 
the  skin  on  his  arm ;  then  he  swooned,  and  his  face  became 
so   radiant  that  none  of  those  present  could  bear  to  behold 
it.  Description  by  °Amr  b.  GUthman  al-Makkf   of  the   ecstasy 
which  fills  the  soul  and  increases  its  knowledge  of  the  divine 
omnipotence  and  makes  it  unconscious  of  all  sensible  objects. 

308  Verse  recited  by  Abu  cUthman  al-Muzayyin. 

CHAPTER  CXI:  "Concerning  the  question  which  is  the  more 
perfect,  one  who  is  quiet  in  ecstasy  or  one  who  is  agitated". 

This  question  is  discussed  by  Abu  Sacid  Ibn  al-Acrabi  in 
his  book  on  ecstasy.  He  declares  that  in  some  cases  the 
proper  and  perfect  condition  is  quiet,  while  in  others  it  is 
agitation. 

309  The  quiet  ecstatics  are  preferred  on  account  of  the  super 
ior    firmness    of  their  minds,  the  agitated  on  account  of  the 
superior   strength    of  their    ecstasies.    Quiet    would    be  more 
perfect,    if  we    presupposed    two   equal    minds;    but    no  two 
minds    or    men  or  ecstasies  are  just  on  the  same  level,  and 
therefore    it    is    useless    to    assert    that    quiet    is    superior    or 
inferior  to  agitation.  The  superiority  or  inferiority  of  either 
depends    on    the    particular  nature  and  circumstances  of  the 
ecstatic  state. 

310  CHAPTER  CXII:   "A  compendious  summary  of  the  subject 
from    the    Book   of  Ecstasy  composed  by  Abu  Sacid  Ibn  al- 
Acrabi." 

Various  feelings  and  spiritual  states  by  which  ecstasy  may 


8i 

be  produced.  Definition  and  description  of  ecstasy.  It  comes 
in  a  moment  and  is  gone  in  a  moment.  God  shows  His 
wisdom  and  His  lovingkindness  towards  His  friends  by 
causing  ecstasy  to  be  so  transient. 

311  Were    it   otherwise,  they  would  lose  their  wits.  A  further 
description   of   ecstasy.    Some    ecstatics    are    able    to   give  a 
partial  account  of  their  experience,  and  this  serves  them  as 
an   argument    against   sceptics;   else  they  would  not  divulge 
it.    Remarks    on    the  difficulty  of  distinguishing  true  ecstasy 
from   the    similar   phenomena    which   sometimes    result  from 
sensuous  impressions. 

312  Description  of  the  ecstasy  of  quietists  who  keep  the  path 
of  Moslem  theology,  and  of  those  mystics  who  diverge  from 
it.    The    latter    imperil    their   salvation  by  leaving  this  high 
way.  Ibn  al-Acrabi  says  that  the  foregoing  observations  refer 
to    the  outward  sciences  of  ecstasy  which  can  be  explained 
in   ordinary  or  symbolic  language;  the  rest  is  indescribable, 
since    it   consists   of  immediate    experience   of  the    Unseen, 
self-evident  to  those  who  have  enjoyed  it,  but  incapable  of 
demonstration. 

313  The    essence    of  ecstasy   and    of  other    mystical    states  is 
incommunicable,  and  is  better  described  by  silence  than  by 
speech. 

314  Those   who  are  fit  to  receive  such  knowledge  do  not  ask 
questions,  inasmuch  as  they  feel  no  doubt. 

Ecstatic  states  are  a  gift  from  God  and  cannot  be  acquired 
by  human  effort,  though  some  of  them  are  the  fruit  of  good 
works.  Any  one  who  begs  God  to  grant  him  an  increase 
(of  ecstasy)  has  thereby  strengthened  the  capital  that  ren 
ders  increase  necessary,  and  any  one  who  neglects  this  duty 
runs  the  risk  of  being  deprived  of  the  capital  which  he  has. 


82 


315  BOOK  ESTABLISHING  THE  REALITY  OF  DIVINE 

SIGNS  AND  MIRACLES. 

CHAPTER  CXIII:  "Concerning  the  meanings  of  divine  signs 
(ay at)  and  miracles  (kardmdt),  with  some  mention  of  persons 
who  were  thus  gifted." 

Saying  of  Sahl  b.  GAbdallah  on  ay  at,  mifjizdt,  and  kardmdt. 
Sahl  said  that  the  gift  of  miracles  would  be  granted  to  any 
one  who  sincerely  renounced  the  world  for  forty  days;  if 
no  miracles  were  wrought,  his  renunciation  must  have  been 
incomplete.  Saying  of  Junayd  on  those  who  dispute  about 
miracles  but  cannot  perform  them.  Saying  of  Sahl  on  one 
who  renounces  the  world  for  forty  days.  Four  principles  of 
Faith,  according  to  Ibn  Salim.  One  of  these  is  faith  in  the 
power  (qudrat)  of  God,  i.  e.,  belief  in  miracles. 

316  Sahl  said  to  one  of  his  companions,  "Do  not  consort  with 
me  any  more,  if  you  are  afraid  of  wild  beasts."  The  author 
relates  that  he  visited  Sahl's  house  at  Tustar  and  went  into 
a  room  called  'the  Wild  Beasts'  Room'  where  Sahl  used  to 
receive     and    feed    the    wild    beasts.    Story    of   a    negro    at 
cAbbadan   who    turned    earth    into    gold.  Story  of  a  donkey 
which    spoke    to    Abu    Sulayman    al-Khawwas   when   he  was 
beating  its  head.  Ahmad  b.  cAta  al-Rudhabari  tells  how  his 
prayer  for  forgiveness  was  answered  by  a  heavenly  voice. 

317  How    Jacfar   al-Khuldi   recovered    a  gem  which  had  fallen 
into    the    Tigris    by    means   of  a    'prayer   for  lost  property.' 
Text    of   the    prayer.    Abu    '1-Tayyib    al-°Akki    showed    the 
author   a  long  list  compiled  by  him  of  persons  who,  in  the 
course    of  a   short   time,  had  used  this  prayer  with  success. 
How    Abu    '1-Khayr    al-Tinati    read    the   thoughts   of  Hamza 
b.    cAbdallah    al-cAlawf.    The    author    declares    that  all  these 
men    were    famous    for    veracity   and    piety,    and    that    their 
evidence  is  above  suspicion. 


33 

318  CHAPTER   CXIV:    "Concerning    the  arguments  of  theolog 
ians    who    deny   the    reality    of  miracles,  and  the  arguments 
in  favour  of  miracles  wrought  by  the  saints,  and  the  distinction 
between  the  saints  and  the  prophets  in  this  matter." 

Some  theologians  hold  that  the  gift  of  miracles  is  bestowed 
on  the  prophets  exclusively,  and  assert  that  its  attribution 
to  others  involves  their  equality  with  the  prophets.  The 
object  of  this  doctrine  is  to  confirm  the  prophetic  miracles, 
but  it  is  mistaken,  because  there  are  several  points  in  which 
the  two  classes  of  miracles  differ  from  each  other:  (i)  the 
prophets  reveal  their  miracles  and  use  them  as  a  means  of 
convincing  the  people,  whereas  the  saints  ought  to  conceal 
theirs;  (2)  the  prophets  employ  miracles  as  an  argument 
against  unbelievers,  but  the  saints  employ  them  as  an  argu 
ment  against  themselves  for  the  purpose  of  strengthening 
their  own  faith. 

319  Saying  of  Ibn  Salim  illustrating  the  use  of  miracles  as  an 
aid  to  faith.  Story  of  the  advice  given  by  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah 
to   Ishaq  b.  Ahmad  who  came  to  him  in  great  anxiety  lest 
he   should    be    deprived    of  his  daily  bread.  The  lower  soul 
(nafs)  is  satisfied  with  nothing  less  than  ocular  evidence. 

320  (3)  While    the    prophets    are  perfected  and  encouraged  in 
proportion    as    a   greater    quantity    of   miracles    is    bestowed 
upon    them,    the    saints    in    the    same   circumstances  become 
more    dismayed    and   fearful,    because    they    dread   that  God 
may  be  secretly  deceiving  them  and  that  the  miracles  which 
He  bestows  upon  them  may  lead  to  loss  of  spiritual  rank. 

CHAPTER  CXV:  "Concerning  the  evidences  for  the  reality 
of  miracles  wrought  by  the  saints,  and  the  unsoundness  of 
the  doctrine  that  miracles  are  wrought  by  none  except  the 
prophets." 

It  appears  from  the  Koran  and  the  Traditions  that  many 
persons  who  were  not  prophets  had  the  gift  of  miracles, 
e.  g.,  Mary,  the  mother  of  Jesus,  the  Christian  anchorite 


84 

Jurayj,   and    the    three    men    who    took    shelter    in   the  cave 
(as  is  related  in  the  Hadith  al-ghdr}. 

321  Further  Traditions  concerning  persons  endowed  with  mira 
culous  powers:  cUmar  b.  al-Khattab,  GAlf,  Fatima,  Usayd  b. 
Hudayr,    cAttab    b.    Bashir,    Abu   '1-Darda,   Salman  al-Farisi, 
al-cAla  b.  al-Hadrami,  cAbdallah  b.  cUmar,  al-Bara  b.  Malik, 

322  cAmir    b.    °Abd    al-Qays,    Hasan    al-Basri,    Uways   al-Qarani 
and    others.   These  miracles  are  related  and  attested   by  the 

323  greatest   religious    authorities,    whose    evidence    on   this  sub 
ject    is    no  less  worthy  of  credit  than  their  evidence,  which 
is    universally  accepted,  on  matters  of  law  and  religion.  All 
miracles   that    have    been    manifested    since    the  time  of  the 
Prophet    and    all   that    shall    be    manifested  until  the  Resur 
rection  are  granted  by  God  as  a  mark  of  honour  to  Muhammad. 
Some    Moslems,    however,    consider    miracles    a    temptation, 
and    dread    the    loss    of  spiritual    rank,    and    do    not  reckon 
amongst    the   elect  those  who  desire  them  and  are  satisfied 
with  them. 

324  CHAPTER    CXVI:    "On   the  various  positions  occupied  by 
the  elect  in  regard  to  miracles,  together  with  an  account  of 
those    who   dislike  the  miraculous  grace  manifested  to  them 
and  fear  lest  it  lead  them  into  temptation." 

Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  said  that  the  greatest  miracle  is  the 
substitution  of  a  good  quality  for  a  bad  one.  Abu  Yazid 
al-Bistami  declared  that  when  he  paid  no  attention  to  the 
miracles  which  God  offered  to  bestow  on  him,  he  received 
the  gnosis.  Other  sayings  of  Abu  Yazid.  Junayd  said  that 
the  hearts  of  the  elect  are  veiled  from  God  by  regarding 
His  favours,  by  taking  delight  in  His  gifts,  and  by  relying 
on  miracles. 

325  Warning  given  by  Sahl  b.  GAbdallah  to  a  man  who  boasted 
of  a  miracle  which  took  place  when  he  performed  his  ablu 
tions.  How  Abu  Hamza  opened  a  door.  Nuri  found  the  banks 
of  the   Tigris  joined   together  in  order  that  he  might  cross 


85 

the  river,  but  he  swore  that  he  would  not  cross  except  in 
a  boat.  Story  of  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami  and  his  teacher,  Abu 
cAli  al-Sindi.  Story  of  Abu  Turab  al-Nakhshabi  and  a  youth 
who  was  in  his  company. 

326  Story  of  Ishaq  b.  Ahmad,  who  died  in  debt  although  he 
could  transmute  copper  into  gold  and  silver.  Discussion  be 
tween    Ibn    Salim    and    Sahl    b.  GAbdallah,  and  between  the 
author   and   Ibn    Salim,    as   to  the  reason  why  Ishaq  b.  Ah 
mad    refused    to    exercise    the    miraculous    power   which  had 
been  conferred  upon  him. 

327  Story    of    Abu    Hafs    or   another,    who    wished    to    kill    a 
sheep    for  his  disciples,  but  when  a  gazelle  came  and  knelt 
beside    him   he    wept    and    repented    of  his    wish.  Saying  of 
an  anonymous  mystic  to  the  effect  that  equanimity  in  mis 
fortune  is  more  admirable  than  thaumaturgy.  Story  of  Nuri, 
who    swore    that    he   would   drown  himself  unless  he  caught 
a  fish  of  a  certain  weight.  Junayd's  remark  on  this.   Saying 
of  Yahya  b.  Mucadh  al-Razi. 

328  CHAPTER  CXVII:   "Concerning  those  who,  on  account  of 
their    veracity   and  purity  and  spiritual  soundness,  reveal  to 
their  companions  the  miraculous  grace  vouchsafed  to  them." 

Story  of  a  sparrow  which  used  to  perch  on  the  hand  of 
Sari  al-Saqati.  Story  of  a  mysterious  person  who  appeared 
to  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas  when  he  had  lost  his  way  in  the 
desert.  Story  of  Abu  Hafs  (al-Haddad)  of  Naysabur,  who  put 
his  hand  into  a  furnace  and  drew  out  a  piece  of  red-hot  iron. 

329  The    reason    why  Abu  Hafs  revealed  this  miraculous  gift. 
Story  of  Ibrahim  b.  Shayban's  encounter  with  a  wild  beast. 
Anecdote    of  Dhu  '1-Nun  related  by  Ahmad  b.  Muhammad 
al-Sulami.  How  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz,  when  faint  from  want 
of  food,  was  miraculously  strengthened,  so  that  he  journeyed 
twelve     more     days    without    breaking    his   fast.    A    miracle 
related  by  Abu  cUmar  al-Anmati. 

330  A  man  stole  two  dirhems  from  Khayr  al-Nassaj  :  he  could 


86 

not  open  his  hand  until  he  came  to  Khayr  and  confessed 
what  he  had  done. 

CHAPTER  CXVIII:  "Concerning  the  states  of  the  elect 
which  are  not  regarded  as  miraculous,  although  they  are 
essentially  more  perfect  and  subtle  than  miracles". 

Sahl  b.  GAbdallah  used  to  fast  for  seventy  days,  and  when 
he  ate  he  became  weak,  whereas  he  became  strong  when 
he  abstained  from  food.  Saying  of  Abu  '1-Harith  al-Awlasi. 
How  Abu  cUbayd  al-Busri  fasted  during  the  month  of  Ra 
madan.  Saying  of  Abu  Bakr  al-Kattani. 

331  The   meaning   of  security  (amn)  explained  to  Abu  Hamza 
by  a  man  of  Khurasan.  How  Junayd  tested  one  of  his  dis 
ciples  who  was  able  to  read  men's  thoughts. 

Story  of  Harith  al-Muhasibi,  who  could  not  swallow  any 
food  that  was  not  legally  pure. 

332  Story    of   Abu  Jacfar  al-Haddad  and  Abu  Turab  al-Nakh- 
shabi.    Three    persons  endowed    with    extraordinary    powers 
whom  Husri  had  seen.  Why  Jacfar  al-Mubarqac  did  not  make 
any    vow   to    God  during  a  period  of  thirty -years.  Story  of 
Ismacil   al-Sulami    who  fell  from  the  top  of  a  mountain  and 
broke  his  leg. 

333  BOOK  OF  THE  EXPLANATION  OF  OBSCURITIES. 

CHAPTER    CXIX:    "Concerning    the    interpretation    of  the 
difficult  words  which  are  used  in  the  speech  of  the  Sufis." 
List  of  Sufistic  technical  terms. 

334  Continuation  of  the  above  list. 

CHAPTER  CXX:   "On  the  explanation  of  these  words". 
(i)  al-haqq   bi    'l-Jiaqq    li    'l-haqq.   Al-haqq   signifies    Allah. 
Sayings  of  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz  and  Abu  cAli  al-Sindi. 

335  (2)  al-hdL  Definitions  by  the  author  and  Junayd. 

(3)  al-maqdm.  Definition  by  the  author. 

(4)  al-makdn.    The  author  defines  the  term  and  illustrates 
his  definition  by  quoting  an  anonymous  verse. 


(5)  al-mushdhadat.    This    term    is    nearly  equivalent  to  al- 
mukdshafat.  Definition  by  cAmr  b.  cUthman,"al-Makki. 

(6)  al-lawaih.  Definition  by  the  author.  Saying  of  Junayd. 
336       (7)  al-lawdmf.    Almost    synonymous    with    the    preceding. 

Derivation  of  the  term.  Saying  of  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al- 
Makki. 

(8)  al-haqq.  Allah,  according  to  Kor.   24,  25. 

(9)  al-huquq.  These  are  'states',   'stations',  mystic   sciences, 
etc.  As  al-Tayalisi  al-Razi  said,  huquq  are  opposed  to 
huzuz,  which  are  associated  with   the  lower  self  (nafs). 

(10)  al-tahqiq.    The     author's     definition.     Saying     of    Dhu 

'1-Niin. 
(u)  al-tahaqquq.    This    term    is    related    to    al-tahqiq  as  al- 

tcfallum  (learning)  is  related  to  al-taclim  (teaching). 

(12)  al-haqiqat   and    its    plural    al-haq&iq.    Definition.    The 
337  answer   given  by    Haritha    to    the    Prophet's  question, 

"What  is  the  haqiqat  of  thy  faith?"  Saying  of  Junayd. 

(13)  al-khusus.  Definition  of  ahl  al-khusus. 

(14)  khusus   al-khusus.    Definition.    Both  classes,  khusus  and 
khusus   al-khusus,    are    referred    to    in    Kor.    35,    29.  A 
Saying  of  Junayd  to  Shibli. 

(15)  al-ishdrat.   Definition.  Abu   cAli  al-Rudhabarf  said  that 
the  science  of  Sufism  is  an  is  karat. 

(16)  al-ima.    Definition.   Anecdote    of  Junayd    and   Ibn  al- 
Kurrini  (al-Karanbi).  According  to  Shibli,  Imd?  in  refe 
rence  to  God  is  idolatry. 

33^  Two  verses  by  an  anonymous  poet. 

(17)  al-ramz.    Definition.    Verse  by  al-Qannad.  It  has  been 
said    by    a   Sufi,    whose    name    is    not   mentioned,  that 
those  who  wish  to  understand  the  symbolic  utterances 
of  eminent  mystics  should  study  the  letters  and  epistles 
which    they    have    written   to    one    another,    not   their 
books. 

(18)  al-safd.    Definition.    Sayings    of  Jariri    and    Ibn    cAta. 


88 

Definitions    of   safd    and    safd    al-safd   by    al-Kattani. 

(19)  safd  al-safd.    Definition.    Three    verses    explaining    the 
term. 

(20)  al-zawd'id*   Definition.  Saying  of  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al- 
Makki. 

339  (21)  al-fawaid.    Definition.    Saying    of  Abu    Sulayman    al- 

Darani. 

(22)  al-shdhid.  Definition.  Verse  (by  Labid).  Another  mean 
ing  of  al-shdhid.  Definition  of  the  term  by  Junayd. 

(23)  al-mashhud.   Definition.    Abu    Bakr   al-Wasiti  said  that 
al-shdhid  is  God,  and  al-mashhud  the  created  world. 

(24)  al-mawjud  and  al-mafqud.  Definitions.    Saying  of  Dhu 
'1-Nun. 

(25)  al-ma^dum.    Definition.    Distinction    between   al-mcfdum 
and  al-mafqud.  A  certain  gnostic  said  that  the  universe 
is   an    existence    bounded    on    either  side  by  non-exis 
tence  i^adam). 

(26)  al-jamc.    A    term    denoting    God    without    the    created 
world. 

(27)  al-tafriqat.  This  term  denotes  the  created  world. 

340  The  two  preceding  terms  are  complementary  to  each 
other.  Unification  (tawkid)  consists  in  combining  them. 
Verse  on  this  subject. 

(28)  al-ghaybat.  Definition. 

(29)  al-ghashyat.  Definition. 

(30)  al-hudur.    Definition.    Verses    by   al-Nuri    and    another 
mystic. 

(31)  al-sahw  and  al-sukr.  These  terms  are  nearly  synonymous 
with  al-hudur  and  al-ghaybat.  Verses  by  a  Sufi  whose 
name    is  not  mentioned.  Explanation  of  the  difference 
between  al-sukr  and  al-ghashyat. 

34 J  The  difference  between  al-hudur  and  al-sahw. 

(32)  safw  al-wajd.  Definition.  A  verse  illustrating  it. 

(33)  al-hujum    and    al-ghalabdt.    The    former    is    the    action 


89 

of  one    who    is    under   the  influence  of  the  latter.  De 
finition. 

(34)  al-fand  and  al-baqd.  These  terms  have  been  mentioned 
in  a  previous  chapter.  Definitions. 

(35)  al-mubtadi1.  Definition. 

(36)  al-murid.  Definition. 

342     (37)  al-murdd.  Definition.  This  term  denotes  the  gnostic  in 
whom  no  will  of  his  own  is  left. 

(38)  al-wajd.  Definition. 

(39)  al-tawdjud  and  al-tasdkur.  Definitions. 

(40)  al-waqt.  Definition.  Saying  of  Junayd. 

(41)  al-bddi.  Definition.  Saying  of  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas. 

(42)  al-wdnd.    Definition.    The  difference  between  al-wdrtd 
and  al-bddi.  Saying  of  Dhu  '1-Nun. 

(43)  al-khdtir.  Definition. 

(44)  al-wdqf.  Definition.  Saying  of  a  certain  Sheykh  which 
the    author   heard    from    Abu  '1-Tayyib  al-Shfrazi.  Ex 
planation    of  the    words   mcfa  awwali  khdtirika  which 
were  used  by  Junayd  in  speaking  to  Khayr  al-Nassaj. 

The   thought    that    occurs    first  (awwalu  'l-khdtir)  is 
said  to  be  the  true  one.    Other  meanings  of  al-khdtir. 

(45)  al-qddih.    This    term    is    nearly    synonymous    with  '  al- 
khdtir   but    there    is  a  difference  in   respect  of  its  ap 
plication.  Derivation   and  primary  meaning  of  al-qddih. 
Saying  of  a  mystic  whose  name  is  not  recorded. 

(46)  al^drid.  Definition  and  scope  of  the  term.  It  is  always 
used  in  a  bad  sense.  An  illustrative  verse.  ') 

(47)  al-qabd    and    al-bast.    These    terms    denote    two    lofty 
states    peculiar    to    gnostics.  The  author  explains  what 
is  involved  in  each  state.  Junayd  identifies  al-qabd  v\^ 
fear  and  al-bast  with  hope. 

44  Verses  describing  the  gnostic  in  the  state  of  al-qabd 

I)  By  AM  cAbdallah  al-Qurashi.  See  p.  teo 1.  if  . 


90 

and  in  the  state  of  al-basL  The  author  explains  that 
three  classes  of  gnostics  are  distinguished  in  these 
verses.  He  adds  that  al-ghaybat  and  al-hudiir  and  al- 
sahw  and  al-sukr  and  al-wajd  and  al-hujum  and  al- 
ghalabdt  and  al-fand  and  al-baqd  are  mystical  states 
belonging  to  hearts  which  are  filled  with  a  profound 
recollection  (dhikr)  and  veneration  of  God. 

(48)  al-makhudh  and  al-mustalab .  These  terms  are  synony 
mous  although  the  former  denotes  a  more  complete  state. 
The  persons  to  whom  they  refer  are  described  in  two 
Traditions    of  the    Prophet   and    in  a  saying  of  Hasan 
(al-Basri)  concerning  Mujahid. 

345  A  verse  in  which  both  terms  are  used. 

(49)  al-dakshat.  Definition.  Story  of  a  mystic  who  swooned 
after  having  asked  God  to  grant  him  spiritual  rest,  and 
who  excused  himself  by  pleading  that  he  was  distraught 
by  Divine  Love.  Verse  on  the  dahshat  caused  by  love.  A 
saying  of  Shibli. 

(50)  al-hayrat.  Definition.  Saying  of  al-Wasiti. 

(51)  al-tahayyur.    Definition.    A    certain    Sufi   said    that   al- 
tahayyur  is  the  first  stage  of  gnosis  (mcfrifat),  and  al- 
hayrat  the  last.  Verse  on  al-tahayyur. 

(52)  al-tawdlf.  Definition. 

346  Verses  by  Husayn  b.  Mansur  al-Hallaj. 

(53)  al-tawdriq.  Definition.  An  unnamed  mystic  said  that  he 
would  not  let  tawdriq  enter  his  heart  until  he  had  sub 
mitted  them  to  (the  test  of  conformity  with)  the  Koran 
and  the    Sunna.    The    primary   meaning   of  al-tawdrtq. 
A  Tradition  of  the  Prophet  in  which  the  word  occurs. 

(54)  al-kashf.    Definition.    Saying    of   Abu    Muhammad    al- 
Jariri.  Saying  of  Shibli. 

(55)  al-shath.    Definition.    A   saying    of   Abu  Hamza  which 
a   man  of  Khurasan  described  as  shath.  Meaning  of  the 
expression  shath  al-lisdn.  Junayd  wrote  a  commentary 


on  the  shatahdt  of  Abu  Yazfd  al-Bistamf,  and  he  would 
not  have  done  so  if,  in  his  opinion,  Abu  Yazfd  was 
to  be  condemned  for  indulging  in  shath. 

Two  verses  by  al-Qannad. 

347  (56)  al-sawl.  Definition.  The  practice  denoted  by  this  term 
is  a  blameworthy  one.  Saying  of  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabarf. 
Reasons  why  sawl  should  be  avoided.  The  term  is  also 
used  in  reference  to  advanced  mystics  who  yasMna 
billdh,  and  the  Prophet  said  in  his  prayer,  «O  God, 
by  Thee  I  spring  to  the  assault"  (bika  asulu).  A  similar 
expression  quoted  from  the  writings  of  Ibrahim  al- 
Khawwas.  An  anonymous  verse. 

(57)  al-dhahdb.  Identical  in  meaning  with  al-ghaybat  but  more 
complete.  Definition.  Junayd,  in  his  commentary  on  the 
ecstatic  sayings  of  Abu  Yazfd  al-Bistamf,  explains  the 
words    laysa   bi-laysa   as  being  equivalent  to  al-dhahdb 
^an  al-dhahdb.    Other  mystical  terms  used  in   the  same 
sense  are  fand  and  faqd. 

(58)  al-nafas.  Definitions  by  the  author  and  by  an  unnamed 
Sufi.  A  synonym  is  al-tanaffus. 

Verses  by  Dhu  '1-Nun.  Here  al-nafas  is  Divine,  but 
it  is  also  employed  in  reference  to  mankind.  Saying 
of  Junayd.  An  anonymous  verse. 

(59)  *t-/itss.  Definition.  Saying  of  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al-Makkf 
concerning  those  who  assert  that  they  feel  no  sensation 
(kiss)  in  ecstasy. 

(60)  tawhid  al^dmmat.  Definition. 

(61)  tawhid  al-khdssat.    This    term    has    been  mentioned  in 
the  chapter  on    Unification.    Definition.  Explanation  of 
the  term  by  Shiblf. 

(62)  al-tafrid.  Definition.  A  certain  Siiff  said  that  there  are 
many    muwahhidun    but    few    mufarridun.    Husayn    b. 
Mansur  al-Hallaj,  when  he  was  about  to  be  killed,  said,' 
hasb  al-wdjid  ifrdd  al-wdkid. 


92 

(63)  al-tajrid.  Definition  by  the  author. 

349  Definition    by   an    unnamed    Sheykh.    The   terms  al- 

tajrid,  al-tafrid,  and  al-tawhid  coincide  in  their  mean 
ings  but  are  distinguished  from  each  other  in  various 
ways  by  mystics.  Anonymous  verse  on  al-tajrid. 

(64)  al-hamm    al-mufarrad  and  al-sirr  al-mujarrad.  These 
terms    mean    the    same    thing.    Definition.  A  saying  of 
Ibrahim  al-Ajurri  addressed  to  Junayd.  A  saying  of  Shibli. 

(65)  al-muhddathat.   A  term  describing  the  state  of  adepts. 
Saying   of  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasitf.  The  Prophet  said  that 
among   the   Moslems    there   are  muhaddathun  and  that 
cUmar   was   one    of  them.    Sahl  b.  GAbdallah  declared 
that  God  created  His  creatures  in  order  that  He  might 
converse    with   them    in  secret  (yusdrrahum)  and  they 
with  Him. 

(66)  al-mundjdt.  Definition.  An  example  of  Junayd's  mundjdt. 
35°     (67)  al-musdmarat.    Definition   by  the  author.  Verse  by  al- 

Rudhabari.  Definition  by  an  unnamed  Sheykh. 

(68)  ru'yat   al-qulub.    Definition.  A  saying  of  cAli  affirming 
spiritual    vision    of  God    in  this  world.  A  Tradition  of 
the  Prophet. 

(69)  al-ism.    Definition.    Two  sayings  of  Shibli.  Verse  cited 
by  Abu  '1-Husayn  al-Nuri.  Two  more  sayings  of  Shibli. 

(70)  al-rasm.  Definition. 

351  Saying  of  Junayd  concerning  one  who  has  no  rasm. 

The  rusum  of  a  man  are  the  knowledge  and  actions 
which  are  attributed  to  him.  An  anonymous  verse. 

(71)  al-wasm.  Definition.  Saying  of  Ahmad  b.  cAta. 

(72)  al-riih     (al-rawh)    and    al-tarawwuh.    Definition.    Two 
sayings  of  Yahya  b.  Mucadh  al-Razi.  A  saying  of  Sufyan. 

(73)  al-naft.  Definition.  The  terms  al-na^t  and  al-wasf  may 
be  synonymous,  but  the  former  is  a  detailed  description, 
while  the  latter  is  a  summary  description. 

(74)  al-sifat.  Definition. 


93 

(75)  al-dhdt.    Definition.    Relation    of  the  ism  and  nact  and 
sifat  to  the  dhdt. 

352  Saying  of  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti.  Two  verses  (by  Abu 
cAbdallah  al-Qurashi)  !). 

(76)  «/-/«jVtf.  Definition.  Saying  of  Sari  al-Saqati.  The  author's 
explanation  of  a  saying  of  Muhammad  b.  cAli  al-Kattani. 

(77)  al-dcfwd.  Definition.  Saying  ofSahl  b.  cAbdallah.  Verse 
on  the  pretence  (dcfwd)  of  love  2).  The  author  explains 
a  saying  of  Abu  cAmr  al-Zajjajf. 

(78)  al-ikhtiydr.  Definition. 

353  Saying  of  Yahya  b.   Mucadh. 

(79)  al-ikhtibdr.    Definition.    Explanation    of  the    Prophet's 
saying  ukhbur  taqlah. 

(80)  al-bald.  Definition.  Saying  of  Abu  Muhammad  al-Jarfri. 

A  Tradition  of  the  Prophet.  Verses  on  the  subject  of 
al-bald. 

(Si)  al-hsdn.  Definition.  The  use  of  the  term  exemplified  in 
a  letter  written  by  Nurf  to  Junayd. 

354  Shibli's   explanation    of  the  difference  between  lisdn 
al-cilm,  lisdn  al-haqiqat,  and  lisdn  al-kaqq. 

(82)  al-sirr.  Definitions  by  the  author  and  another  Sufi. 

The  meaning  of  sirr  al-khalq  and  sirr  al-kaqq. 
The    meaning    of  sirr   al-sirr.    A  saying  of  Sahl  b. 
cAbdallah.  Two  verses.  3) 

(83)  al-^aqd.  Definition.  Saying  of  a  sage  (hakim)  on  gnosis. 

The    reason    why    Muhammad    b.    Yacqub    al-Farajf 
refrained    from    making   an  <aqd  with  God.  Distinction 
between  verbal  promises  and  spiritual  vows. 
55     (84)  al-hamm.  Definition.  Saying  of  Abu  Sacfd  al-Kharraz. 

Saying  of  an  unnamed  mystic. 

1)  See  p.  tel,  1.  I! 

2)  Cf.  p.  rot,  1.  f 

3)  cf.  P.  rrr,  1. 1 


94 

(85)  al-lahz.  Definition.  Verses  by  al-Rudhabari. 

(86)  al-mahw.    Definition.    Al-mahw    distinguished    from    al- 
tams.  A  saying  of  Nuri,  with  explanation  by  the  author. 

(87)  al-mahq.  Almost  synonymous  with  al-mahw.  Saying  of 
Shibli  in  reply  to  a  man  who  asked,   "Is  not  He  with 
thee  and  art  not  thou  with  Him  r" 

356  Verse  of  an  anonymous  poet. 

(88)  al-athar.  Definition.  Saying  of  an  unnamed  mystic. 

Anonymous  verse.  A  verse  inscribed  on  the  palace 
of  a  certain  king.  A  saying  of  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas  on 
the  taw  hid  of  the  Sufis.  Verse. 

(89)  al-kawn.  Definition. 

(90)  al-bawn.  Meaning  of  the  term.  Explanation  of  a  saying 
of  Junayd  in  which  the  terms  al-kawn  and  al-bawn  are 
used.  Verses  on  the  same  topic. 

(91)  al-wasl.    Meaning    of   the    term.    Saying   of  Yahya    b. 
Mucadh. 

357  Saying  of  Shibli.  Anonymous  saying  and  verse. 

(92)  al-fasl.  Definition.  Anonymous  sayings  and  verse. 

(93)  al-asl-  Definition.  Meaning  of  al-usul. 

(94)  al-far\    Definition.    The    relation    of  the  furuc  to   the 
asl.  Saying  of  cAmr  b.  cUthman  al-Makki.  Saying  of  a 
certain  theologian. 

(95)  al-tams.  Definition.  Quotation  from  a  letter  written  by 
Junayd  to  Abu  Bakr  al-Kisa'i. 

358  Quotation  from  the  Koran.  Saying  of  cAmr  b.  cUthman 
al-Makki. 

(96)  al-rams  and  al-dams.  Meaning  of  these  terms.  Extract 
from  a  letter  written  by  Junayd  to  Yahya  b.  Mucadh,  with 
explanation   by  Sarraj.  Saying  of  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah. 

(97)  al-qasm.    Meaning   of   the    term.    Saying    of   Abu  Bakr 
al-Zaqqaq.  Saying  of  al-Wasiti. 

(98)  al-sabab.  Definition.  Saying  of  Ahmad  b.  cAta. 

359  Verses  by  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari. 


95 

(99)  al-nisbat.  Definition.  Saying  of  Jacfar  al-Tayalisi  al-Razi. 
Definition  of  al-gharib  by  al-Qannad.  Saying  of  Nuri. 
Al-nisbat  is  equivalent  to  al-£tirdf.  Saying  ofcAmrb. 
cUthman  al-Makki. 

(roo)  fuldn   sahib   qalb.  Meaning  of  the  expression.  Junayd 
used  to  apply  it  to  the  people  of  Khurasan. 

(101)  rabb  hdl.  Definition. 

(102)  sdhib  maqdm.  Definition.  Junayd  said  that  true  gnosis 
cannot  be  attained  until  one  has  traversed  the  *ahwdl 
and   maqdmdt.  Saying  of  an  anonymous  Sheykh  con 
cerning  Shibli. 

(103)  fuldn  bild  nafs. 

36o  Meaning   of  the    expression.    Description  of  such  a 

person  by  Abu  Sacid  al-Kharraz. 

(104)  fuldn  sdhib  ishdrat.  Meaning  of  the  expression.  Verse 
by  al-Rudhabari. 

(105)  ana  bild  ana  and  nahnu  bild  nahnu.  Meaning  of  these 
expressions.  Explanation  of  Kor.  16,  55  by  Abu  Sacid 
al-Kharraz. 

(i  06)  ana  anta  wa-anta  ana.  The  meaning  of  these  words 
is  explained  in  a  saying  of  Shibli  which  describes  the 
love  of  Majnun  and  how  he  used  to  say,  "lamLayla." 
A  story  of  two  lovers,  related  by  Shibli. 

361  A    story    of   Shibli    and    a    youth.    Three    citations 
of  verse  1). 

(107)  huwa  bild  huwa.  Meaning  of  this  expression.  A  saying 
of  Junayd  on  taw  hid. 

362  (108)  qaf   al^ald'iq.    Definition  of  *aWiq.  A  saying  of  Abu 

Sacid  al-Kharraz. 

(109)  bddi  bild  bddi.  Meaning  of  the  expressions  bddi  and 
bild  bddi.  Quotation  from  the  Kitdb  ma^rifat  al-mtfrifat 
by  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas. 


I)   The    verses  beginning   ^|    ^   lil   (1.    ||)    are    commonly    attributed    to 
al-Hallaj.  Cf.  Massignon,  Kitdb  al-Tawdsin,  p.    134. 


(no)  al-tahalli.  Definition.  A  Tradition  of  the  Prophet  on 
the  subject  of  faith. 

363  Anonymous  verse. 

(in)  al-tajalli.  Definition.  A  saying  of  Nun.  Mystical  inter 
pretation  of  Kor.  64,  9  by  al-Wasiti.  Another  saying 
of  Nuri  '). 

Anonymous  verse. 

(112)  al-takhalli.  Definition.  Saying  of  Junayd.  Explanation 
by  the  author.  Saying  of  Yusuf  b.  al-Husayn. 

Anonymous  verse. 

(113)  al-^illat.    Definition.   A  saying  of  Shibli.  The  author's 
explanation  of  a  saying  of  Dhu  '1-Nun. 

364  Anonymous  verse. 

(114)  al-azal.    This    term    is    equivalent    to    al-qidam.    The 
terms   azal  and   azaliyyat  are   applied    to    God  only. 
Saying  of  an  ancient  Sufi,  which  some  condemned  on 
the    ground    that   it   involves   the    eternity   of  things 
(qidam  al-ashya). 

(115)  al-abad  and  al-abadiyyat.  These  are  attributes  of  God. 
Distinction    between    azaliyyat    and    abadiyyat.    Defi 
nition    of  al-abad  by  al-Wasiti.  Definition  of  al-wasm 
and    al-rasm    by   al-Wasiti.    Saying   by   an    unnamed 
mystic.  Sayings  of  Shibli  and  cAmr  b.  °Uthman  al-Makki. 

(116)  waqti  musarmad.  Meaning  of  this  expression. 
/  365  A  verse  by  Shibli. 

(117)  bahri  bild  shdti .  This  expression  has  almost  the  same 
meaning   as   waqti   musarmad.  It  was  us'ed  by  Shibli 
in    concluding   one    of  his  discourses.  Explanation  by 
the  author.  Anonymous  saying  and  verse. 

(118)  nahnu  musayyarun.  Meaning  of  this  expression.  Saying 
ofYahya  b.  Mucadh  concerning  the  ascetic  (zdhid]  and 
the  gnostic  ^drif],  with  explanation  by  Sarraj. 


I)    Cf.    p.    1%    1.    A    foil. 


97 

Two  verses  by  Shibli. 

(119)  al-talwin.    Definition.  According  to  some  mystics,  al- 
talwin  is  a  mark  of  al-haqiqat,  while  others  hold  the 
contrary  doctrine.   The  latter  refer  to  tahvin  al-sifdt, 
whereas  the  former  refer  to  talwin  al-qulub.  Verse  on 
talwin  al-sifdt.  Saying  of  al-Wasiti. 

Anonymous  verses  describing  the  musayyariin. 

(120)  badhl  al-muhaj.    Meaning   of  this    expression.  Saying 
of  Ibrahim  al-Khawwas. 

Anonymous  verse.  Meaning  of  al-muhaj. 

(121)  al-talaf.   Equivalent    in    meaning    to  al-katf.  Story  of 
the  Sufi  Abu  Hamza  (al-Khurasani)  and  verses  by  him  x). 
Saying  of  al-Jarfri. 

(122)  al-laja\  Definition.  Saying  of  al-Wasiti.  Mystical  inter 
pretation  of  Kor.    17,  82. 

(123)  al-inzfdj.  Definition.  Saying  of  Junayd.  Answer  given 
by    a    certain    Sheykh    (Ibrahim    al-Khawwas,    in    the 
author's    opinion)    to    one   who    found    fault    with    his 
disciples   for    asserting   that    they   received  their  food 
from  God. 

(124)  jadhb    al-arwdh.    The    meaning    of   this    and    similar 
expressions,  such  as  sumuww  al-qulub  and  mushdhadat 
al-asrdr,   etc.    Sayings    of  Abu    Sacid    al-Kharraz  and 
al-Wasiti. 

(125)  al-watar.  Definition.  Anonymous  saying  and  verse.  Two 
verses    by  Dhu   '1-Nun.  How  a  certain  sage  answered 
the  question,  "What  place  does  one  love  best  as  a  home?" 

(126)  al-watan.    Definition.    Saying    of  Junayd.    Verses    by 
Nuri.    Explanation    of  a  saying  of  Abu  Sulayman  al- 
Darani  on  the  superiority  of  al-imdn  to  al-yaqin. 

(126)  al-shurud.    Definition.    Sayings    of  Abu    Sacid    b.    al- 
Acrabi  and  Abu  Bakr  al-Wasiti. 


«•  foil. 


98 

(127)  al-qusud.  Definition.  Sayings  of  Ibn  cAta  and  al-Wasitf. 

370  Explanation  of  the  latter. 

(128)  al-istindf.    Definition.    According  to  some,  al-istindc  is 
a  degree  that  belongs  to  none  of  the  prophets  except 
Moses,  while  others  maintain  that  it  is  shared  by  all 
the    prophets.    Saying   of  Abu    Sacid  al-Kharraz.  An 
onymous  explanation  of  al-istina'. 

(129)  al-istifd.  Definition.  Saying  of  al-Wasitf. 

(130)  al-maskh.  Meaning  of  the  term. 

(131)  al-latifat.    The    author  says  that  the  meaning  of  this 
term  is  too  subtle  to  be  expressed.  Saying  of  Abu  Sacid 
b.  al-Acrabi. 

371  Verse  by  Abu  Hamza  al-Sufi  (al-Khurasanf). 

(132)  al-imtihdn.    Definition.    Saying  of  a  certain  youth  ad 
dressed    to    Khayr    al-Nassaj,    who    relates    it.    Three 
kinds  of  imtihdn. 

(133)  al-hadath.  Definition.  An  anonymous  saying. 

(134)  al-kulliyyat.    Definition.    Two  anonymous  sayings  and 
a  verse. 

(135)  al-talbis.    Definition.    Explanation    of  a    saying    of  al- 
Wasitf.  Saying  of  Junayd. 

372  Verse  by  al-Qannad. 

(136)  al-shirb.    Definition.    Saying   of  Dhu  '1-Nun.  Two  an 
onymous  verses. 

(137)  al-dhawq.    Definition.    Saying   of  Dhu  '1-Nun.  Anony 
mous  verse. 

(138)  al-^ayn.  Definition.  Saying  of  al-Wasitf. 

Junayd  said  that  the  anecdotes  related  of  Abu 
Yazfd  al-Bistami  show  that  he  attained  to  the  *ayn 
al-jam^,  which  is  one  of  the  names  of  al- taw  kid.  Verse 
by  Nuri. 

(139)  al'istildm.  Definition.  Anonymous  saying. 
273  Two  verses  by  an  unnamed  author. 

(140)  al-hurriyyat.    Definition.    A    saying    of   Bishr    (b.    al- 


99 

Harith  al-Hafi)  to  Sari  (al-Saqati).  Junayd  said  that 
al-hurriyyat  is  the  last  station  of  the  gnostic.  An 
anonymous  saying. 

(141)  al-rayn.   Definition.  A  certain  theologian  includes  al- 
rayn   among  four  kinds  of  spiritual  veils.  The  reason 
why  the  father  of  Ibn  al-Jalla  was  called  al-Jalla. 

(142)  al-ghayn.    The    term    occurs    in    a    Tradition   of  weak 
authority,  according  to  which  the  Prophet  saidyugMnu 
cata   qalbi.    This  ghayn    is  compared  by  some  to  the 
momentary  dimness   of  a  mirror  when  it  is  breathed 
upon.  Others  deny  that  the  Prophet's  heart  could  be 
subject  to  any  such  creaturely  invasion. 

374  No  one  is  entitled,  the  author  says,  to  describe  the 

state    of  the    Prophet's    heart  either  directly  or  sym 
bolically.  Verses  on  ighdnat  by  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari. 
The   author   professes   to    have  explained  the  fore 
going  technical  terms  according  to  what  God  revealed 
to  him  of  their  meaning  at  the  time.  Desire  for  brevity 
has  compelled  him  to  leave  much  unsaid. 
(143)  al-wasait.    Definition.  Three  kinds  of  wastfit  disting 
uished   by   a    certain  Sheykh.  Saying  of  Abu  cAli  al- 
Rudhabari. 

375  BOOK    OF    THE    INTERPRETATION    OF    ECSTATIC 

EXPRESSIONS  (shathiyydt)  AND  SAYINGS 

WHICH  APPEAR  TO  BE  DETESTABLE  ALTHOUGH 

THEIR  INNER  MEANING  IS  TRUE 

AND  RIGHT. 

CHAPTER  CXXI:  "Concerning  the  signification  of  al-shath, 
with  a  refutation  of  those  who  condemn  it." 

Definition  and  derivation  of  the  term.  Four  anonymous 
verses,  in  the  first  of  which  mishtdh  denotes  "a  barn  where 
flour  is  stored".  Explanation  of  the  word  mishtdk.  The 
meaning  of  al-shath  as  applied  to  ecstasy.  It  is  wrong  to 


100 

censure  expressions  of  this  sort  instead  of  trying  to  remove 
the  ground  of  offence  by  consulting  those  who  understand  them. 

376  Just  as  a  river  in  flood  overflows  its  banks  (shataha  'l-ma 
fi  'l-nahr),   so  the  Sufi,  when  his  ecstasy  grows  strong,  can 
not   contain    himself  and  finds  relief  in  strange  and  obscure 
utterances,    technically   known    as    shath,    which   express   his 
real    mystical    experience    and    truly   describe  what  God  has 
revealed    to    his    inmost    self.    Mystical    experiences  differ  in 
degree,  though  not  in  kind,  and  the  language  in  which  they 
are   shadowed  forth  must  not  be  judged  by  ordinary  stand 
ards.    In    such    matters    no    one    but   an  eminent  theosophist 

377  has   the    right   to    criticise.    The    uninitiated   will    adopt   the 
safe    course   if  they  abstain  from  faultfinding  and  ask  them 
selves  whether  they  may  not  be  mistaken  in  regard  to  those 
whom  they  blame. 

CHAPTER  CXXII:  "Concerning  the  sciences  in  general, 
and  the  difficulty  which  the  mystical  sciences  present  to 
theologians,  and  the  proof  that  these  sciences  are  true." 

Knowledge  (^ilm)  is  not  bounded  by  the  intellect.  Let  any 
one  who  doubts  this  consider  the  story  of  Moses  and  al- 
Khadir  (Kor.  18,64  foil.),  and  the  Tradition  of  the  Prophet, 
"If  ye  knew  what  I  know,  etc.",  which  shows  that  the  Prophet 

378  was    endowed    with   a  knowledge  peculiar  to  himself.  Three 
kinds  of  knowledge  possessed  by  the  Prophet.  Hence  no  one 
ought  to  suppose  that  he  comprehends  all  the  sciences,  and 
consequently  he  ought  not  to  charge  the  elect  with  being  infidels 
or  freethinkers  when  he  has  never   experienced   their  states. 
The  sciences  of  the  religious  law  (al-sharfat)  fall  into  four  divis 
ions:  Tradition,  Jurisprudence,  Scholasticism,  and  Mysticism. 
The  last-named  is  the  highest  and  most  noble.  Description  of  it. 

379  Questions    connected    with  any  one  of  these  four  sciences 
are  decided  by  the  experts  in  that  science,  but  whereas  the 
possessors  of  the  other  three  sciences  can  have  only  a  limited 
knowledge    of  mysticism,  the  mystics  may  possess  all  those 


101 


other  sciences  of  which  mysticism  is  the  crown  and  goal: 
hence  the  former  often  deny  the  sciences  of  mysticism,  but 
the  latter  do  not  deny  any  brauch  of  the  science  of  religion. 
Whoever  has  acquired  a  profound  knowledge  of  one  branch 
of  religious  science  is  recognised  as  the  supreme  authority 
in  his  department. 

380  Similarly,  a  person  who  unites  in  himself  all  the  four 
divisions  of  religious  science,  is  the  perfect  Imam,  the  Qutb, 
the  Proof  of  God  in  this  world,  to  whom  cAli  b.  Abi  Talib 
refers  in  a  saying  addressed  to  Kumayl  b.  Ziyad. 

To  return  to  al-shath.  It  is  characteristic  of  those  who 
have  reached  the  end  of  self-will  (which  is  the  beginning  of 
the  state  of  perfection)  and  are  advancing  towards  the  goal 
but  have  not  yet  attained  it.  In  the  adept  who  has  finished 
his  mystical  journey  al-shath  is  very  seldom  found. 

CHAPTER  CXXIII:  "Concerning  some  ecstatic  expressions 
related  of  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami  and  explained  in  part  by 
Junayd." 

The  author  says  that  since  Junayd  has  explained  a  small 
portion  of  the  shatahdt  of  Abu  Yazid,  it  is  impossible  for 
himself  to  neglect  that  explanation  and  put  forward  one  of 
his  own.  He  quotes  some  remarks  of  Junayd  upon  the  reason 
why  so  many  different  stories  are  told  of  Abu  Yazid,  upon 
381  the  difficulty  of  understanding  his  sayings,  and  upon  the 
character  of  his  mystical  experience  and  attainments.  The 
author  observes  that  although  the  sayings  of  Abii  Yazid 
which  he  is  about  to  mention  are  not  recorded  in  books 
(musannafdt),  their  meaning  is  much  debated  and  commonly 
misinterpreted. 

CHAPTER  CXXIV:  "Concerning  an  anecdote  related  of 
Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami." 

The  author  says  that  he  does  not  know  whether  Abu 
Yazid  really  spoke  the  following  words  which  many  people 
attribute  to  him: 


102 

382  "Once    He    raised    me  up  and  caused  me  to  stand  before 
Him    and    said    to    me,    'O   Abu  Yazid,  My  creatures  desire 
to    behold    thee'.    I    answered,    'Adorn    me    with  Thy  Unity 
and  clothe  me  in  Thy  I-ness  and  raise  me  to  Thy  Oneness, 
so    that    when  Thy  creatures  behold  me  they  may  say  that 
they  behold  Thee,  and  that  only  Thou  mayst  be  there,  not  I'." 

Junayd's  explanation  of  this  saying.  The  author  points  out 
that  Junayd  has  not  explained  it  in  such  a  way  as  to  meet 
the  objections  of  hostile  critics.  Accordingly,  he  proceeds  to 
interpret  it  himself.  The  words,  "He  caused  me  to  stand 
before  Him",  signify  spiritual  presence,  and  the  words,  "He 
said  to  me  and  I  said  to  Him",  allude  to  inward  communion 
and  recollection  (dhikr)  when  God  is  contemplated  by  the  heart. 

383  When    a   mystic    feels    and    realises    the    nearness    of  God, 
every  thought  that  enters  his  heart  seems,  as  it  were,  to  be 
the  voice  of  God  speaking  to  him.  Anonymous  verses  on  this 
subject.  The  remainder  of  Abu  Yazid's  saying  refers  to  the 
ultimate    degree    of  unification    and    passing-away   (fand)   in 
the  Oneness  that  is  anterior  to  creation.  All  this  is  derived 
from   the    Apostolic    Tradition   that   God  said,  "My  servant 
ceases    not   to    draw    nigh    unto    Me   by   works    of   devotion 
until    I    love    him;    and  when  I  love  him,  I  am  the  eye  by 
which  he  sees  and  the  ear  by  which  he  hears,  etc." 

384  The  poet  uses  similar  language  where  he  says,  in  describing 
his  love  for  a  mortal, 

"I  am  he  whom  I  love  and  he  whom  I  love  is  I."  l) 
If  human  love  can  produce  words  like  these,  what  feelings 

must  not  Divine  Love  inspire!  A  certain  sage  said,  "Lovers 

do    not   reach  the  height  of  true  love  until  one  says  to  the 

other,  <O  thou  who  art  I!'" 

CHAPTER  CXXV:  "Concerning  the  explanation  of  another 

story  told  of  Abu  Yazid." 


i)  The  two  verses  quoted  here  are  usually  ascribed  to  Hallaj. 


io3 

It  is  related  that  he  said,  "As  soon  as  I  attained  to  His 
Unity,  I  became  a  bird  with  a  body  of  Oneness  and  wings 
of  Everlastingness;  and  I  continued  flying  in  the  air  of 
Quality  for  ten  years,  until  I  reached  an  atmosphere  a  million 
times  as  large;  and  I  flew  on,  until  I  found  myself  in  the 
field  of  Eternity,  and  I  saw  there  the  tree  of  Oneness." 
Then,  after  describing  its  soil  ands  roots  and  branches  and 
foliage  and  fruit,  he  said,  «I  looked,  and  I  knew  that  all 
this  was  a  cheat." 

385  Junayd's    explanation    of  this  saying.  The  author  defends 
the  phrases  "I  became  a  bird"  and  "I  continued  flying"   by 
quoting  instances  in  which  tdra  is  used  metaphorically. 

386  He  shows  that  in  applying  the  attributes  of  Oneness  and 
Everlastingness   to    himself  Abu    Yazid    follows  the  familiar 
practice  of  ecstatic  lovers,  like  Majnun,  who  could  think  of 
nothing    but    Layla,    so    that  on    being   asked    his   name  he 
answered,  "Layla".  Verses  by  Majnun  and  an  anonymous  poet. 

387  The  words  «I  knew  that  all  this  was  a  cheat"  signify  that 
those    who   regard    phenomena   are    deceived.  If  Abu  Yazid 
had    been    far   advanced    in    theosophy,    he    would  not  have 
thought  of  such  things  as  birds,  bodies,  atmospheres,  etc. 

A  hemistich  by  Labid,  which  the  Prophet  described  as 
the  truest  word  ever  spoken  by  an  Arab. 

CHAPTER  CXXVI:  "On  the  interpretation  of  a  saying 
attributed  to  Abu  Yazid." 

Text  of  the  saying. 

388  Explanation  by  Junayd.  The  subject  of  this  saying  is  fand 
and  fand  "an  al-fand. 

389  Remarks  by  the  author  on  the  difficulty  of  understanding 
topics  of  this  kind  without  a  profound  knowledge  of  mystical 
theology,   and    on  the  uninterrupted  progression  of  mystical 
experience    from    lower  to  higher  states.  The  latter  point  is 
illustrated    by  the  interpretation  which  cAbdallah  b.  cAbbas 
gave  of  a  passage  in  the  Koran  (41,  io). 


IO4 

39°  Explanation  by  a  certain  gnostic  of  the  tradition,  which 
occurs  in  some  unnamed  book,  that  God  threatened  to  burn 
Hell  with  His  greatest  fires  if  it  disobeyed  His  command. 
The  author's  explanation  of  what  Abu  Yazid  meant  by 
the  words  laysa  bi-laysa  fi  laysa. 

CHAPTER  CXXVII:  "Concerning  the  interpretation  of  cer 
tain  expressions  attributed  to  Abu  Yazid,  on  account  of 
which  Ibn  Salim  declared  him  to  be  an  infidel,  together 
with  the  author's  report  of  a  discussion  of  this  question 
which  took  place  between  Ibn  Salim  and  himself  at  Basra." 

How  Ibn  Salim  denounced  Abu  Yazid  for  having  said, 
"Glory  to  me!"  (subkdni). 

391  The    author's    controversy    with    Ibn    Salim.    He  contends 
that    if  the  whole  saying  of  Abu  Yazid  had  been  recorded, 
it  would  be  clear  that  he  used  the  phrase  subhdni  in  refer 
ence  to  God.  The  author  adds  that  when  he  visited  Bistam 
and  asked  some  descendants  of  Abu  Yazid  about  this  story, 
they  asserted  that  they  had  no  knowledge  of  it.  Other  say 
ings    of   Abu   Yazid    which,    according   to    Ibn   Salim,  could 
only   have    been  uttered  by  an  infidel.  The  author's  further 
apology  on  behalf  of  Abu  Yazid. 

392  His   explanation    of   Abu    Yazid's    saying,    "I   pitched  my 
tent  opposite  the  Throne  of  God".  His  explanation  of  Abu 
Yazid's   saying,    when    he    passed    a   cemetery    of  the   Jews, 
"They  are  forgiven"  (mcfdhiiruri}. 

393  His    explanation    of  Abu  Yazid's  saying,  when  he  passed 
a  cemetery  of  the  Moslems,  "They  are  duped"  (maghrururi). 
The  Prophet  said  that  salvation  does  not  depend  on  works, 
but  on  the  divine  mercy.  Theologians  have  no  right  to  crit 
icise  the  obscure  sayings  of  mystics  who  keep  the  religious 
law.    Such    words    of  profound    wisdom    are   commonly  mis 
understood  and  misreported. 

394  Junayd    said    that    in  his  youth  he  used  to  associate  with 
Sufis    and    that   although    he    did  not  understand  what  they 


105 

said,  he  bore  no  prejudice  against  them  in  his  mind.  The 
author  relates  that  some  time  after  the  controversy  mentioned 
above,  he  heard  Ibn  Salim  quote  in  public  two  sayings  of 
Sahl  b.  cAbdallah;  whereupon  he  remarked  to  one  of  Ibn 
Salim's  pupils  that  Ibn  Salim  would  have  condemned  Sahl 
b.  cAbdallah  and  Abu  Yazid  with  the  same  severity,  if  he 
had  not  been  so  favourably  disposed  towards  the  former. 
The  sayings  of  Sahl  are  equally  open  to  criticism,  and  if  a 
satisfactory  explanation  can  be  found  in  the  one  case,  why 
not  in  the  other? 

395  Unless    Moses    had    been    divinely    guided,    he    must  have 
exacted    the    due    penalty  from  al-Khadir  when  he  slew  the 
youth    (Kor.    18,73).    Anecdotes   showing   the    piety  of  Abu 
Yazid. 

CHAPTER    CXXVIII:    "Concerning  some  sayings  of  Shibli 
and  their  explanation". 

396  Shibli    said    to    a    number  of  his  friends  who  were  taking 
leave    of  him,    "Go:   I  am  with  you  wherever  you  may  be; 
you    are    under    my   care    and    in   my  keeping."  The  author 
explains   that   Shibli   meant  to  say,   "God  is  with  you",  but 
al   that   time    he  was  regarding  himself  as  non-existent,  and 
he  spoke  as  one  who  contemplates  the  nearness  (qurb)  of  God. 
Nevertheless,    on    another    occasion    Shibli    referred    to    the 
vileness   of  the   Jews   and    Christians   and    said  that  he  was 
viler   then    they.    These  two  sayings  do  not  contradict  each 
other   but    are   the    expression    of  different  states.  Yahya  b. 
Mucadh  al-Razi  said  that  the  gnostic  is  proud  when  he  thinks 
of  God,    and    humble    when  he  thinks  of  himself.  Similarly, 
the    Prophet    once    said,    "I    am  the  chief  of  mankind",  and 
he  also  described  himself  as  the  son  of  a  woman  who  used 
to  eat  qadid *). 

397  Another   anecdote  of  Shibli.  He  said  that  his  flesh  (nafs) 


l)  Meat  cut  into  strips  and  dried  in  the  sun. 


io6 

felt  a  craving  for  bread,  though  his  spirit  (sirr)  would  have 
been  consumed  with  fire  if  it  had  turned  aside,  even  for  a 
moment,  from  contemplation  of  God.  A  saying  of  Shibli 
concerning  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami,  with  explanation  by  Sarraj. 
Shibli,  according  to  a  certain  Sheykh,  discoursed  exclusively 
on  'states'  and  'stations',  not  on  unification  (taw hid). 

398  CHAPTER  CXXIX:  "On  the  meaning  of  an  anecdote  which 
is  related  of  Shibli". 

He  is  reported  to  have  said,  "God  ordered  the  earth  to 
swallow  me  if,  for  one  or  two  months  past,  there  were  any 
room  in  me  for  thought  of  Gabriel  and  Michael";  and  he 
said  to  Husri,  "If  the  thought  of  Gabriel  and  Michael 
occurs  to  your  mind,  you  are  a  polytheist."  Inasmuch  as 
the  Prophet  acknowledged  the  superiority  of  Gabriel,  these 
sayings  have  given  offence,  but  they  would  not  give  offence 
if  instead  of  being  presented  in  an  abridged  form  they  were 
related  with  their  whole  context  and  circumstances. 

399  The  complete  version  of  the  anecdote  to  which  the  former 
saying  belongs,  as  related  by  Abu  Muhammad  al-Nassaj. 

400  CHAPTER   CXXX:    "Concerning   various   actions   of  Shibli 
which  were  regarded  with  disapproval." 

He  used  to  burn  costly  clothes,  ambergris,  sugar,  etc., 
although  wastefulness  is  forbidden  by  the  Prophet.  Once  he 
sold  an  estate  for  a  large  sum  of  money,  which  he  immed 
iately  distributed  amongst  the  people,  without  reserving 
anything  for  his  own  family.  Here  he  is  justified  by  the 
authority  of  Abu  Bakr.  Money  is  not  wasted  unless  it  is 
spent  for  a  sinful  purpose. 

401  As    regards    his    burning   of  valuable   goods,    he    did    this 
because    they    distracted    his    thoughts    from    God.    Solomon 
acted    on    the    same    principle    when    he    slaughtered    three 
hundred    Arab    mares    which    had    engaged    his   attention  so 
deeply    that    he   neglected    to    perform    the    evening    prayer 
(Kor.    38,  29 — 32).    The    Prophet    cursed  the  Jews  for  a  like 


reason.    The    author   explains  why  the  sun  was  turned  back 
for  Solomon,  but  not  for  the  Prophet. 

402  Mystics    believe    that  whatever  takes  their  thoughts  away 
from    God    is   their   enemy,    and    they    endeavour  to    escape 
from    it    by   every    means   in   their  power.  Traditions  of  the 
Prophet  on  this  subject. 

CHAPTER  CXXXI:  "Concerning  the  explanation  of  a  saying 
uttered  by  Shibli  which  is  hard  for  theologians  to  understand, 
and  of  various  conversations  between  him  and  Junayd." 

Shibli  said,  "I  go  towards  the  infinite,  but  I  see  only 
the  finite,  and  I  go  on  the  right  hand  and  the  left  hand 
towards  the  infinite,  but  I  see  only  the  finite;  then  I  return 
and  I  see  all  this  in  a  single  hair  of  my  little  finger." 

403  The    author's   explanation    of  this  saying.  Another  saying 
of  Shibli,  with  the  author's  interpretation.  Verses  composed 
or  recited  by  Shibli. 

404  He  also  said,   "I  studied  the  Traditions  and  jurisprudence 
(al-fiqh]  for  thirty  years  until  the  dawn  shone  forth.  Then  I 
went    to    all    my    teachers    and    told    them    that    I    desired 
knowledge   (fiqh)   of  God,  but  none  of  them  answered  me." 
Explanation  of  this  by  the  author.  A  question  addressed  by 
Shibli   to    Junayd,    and    the    latter's    reply,  with  explanation 
by    the    author.    A    remark    by    Junayd    concerning    Shibli. 
Another   saying  of  Junayd  to  Shibli.  Report  of  a  conversa 
tion    between   Shibli   and   Junayd.    Sayings  of  Shibli  on  the 
subject  of  waqt. 

405  Further  ecstatic  expressions  of  Shibli  in  prose  and  verse, 
with    explanations    by   the  author.  Such  expressions  are  the 
product  of  a  temporary  state.  If  that  state  were  permanent, 
all  religious,  moral,  and  social  laws  would  be  annulled. 

406  A    Tradition    of   the    Prophet    bearing    on  this   question. 
Shibli  said  that  if  he  thought  that  Hell  would  burn  a  single 
hair    of  him,  he  would  be  guilty  of  polytheism.   The  author 
explains   Shibli's    meaning  and  declares  that  he  agrees  with 


io8 

it.  Another  saying  of  Shibli,  to  the  effect  that  Hell  consists 
in  separation  from  God.  Two  more  sayings  by  him,  the 
latter  of  which  is  supported  by  a  Tradition  of  the  Prophet. 

407  CHAPTER   CXXXII:    "Concerning  the   explanation  of  the 
sayings  of  al-Wasiti"  '). 

A  passage  referring  to  cA'isha.  When  her  innocence  was 
revealed  (Kor.  24,  1 1  foil.),  she  praised  God,  not  the  Prophet. 
Explanation  of  the  saying  of  al-Wasiti,  "Bless  them  (the 
prophets)  in  thy  prayers  but  do  not  attach  any  value  to  it 
in  thy  heart."  He  means,  "Do  not  think  much  of  the  bles- 
ings  which  thou  bestowest  upon  them"  or  "do  not  let  rever 
ence  for  them  have  any  place  in  thy  heart  in  comparison 
with  the  veneration  of  God". 

408  This  refers  to  the  mystical  doctrine  of  unity  (tawhid).  The 
reverence  due  to  the  prophets,  and  the  superiority  of  Muham 
mad  to  all  other  prophets,  has  been  discussed  above  2).  Sayings 
of  Abu  Yazid  al-Bistami  on  the  pre-eminence  of  Muhammad. 
The    Sufis    believe    that    God    granted    to   him  whatever  he 
asked.  His  prayer  for  light. 

409  Every  peculiar  excellence  with  which  a  Moslem  is  endowed 
belongs  to  the  Prophet.  Criticism  of  the  saints  is  the  result 
of  habitual  turning  away  from  God. 

CHAPTER  CXXXIII:  "Concerning  the  errors  of  those  who 
call  themselves  Sufis  and  the  source  and  nature  of  their  errors." 

Saying  of  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari.  The  author  enumerates 
three  principles  which  are  the  basis  of  all  true  Sufism : 
(i)  avoidance  of  things  forbidden,  (2)  performance  of  religious 
duties,  (3)  renunciation  of  this  world,  so  far  as  it  is  possible 
to  the  believer. 

410  The    Prophet    mentioned    four   things   which   are    in    this 


1)  Between  Chapters   131   and  132  there  were  originally  five  chapters  which 
do    not   occur   in   either   of  the   MSS.    See   note  on  p.  f»v.  The  beginning  of 
this  chapter  is  also  lost. 

2)  See  Chapters  53  and  54. 


io9 

world,  but  not  of  it:  a  piece  of  bread,  a  garment,  a  house, 
and  a  wife.  Worldliness  in  other  respects  is  an  absolute 
barrier  between  God  and  man. 

CHAPTER  CXXXIV:  "Concerning  the  different  classes  of 
those  who  err  and  the  variety  of  errors  into  which  they  fall." 

Three  classes  of  the  erring:  (i)  those  who  err  in  the 
fundamentals  (uM)\  (2)  those  who  err  in  the  derivatives 
(furtf),  i.  e.  in  manners,  morals,  spiritual  feelings,  etc.  Their 
error  is  caused  by  ignorance  of  the  fundamentals,  by  selfishness, 
and  by  want  of  a  director  who  should  set  them  on  the 
right  way.  Description  of  them. 

411  (3)    those    whose   error   is    a   slip  or  a  lapse  rather  than  a 
serious   fault,    so   that   it    can    easily   be   repaired.  Verse  on 
affectation  (tahalli).  The  Prophet's  definition  of  faith. 

CHAPTER  CXXXV:  "Concerning  those  who  err  in  the 
derivatives,  which  does  not  lead  them  into  heresy;  and  in 
the  first  place,  concerning  those  who  err  as  regards  poverty 
and  wealth." 

Some  Sufis  declare  that  wealth  is  superior  to  poverty, 
using  the  word  'wealth'  in  a  spiritual  sense.  Others,  however, 
have  argued  that  worldly  wealth  is  a  praiseworthy  state, 
and  this  is  an  error. 

412  It  is  wrong  to  suppose  that  the  faqir  who  lacks  patience 
and  does  not  acquiesce  in  the  divine  will  is  not  superior  to 
the  man  who  is  rich  in  worldly  goods  —  for  the  soul  hates 
poverty   and  loves  riches ;  but  the  faqir  who  bears  poverty 
with  patience  shall  receive  a  recompense  without  end.  Poverty 
is   essentially   praiseworthy,    though  it  may  be  accompanied 
by  some  defect  that  incurs  blame.  Wealth,  on  the  contrary, 
is  essentially  blameworthy  and  can  only  be  praised  in  virtue 
of  some   good    quality,    e.  g.  pious  works,  that   accompanies 
it,    but   not   for   itself.  Some  mystics  hold  that  poverty  and 
wealth  are  two  states  which  must  be  transcended. 

413  This   is  an  advanced  doctrine.  It  does  not,  as  some  have 


no 

maintained,  imply  that  there  is  no  spiritual  difference  between 
poverty  and  wealth.  Those  who  pretend  that  there  is  no 
difference  are  proved  to  be  in  error  by  the  fact  that  they 
dislike  poverty  but  do  not  dislike  wealth.  True  poverty 
consists,  not  merely  in  indigence,  but  also  in  patience  and 
resignation  and  in  having  no  regard  to  one's  poverty  and 
in  taking  no  credit  to  one's  self  on  account  of  it. 

CHAPTER  CXXX VI:  "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect 
of  luxury  or  frugality  and  asceticism,  and  those  who  err  in 
respect  of  gaining  the  means  of  livelihood  or  of  neglecting 
to  do  so." 

Only  a  prophet  or  a  saint  has  the  right  to  live  in  abund 
ance,  because  they  know  when  God  permits  them  to  spend 
and  when  He  permits  them  to  refrain  from  spending.  Until 
a  man  regards  much  and  little  as  equal,  he  relies  upon  the 

4H  worldly  goods  which  he  possesses.  If  his  heart  is  not  empty 
of  desire  to  obtain  a  worldly  good  that  he  lacks  and  of 
desire  to  keep  the  worldly  goods  that  he  has,  then  he  is 
a  worldling;  and  any  one  who  imagines  himself  to  be  an 
exception  to  this  rule  is  in  error.  Others,  again,  devote  them 
selves  to  austerities  and  find  fault  with  those  who  are  less 
strict;  but  as  luxury  is  unsound,  so  too  is  extreme  asceticism 
when  it  is  habitual  and  ostentatious  and  is  not  specially 
adopted  for  the  purpose  of  self-discipline.  Others  of  the  reli 
gious  insist  on  earning  their  daily  bread  and  hold  that  no 
food  is  legally  pure  unless  it  is  earned,  but  this  is  an  error, 
since  the  Prophet  and  all  mankind  are  commanded  to  trust 
in  God  and  to  feel  assured  that  He  will  give  them  their 
appointed  portion.  To  seek  the  means  of  livelihood  is  an 
indulgence  granted  to  those  who  are  too  weak  to  trust  in 
God  absolutely.  Conditions  to  be  observed  by  those  who 
seek  the  means  of  livelihood. 

415  Others  sit  still  and  wait  eagerly  for  some  one  who  will 
attend  to  their  wants,  and  they  believe  that  this  is  the  right 


Ill 

spiritual  state.  But  they  are  mistaken.  Any  one  who  abstains 
from  seeking  a  livelihood  ought  to  be  inspired  by  strong 
faith  and  patience;  otherwise,  he  is  commanded  to  seek  a 
livelihood.  The  latter  course  is  permissible,  but  the  former 
is  more  excellent. 

CHAPTER  CXXXVIII:  "Concerning  the  different  classes 
of  those  who  become  remiss  in  their  quest  and  err  in  respect 
of  mortification  and  betake  themselves  to  self-indulgence." 

There  are  some  who  submit  to  austerities  in  the  hope  of 
gaining  a  reputation  for  sanctity  and  of  being  endowed  with 
miraculous  powers;  and  when  they  fail  in  their  object,  they 
discard  asceticism  and  hold  it  in  contempt,  and  this  they 
call  'languor'  (futur). 

'Languor',  however,  is  only  a  temporary  intermission  which 
refreshes  the  hearts  of  mystics,  whereas  the  conduct  of  the 
persons  referred  to  here  is  properly  described  as  laziness 
and  negligence.  Saying  of  Abu  cAli  al-Rudhabari.  Others 
travel  and  boast  of  the  number  of  Sheykhs  whom  they  have 
met  and  deem  themselves  in  a  privileged  position.  They  are 
wrong,  for  the  purpose  of  travel  is  moral  improvement. 
Others  spend  money  and  bestow  gifts  and  cultivate  liberal 
ity,  but  this  is  not  Sufism.  The  Sufis  regard  worldly  goods 
as  an  obstacle  which  prevents  them  from  attaining  to  God, 
and  their  object  in  giving  is  the  removal  of  that  obstacle, 
not  the  desire  to  appear  generous.  Others  indulge  them 
selves  unrestrainedly  and  claim  that  their  spiritual  state  (waqt) 
justifies  them  in  their  license. 

Such  a  belief  is  erroneous  and  leads  to  perdition. 

CHAPTER  CXXXVIII:  "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect 
of  abstaining  from  food,  retirement  from  the  world,  soli 
tude,  etc." 

Some  aspirants  and  novices,  supposing  that  hunger  is  the 
most  effectual  method  of  self-mortification,  have  abstained 
from  food  and  drink  during  long  periods  of  time,  without 


112 

having  consulted  a  spiritual  director.  They  are  wrong,  since 
the  novice  cannot  dispense  with  the  guidance  of  a  teacher, 
and  it  is  a  mistake  to  think  that  the  wickedness  of  human 
nature  can  be  eradicated  by  means  of  hunger.  Sayings  of 
Ibn  Salim  and  Sahl  b.  °Abdallah.  The  author  says  that  he 
has  seen  a  number  of  persons  who,  on  account  of  ill-regul 
ated  abstinence  from  food,  were  unable  to  perform  their 
religious  duties! 

418  Others  retire  from  the  world  and  dwell  in  caves,  fancying 
that  solitude  will  deliver  them  from  their  passions  and  cause 
them  to  share  in  the  mystical  experiences  of  the  saints,  but 
the  fact  is  that  hunger  and  solitude,  if  self-imposed  and  not 
the   result   of  an  overpowering  spiritual  influence,   are  posit 
ively  harmful.  The  author  recalls  instances  known  to  him  of 
young    men    who    reduced    themselves    to    such    a   state    of 
weakness  that  they  had  to  be  nursed  for  several  days  before 
they    could    perform   the  obligatory  prayers.  Others  castrate 
themselves   in    the    hope    of  escaping   from  .the    lust   of  the 
flesh.    This   is    useless    and    even   injurious,  inasmuch  as  lust 
arises  from  within  and  is  incurable  by  any  external  remedy. 
Others  imagine  that  they  show  sincere  trust  in  God  (tawakkul) 
when    they   roam    through    deserts  and  wildernesses  without 
provision    for   the   journey,  but  real  tawakkul  demands  pre 
vious  self-discipline  and  mortification. 

419  Another  erroneous  belief  is  that  Sufism  consists  in  wearing 
garments  of  wool  and  patched  frocks  and  in  carrying  leathern 
water-buckets,  etc.    Such    imitation    avails    nothing.    Others 
vainly    suppose    that    they    can    become    Sufis    by    learning 
mystical   allegories  and  anecdotes  and  technical  expressions, 
or    by   fasting,    praying,    and    weeping,   although    they    have 
already  provided  themselves  with  food  and  money.  All  Sufis 
renounce    worldly  things  in   the  initial  stages  of  their  spirit 
ual    progress    and    enjoin    their   disciples  to  do  the  same.  If 
any    of  them    acted    otherwise,    it    was    for   the    sake    of  his 


family  or  brethren.  According  to  others,  Sufism  is  music 
and  dancing  and  ecstasy  and  the  art  of  composing  mystical 
ghazels.  This  is  a  mistake,  because  music  and  ecstasy  are 
impure  when  the  heart  is  polluted  with  worldliness  and  when 
the  soul  is  accustomed  to  vanity. 

CHAPTER  CXXXIX:  "Concerning  those  who  err  in  the 
fundamentals  and  are  thereby  led  into  heresy;  and  in  the 
first  place,  concerning  those  who  err  in  respect  of  freedom 
and  service." 

Some  ancient  Sufis  held  that  in  spiritual  intercourse  with 
God  one  should  not  be  like  a  free  man,  who  expects  recom 
pense  for  his  work,  but  like  a  slave,  who  performs  his 
master's  bidding  without  expectation  of  wages  or  reward, 
and  receives  whatever  his  master  may  bestow  upon  him  as 
a  bounty,  not  as  a  right.  A  certain  eminent  Sufi  has  written 
a  book  on  this  topic.  There  are  heretics,  however,  who 
assert  that  as  the  free  man  is  higher  than  the  slave  in 
ordinary  life,  so  the  relation  of  service  ^ubudiyyat)  to  God 
only  continues  until  union  with  God  is  attained;  one  who 
is  united  with  God  has  become  free  and  is  no  longer  bound 
to  service.  They  fail  to  recognise  that  no  one  can  be  a  true 
servant  (of  God)  unless  his  heart  is  free  from  everything 
except  God.  The  name  of  'servant'  ^abd]  is  the  best  of  all 
the  names  which  God  has  given  to  the  Faithful. 

Passages  from  the  Koran  and  the  Traditions  in  support 
of  this  statement.  Had  it  been  possible  for  any  creature  to 
gain  a  higher  dignity  than  that  of  service  to  God,  Muhammad 
would  have  gained  it. 

CHAPTER  CXL:  "Concerning  those  clraqis  who  err  in 
respect  of  sincerity  (ikhlds)" 

The  heretics  of  clraq  declare  that  no  one  is  perfectly  sin 
cere  who  regards  created  beings  or  seeks  to  please  them  by 
any  action,  whether  good  or  bad.  Now,  certain  mystics  have 
held  the  doctrine  that  true  sincerity  involves  the  complete 


H4 

absence  of  regard  for  created  beings  and  phenomenal  objects 
and,  in  short,  for  everything  but  God.  The  heretics  in  ques 
tion  have  taken  over  this  doctrine  in  the  hope  that  by 
following  it  mechanically  and  deliberately,  instead  of  letting 
it  develop  in  themselves  as  the  gradual  result  of  spiritual 
experience,  they  would  attain  to  perfect  sincerity.  Therefore 
it  has  produced  in  them  recklessness  and  want  of  manners 
and  antinomianism. 

422  Sincerity    must    be    sought   by  shunning  evil,  by  devotion 
to    pious    works,    and    by    cultivating    morality  and  spiritual 
feelings.  These  pretenders  are  like  a  man  who  cannot  distin 
guish  a  precious  jewel  from  a  glass  bead. 

CHAPTER  CXLI:   "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect  of 
prophecy  and  saintship." 

Some  assert  that  saintship  is  superior  to  prophecy,  an 
error  which  is  caused  by  their  arbitrary  speculations  on  the 
story  of  Moses  and  al-Khadir  (Kor.  18,  64  foil.). 

423  God  confers  peculiar  gifts  and  endowments  in  accordance 
with    His    inscrutable    will.    Examples  of  prophets  and  other 
persons    who    were    thus    distinguished.    The  miracles  of  the 
saints    are    granted    to   them  in  virtue  of  their  obedience  to 
the  prophet  of  their  time.  How,  then,   can    the    follower    be 
pronounced  superior  to  the  leader?  As  regards  the  argument 
that  the  saints  receive  inspiration  directly  from  God,  whereas 
the  prophets  receive  it  through   an    intermediary,    the   truth 
is    that    the    inspiration  of  the  prophets  is  continuous,   while 
the  inspiration  of  the  saints  is  only  occasional. 

424  Al-Khadir    could    not    have    borne    a   single    atom    of   the 
illumination  which  Moses  enjoyed.  Saintship  is  illumined  by 
the    splendour    of  prophecy,   but    it    never   equals  prophecy, 
much  less  surpasses  it. 

CHAPTER  CXLII:  "Refutation  of  those  who  err  in  respect 
of  permission  and  prohibition." 

Those    who    err    in    this    matter   hold  that  all  things  were 


originally  permitted,  and  that  prohibition  refers  only  to  ex 
cessive  license.  They  justify  their  conduct  by  the  example 
of  the  communism  which  prevailed  amongst  certain  ancient 
Sufis,  who  helped  themselves  to  their  brethren's  food  and 
money  and  gave  extraordinary  pleasure  to  the  owner  by 
doing  so.  Anecdote  of  Path  al-Mawsili. 

425  A   story   of   Hasan    of  Basra   and   a  saying  of  Ibrahim  b. 
Shayban.    These   heretics   ignorantly  suppose  that  the  above- 
mentioned  Sufis  allowed  themselves  to  transgress  the  religious 
law:  consequently  they  go  astray  and  follow  their  lusts  and 
do    not   abstain    from    what    is   forbidden.   Why  should  they 
not    believe    that    all   things    were    originally   prohibited  and 
that   their  use  was  only  permitted  as   an  indulgence?  —  al 
though,    in    fact,  lawfulness  and  unlawfulness  depend  on  the 
ordinance    of  Allah.  That  which  He  has  forbidden  is  like  a 
preserved   piece    of  ground :   whoever  roams  around  it  is  in 
danger    of  trespassing,    and    the    proprietor  does  not  permit 
any    one    to    take    possession    of  it  without  establishing  his 
claim.    The    case    of  purity   and  impurity  is  different,  since, 
according   to    lawyers  and  some  theologians,  a  thing  is  pre 
sumed   to  be  pure  until  the  contrary  has  been  proved.    The 
cause  of  the  distinction  is  that  purity  and  impurity  fall  within 
the  category  of  worship  ^ibdddt),  while  permission  and  pro 
hibition  refer  to  property  (amldk). 

426  CHAPTER    CXLIII:    "Concerning    the  doctrines  of  the  In- 
carnationists  (al-Hululiyya}." 

The  author  is  careful  to  state  that  he  is  not  acquainted 
with  any  of  this  sect  and  has  derived  his  information  from 
other  sources. 

Some  of  the  Hululis  assert  that  God  implants  in  certain 
chosen  bodies  the  attributes  of  divinity  and  that  He  removes 
from  them  the  attributes  of  humanity.  This  doctrine,  if 
it  is  really  professed  by  any  one  as  a  revelation  of  the 
divine  Unity,  is  false.  That  which  is  contained  in  a  thing 


n6 

must  be  homogeneous  with  that  thing,  but  God  is  separate 
from  all  things,  and  all  things  are  separate  from  Him  in 
their  qualities.  God  manifests  in  phenomena  only  the  signs 
of  His  working  and  the  evidences  of  His  omnipotence.  The 
Hululfs  have  erred  because  they  make  no  distinction  between 
the  power  which  is  an  attribute  of  the  Almighty  and  the 
evidences  which  demonstrate  His  power.  Various  Hululi 
doctrines.  The  author  says  that  whoever  holds  any  of  these 
opinions  is  an  infidel.  The  bodies  chosen  by  God  are  the 
bodies  of  saints  and  prophets.  God's  attributes  are  beyond 
description,  and  there  is  nothing  like  unto  Him. 

427  The  Hululis  confuse  divine  attributes  with  human.  God  does 
not  dwell  in  men's  hearts,  but  creaturely  attributes  dwell  there, 
such  as   faith,  and  belief  in  the  unity  of  God,  and  gnosis. 

CHAPTER  CXLIV:  "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect 
of  the  passing-away  of  human  nature  (fand  al-bashariyyat)" 

This  is  a  perversion  of  the  mystical  doctrine  of  fand.  It 
is  based  on  the  notion  that  when  the  body  is  starved  and 
weakened  its  human  nature  will  disappear  and  that  in  this 
way  a  man  may  be  invested  with  divine  attributes.  But 
human  nature  is  inseparable  from  man,  although  its  qualities 
are  transmuted  in  the  radiance  of  Reality.  Human  nature 
must  be  distinguished  from  the  qualities  of  human  nature. 
Definition  of  fand  as  the  term  is  understood  by  true  mystics. 
Fand  does  not  involve  the  destruction  of  the  'self  (nafs) 
or  the  absence  of  change  (talwiri),  inasmuch  as  change  and 
corruption  are  inherent  in  human  nature. 

428  CHAPTER    CXLV:    "Concerning   those  who  err  in  respect 
of  spiritual  vision  (al-ruyat  bi  'l-qulub)" 

The  author  says  he  has  heard  that  some  Syrian  mystics 
claim  to  have  spiritual  vision  of  God  in  this  world,  resembling 
the  ocular  vision  of  Him  which  they  shall  enjoy  hereafter. 
He  adds  that  he  has  never  seen  any  of  them  himself,  nor 
received  information  that  any  man  among  them,  whose 


u; 

mystical  attainments  could  be  regarded  seriously,  had  been 
seen  by  others ;  but  he  formerly  perused  a  letter  written  to 
the  people  of  Damascus  by  Abu  Sa°id  al-Kharraz,  which 
refers  to  these  persons  and  mentions  a  doctrine  closely  akin 
to  theirs.  The  vision  of  true  mystics  is  contemplation  (mu- 
shdhadat),  which  is  the  result  of  real  faith  (yaqin),  as  in  the 
case  of  Haritha.  Some  Basrites,  followers  of  al-Subayhf,  went 
astray  in  this  matter.  Exalted  by  their  austerities,  they  fell 
a  prey  to  Iblfs  who  appeared  to  them,  seated  on  a  throne 
and  robed  in  light.  Some  of  them  were  undeceived  and 
brought  back  to  the  truth  by  their  teachers.  Story  of  a  pupil 
of  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah. 

429  Anecdote   of  some    disciples    of  cAbd    al-Wahid   b.  Zayd. 
They    imagined    that    every    night  they  were  transported  to 
Paradise.  On  one  occasion  cAbd  al-Wahid  accompanied  them, 
and    at    daybreak  they  found  themselves  on  a  dunghill.  The 
mystic    must    know    that  all  lights  (anwdr)  seen  by  the  eye 
in  this  world  are  created  and  bear  no  likeness  to  God.  Yet 
the  vision  of  faith  is  real,  as  the  Apostolic  Traditions  and  the 
sayings  of  holy  men  attest.  The  Prophet's  vision  (Kor.  53,  n) 
was  peculiar  to  himself  and  is  not  granted  to  any  one  else. 

CHAPTER    CXLVI:   "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect 
of  purity." 

Some  pretend  that  their  purity  is  complete  and  perpetual, 

430  and  hold  that  a  man  may  become  purged  of  all  defilements 
and    defects,    in    the    sense    that   he  is  separated  from  them. 
This    is    an    error.    No   man  is  at  all  times  free  from  all  im 
purity,    e.g.    thought    of   phenomenal    objects,    sin,   vice  and 
human    frailties.    One    must    turn    to    God    and    continuously 
pray    to    be    forgiven    in    accordance    with    the    practice    of 
Muhammad,    who    used    to    ask    pardon    of   God    a    hundred 
times  daily. 

CHAPTER  CXLVII:   "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect 
of  illumination  (al-anwdr). 


There  are  some  who  assert  that  their  hearts  are  illuminated 
by  divine  light  —  the  light  of  gnosis  and  unification  and 
majesty  --  and  this  light  they  declare  to  be  uncreated.  They 
commit  a  grave  error,  since  all  the  lights  that  can  be  perceived 
and  known  are  created,  whereas  the  light  of  God  does  not 
admit  of  description  or  definition  and  cannot  be  comprehended 
by  human  knowledge. 

43 1  The    correct    meaning  of  'the  light  in  the  heart'  is  know 
ledge,    derived    from    God,    of  the    criterion   (furqdn),  which 
the  commentators  on  Kor.  8,  23  interpret  as   "a  light  put  in 
the    heart  in  order  that  thereby  truth  may  be  distinguished 
from  falsehood." 

CHAPTER  CXLVIII:  "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect 
of  essential  union  ^ayn  al-jamc)" 

They  refuse  to  attribute  their  actions  to  themselves,  and 
they  justify  their  refusal  by  the  plea  that  the  unity  of  God 
must  be  maintained.  This  doctrine  leaves  them  outside  the 
pale  of  Islam  and  leads  them  to  neglect  the  laws  of  religion, 
inasmuch  as  they  say  that  they  act  under  divine  compulsion 
and  are  thefore  clear  of  blame.  Their  error  is  caused  by 
inability  to  distinguish  what  is  fundamental  from  what  is 
derivative,  so  that  they  connect  with  union  (janf)  that  which 
belongs  to  separation  (tafriqat}.  Sahl  b.  cAbdallah  was  asked 
what  he  thought  of  a  man  who  said,  "I  am  like  a  gate:  I 
do  not  move  until  I  am  moved."  Sahl  replied,  "This  is  either 
the  speech  of  a  saint  (siddiq)  or  the  speech  of  a  freethinker 
(zindiq)"  He  meant  that  the  saint  regards  all  things  as  sub- 

43 2  sisting   through    God    and    proceeding  from  God,  but  at  the 
same  time  recognises  the  obligations  of  religion  and  morality, 
while  the  freethinker  only  holds  this  doctrine  in  order  that 
he  may  commit  as  many  sins  as  be  pleases  without  incurr 
ing  blame. 

CHAPTER  CXLIX:  "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect  of 
intimacy  (uns)  and  unrestraint  (bast)  and  abandonment  of  fear." 


H9 

Some  imagine  that  they  are  very  near  to  God  and  stand 
in  a  close  relation  to  Him,  and  when  they  believe  this,  they 
are  ashamed  to  observe  the  same  rules  of  discipline  and 
keep  the  same  laws  as  before.  Hence  they  lose  all  restraint 
and  become  familiar  with  actions  from  which  they  would 
formerly  have  shrunk  in  horror;  and  they  fancy  that  this 
is  nearness  (qurb)  to  God.  But  they  are  much  mistaken.  Rules 
of  discipline  and  'states'  and  'stations'  are  the  robes  of 
honour  which  God  bestows  on  His  servants;  if  they  are 
sincere  in  their  quest,  they  merit  an  increase  of  bounty,  but 
if  they  disobey  His  commands,  they  are  stripped  of  these 
robes  of  good  works  and  driven  from  the  door.  They  may 
still  deem  themselves  to  be  favourites,  but  in  truth  they 
have  been  rejected:  the  nearer  to  God  they  seem  in  ima 
gination,  the  farther  from  Him  are  they  in  fact.  Saying  of 
Dhu  '1-Nun. 
433  Saying  of  an  anonymous  sage. 

CHAPTER  CL:  "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect  of 
the  doctrine  of  passing-away  from  their  qualities  (al-fand 
^an  al-awsdf}" 

Some  mystics  of  Baghdad  have  held  the  erroneous  doctrine 
that  in  passing-away  from  their  own  qualities  they  enter  into 
the  qualities  of  God.  This  involves  the  doctrine  of  incarna 
tion  (hulul)  or  the  Christian  doctrine  concerning  Christ.  The 
belief  in  question  is  said  to  be  derived  from  one  of  the 
ancient  Sufis.  Its  true  meaning  is  that  when  a  man  passes 
away  from  his  own  will,  which  is  given  to  him  by  God,  he 
enters  into  the  will  of  God,  so  that  he  no  longer  regards 
himself  but  becomes  entirely  devoted  to  God.  The  doctrine 
in  this  form  is  strictly  Unitarian.  Those  who  give  it  a  false 
interpretation  suppose  that  God  is  identical  with  His  qualities, 
and  are  guilty  of  infidelity,  inasmuch  as  God  does  not  be 
come  immanent  in  men's  hearts.  What  becomes  immanent 
in  the  heart  is  faith  in  God,  and  belief  in  His  unity,  and 


120 

reverence  for  His  name;  and  this  applies  to  the  vulgar  as  well  as 
to  the  elect,  although  the  former,  being  in  bondage  to  their 
passions,  are  hindered  from  attaining  to  the  divine  realities. 

434  CHAPTER    CLI:    "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect  of 
the  doctrine  of  loss  of  sensation." 

This  doctrine  is  held  by  some  mystics  of  clraq.  They 
assert  that  in  ecstasy  they  lose  their  senses,  so  that  they 
perceive  nothing  and  transcend  the  qualities  which  belong 
to  objects  of  sensible  perception.  But  this  is  wrong,  since 
loss  of  sensation  cannot  be  known  except  by  means  of  sensa 
tion  ;  and  sensation  is  inseparable  from  human  nature :  it  may 
be  obliterated  in  ecstasy,  just  as  the  light  of  the  stars  is 
rendered  invisible  by  the  sun,  but  it  cannot  be  altogether 
lost.  Under  the  influence  of  ecstasy  a  man  may  cease  to  be 
conscious  of  sensation ;  as  Sari  al-Saqati  said,  a  person  in 
this  state  will  not  feel  the  blow  of  a  sword  on  his  face. 

CHAPTER  CLII:  "Concerning  those  who  err  in  respect  of 
the  spirit  (al~ruk)" 

There  are  many  theories  as  to  the  nature  of  the  spirit, 
but  all  who  speculate  on  this  subject  go  astray  from  the 
truth,  because  God  has  declared  that  it  is  beyond  human 
comprehension. 

435  According  to  some,  the  spirit  is  part  of  the  essential  light 
of  God :  others  say  that  it  belongs  to  the  life  of  God.  Some 
hold    that    all    spirits   are    created,    while    others    regard  the 
spirits   of  the  vulgar  as  created,  but  the  spirits  of  the  elect 
as    uncreated.  Some  think  that  the  spirit  is  eternal  and  im 
mortal,    and    does    not    suffer    punishment    hereafter;    some 
believe  in  the  transmigration  of  spirits;  some  give  one  spirit 
to    an    infidel,   three  to  a  Moslem,  and  five  to  prophets  and 
saints;    some    hold   that    the  spirit  is  created  of  light;  some 
define  it  as  a  spiritual  essence  created  of  the  heavenly  king 
dom    (al-malakut),    whither    it    returns   when    purified;    some 
suppose  there  are  two  spirits,  one  divine,  the  other  human. 


121 

All  these  manifestly  erroneous  doctrines  are  the  result  of 
forbidden  speculation  (Kor.  17,87).  In  the  author's  opinion, 
orthodox  Sufis  believe  that  all  spirits  are  created ;  that  there 
is  no  connexion  or  relationship  between  God  and  them  except 
in  so  far  as  they  belong  to  His  kingdom  and  are  subject 
to  His  absolute  sway;  that  they  do  not  pass  from  one  body 
to  another;  that  they  die,  like  the  body,  and  experience 
the  pleasures  and  pains  of  the  body,  and  are  raised  at  the 
Resurrection  in  the  same  body  from  which  they  went  forth. 


INDEX  OF  SUBJECTS,  TECHNICAL 

TERMS,    ETC.,    WHICH    OCCUR    IN    THE 

ABSTRACT  OF  CONTENTS. 


A. 


abad,  96. 

abadiyyat,  96. 

cabd,   113. 

Abddl,  47. 

Ablution,  manners  of  the  Sufis 

in,   39,  40. 
abnd  al-haqaiq,  71. 
abrdr,   13,  24. 
Abstinence,   13. 
adab,  39.  See  Manners. 
cadam,  88. 
ahl    al-khusiiS)     15,     18.     See 

Elect,  the. 
ahwdl,   12,   37,  95.  See  States, 

mystical. 
'altfiq,  95. 
alif,  26. 
Allah,    the    greatest    name  of 

God,  25. 

Almsgiving,  42,  43. 
amldk,   115. 
cdmmat,   17,    18. 
amn,  86. 


anta  iva-anta  ana,  95. 

bild  ana,  95. 
Antinomianism,   in,  114,  115, 

118. 

anwdr,    117. 
caqd,  93. 
C«^V>   89. 

C«r2/,   10,   1  8,  71,  96. 
asbdb,  47. 
Ascension  of  Muhammad,  the, 

32. 
Asceticism,  no,  1  1  1  .  S**  Stat 

ions,  mystical,  and  zuhd. 
ashdb  al-kadith,  3. 
as!,  94. 
asrdr,  63. 
athar,  94. 

Audition,  50,  51,  69  —  77,  78. 
aw  sat,   1  8. 
tfy^/,  82. 


cayn  al-jam",  98,    118. 

al-yaqin,  20. 
,  96. 
azaliyyat,  96. 


123 


B. 

B  in  Bismillah,  the,   25. 
badhl  al-muhaj,  97. 
bddi,  89,  95. 
bahri  bild  shdtf,  96. 
bald,  64,  66,  93. 
baqd,   59,  89,  90. 
bashariyyat,  6 1 ,  1 1 6. 
£#.$•/,  89,  90,   1 1 8. 
bawn,  94. 
&y/0«,   37. 

Begging,   52,   53,  74. 
bild  bddi,  95. 

nafst  95. 

,  64. 

C. 

Communism,   115. 
Companions    of  the   Prophet, 

the,  35   foil. 
Companionship,  of  Sufis  with 

one  another,  47,  48. 
Contemplation,    20,   106,   117. 

See  mushdhadat. 
Creation,  the  mystery  of,   37. 

D. 

dahshat,  90. 
dams,  94. 
dcfwd,  93. 
da'wat,  21. 

Death,    manners    of  the  Sufis 
at  the  time  of,   58,   59. 


Dervishes,  manners  of,  46,  47. 
dhahdby  91. 

dhdt,  93. 

dhawq,  98. 

dhikr,   19,  23,  24,  34,  60,  73, 

75,  76,  90,  102. 
al-dhikr  al-khafi,    13. 
Directors,   spiritual,   109,   112. 

See  Sheykhs. 
Doctrine,    Sufistic,  differences 

of,   59  foil. 
Dress,    of  the  Sufis,  7,  8,  51. 

E. 

Earning  a  livelihood,  manners 

of  the  Sufis  in,  54,  1 10,  1 1 1. 
Eating,  manners   of  the  Sufis 

in,  49,  50. 
Ecstasy,    50,    51,    76,  78—81, 

91,  99 — 1 08,    113,    1 20.    See 

Audition. 
Elect,  the,  5,  6,  7,  15,  16,  18, 

20,    21,    22,  27,   30,   39,  84, 

85,   120. 

Errors,  of  the  Sufis,    108  foil. 
Evil,   11,  25. 


F. 


Faith,  23,  36,   37,  82,  83,  87, 

96,   109,   117. 
fand,  59,  63,  89,  90,  91,  102, 

103,   116. 

fand  can  al-awsdf,    1 1 9. 
fand  al-bashariyyat,   1 16. 


I24 


fand  a  I-  f  and,   103. 

faqih,  6. 

faqir,   109. 

al-faqir  al-sddiq,   31,  61. 

faqdy  91. 


,  14,  43,  6  1.  S^  Poverty. 
far\  94. 
/*j/,  94. 

Fasting,  43~  45>  85>  86. 
fawd^id,  88. 

Fear,   18,    23,    24,  35,  37,  89. 
yz^r,  64. 
/^  fi  'l-din,  6. 
fir  as  at,   36,  63. 
Food,  lawful,    13,    14,   44,  49, 

86,   1  10. 

Freedom,  113.  See  hurriyyat. 
Friendship,    manners    of    the 

Sufis  in,   58. 
fuqahd,  3. 
fuqard,  9,   14,  71. 
furqdn,    1  1  8. 
fur  if,  94,   109. 
futur,   IT  i. 

G. 

Generosity,  64. 
ghalabdt,  88,  90. 
gharib,  95. 
ghashyat,  88. 
^//^,  23. 
ghaybat,  88,  90,  91. 
ghayn,  99. 
ghayrat,  63. 


ghind,  61. 

Gifts,  bestowed  on  Sufis,  53,  54. 

Gnosis,  26,  27,  77,93,95-  See 

macrifat. 

God,  the  nature  of,  II,  37,  60. 
Grief,  63. 

H. 

hadath,  98. 
/^/,   13,  53,  71,  86. 
hamm,  93. 

al-hamm  al-mufarrad,  92. 
haqd^iq,   59,  87, 
haqiqat,   59,  60,  87,  97. 
,  60,  71,  73,  86. 
al-yaqin,   20. 


hay  rat,  57,  90. 

Hell,    spiritual    conception  of, 

108. 

hiddyat,  21. 
yh)tf£,  93. 
hikmat,  57,  76. 
,to.y,  91. 

Hope,   1  8,  35,  89. 
hubb,  64. 
hudur,  88,  90. 
hujum,  88,  90. 
/mlul,   119.  vSV*?  Incarnation. 
Hunger,   56,    in,   112. 
huquq,   87. 
hurriyyat,    98,    99.     6><? 

Freedom. 

//ww«  <£z7tf  huwa,  95. 
huziiz,  87. 


125 


cibddat,   36,    115. 

ifrdd,  91. 

ighdnat,  99. 

i/isdn,   3. 

ikhlds,  3,  23,  60,   113. 

ikhtibdr,  93. 

ikhtiydr,  93. 

ilhdm,  36. 

cz'/to,  96. 

Illumination,  61,   117,    118. 

^ilm,    60,    100.    5^    Know 
ledge. 

cilm  al-yaqin,  20. 

imd\  87. 

^^w,  97, 

Imitation,   112. 

imtikdn,  98. 

Incarnation,   115,   116,   119. 

Indifference    to    praise    and 
blame,  63,  76. 

Indulgences,  28,   29,    115. 

insdniyyat,  60. 

Interpretation,  mystical,  22 — 
27,   30  foil.,  74,  76,   77. 

inzfdj,  97. 

ishdrat,    26,    48,    62,    87,    95. 


Symbolism. 
ishfdq,  23. 
m//,  92,  93. 
istifd,   21,  98. 
istildm,  98. 
istindc,  98. 


istinbdt,  24,  26,  34.  5^  Inter 
pretation,  mystical. 
istiqdmat,    1 1 . 
ftibdr,  64. 
z-c/z>4/;  95. 
itmcfninat,  20. 

j. 

jadhb  al~arwdh,  97. 
>^c,  59,  88,  98,   1 1 8. 
Jurists,  the,  3,  4,  7. 

K. 

kardmat  (generosity),  64. 

kardmdt  (miracles),  82  foil. 

karim,  64. 

kashf,  90. 

kawn,  94. 

khashyat,  23. 

khdtir,  89. 

khawf,   1 8. 

khusus,  87.  5^  Elect,  the. 

khusus   al-khusus,   15,    16,  87. 

Knowledge,  esoteric,  4 — 9,  22, 

23,   30. 
Knowledge,     religious,     three 

kinds  of,   3. 

Knowledge,  three  sources  of,  I. 
Koran,    conformity    with  the, 

21   foil.,  90. 
Koran,  hidden  meaning  of  the, 

21,    22. 

Koran,  mystical  interpretation 
of  the,   22  foil,  30  foil. 


126 


Koran,    recitation    of  the,  22, 

26,  69  foil. 
kulliyyat,  98. 


laghw,  22,  71. 

lahz,  94. 

lajd' ,  97. 

latifat,  98. 

lawtfih,  87. 

law  ami'',  87. 

/tfj/.*-<2  bi-laysa,  91,   104. 

Letters,    written    by    Sufis   to 

one  another,  65   foil. 
Liberality,   in. 
Light,  the  inner,    117,   118. 
lisdn,  93. 
lisdn  al-haqiqat,  93. 

«#  al-haqq,  93. 
*/-c*70*,  93. 
Longing,    19. 
Love,    17,   1 8,   32,   36,  64,  80, 

90,  93>  95.   102. 

M. 

ma^dum,  88. 
mafqud,  88. 
mahabbat,    17. 
mahq,  94. 
mahw,  94. 
makdn,  86. 
ma^khudh,  90. 
malakiit,   10,    120. 


Manners     of    the    Sufis,    the, 

39—59- 
maqdm,   12,  86,  95. 

maqdmdt,     12,    37,    95. 
Stations,  mystical. 

ma^rifat,   10,   11,    12,  90. 
Gnosis. 

mcfrifat  al-haqiqat,    1 1 . 

md'rifat  al-haqq,    \  I . 

Marriage,   55. 

mashhud,  88. 

maskh,  98. 

mawjud,  88. 

Miracles,  82  foil. 

mishtdk,  99. 

Mosques,    sitting  in,  condem 
ned,   55. 

mubtad?,  89. 

mufarridun,  91. 

mukddathat,  92. 

muhaddath,   36,  92. 

muhaj,  97. 

mifjisdt,  82. 

mukdshafatt  20,  87. 

mundjdt,  92. 

muqarrabim,   13,  24. 

muqtasid,  63. 

murdd,  89. 

murdqabat,   16. 

muraqqcfdt,  5 1 . 

murid,  89. 

muruwwat,   55,  62. 

musdmarat,  92. 

musarmad,  96. 


musayyarun,  96,  97. 
mushdhadat,  20,  87,    117.  See 

Contemplation. 
mushdhadat  al-asrdr,  97. 
Music,   113.  See  samdc. 
mustalab,  90. 
mustanbatdt,  30,   31. 
mutasabbir,   15. 
mutawdjidun,  78. 
mittawakkilun,  36. 
muwahkidun,  91. 

N. 

nafas,  91. 

»*/j,    10,    34,   38,  44,  83,  87, 

95,   105,   116. 
nahnu  bild  nahnu,  95. 
nahnu  musayyarun,  96. 
Names,  the  Divine,   25. 
^c/,  92,  93. 
nisbat,  95. 
niyyat,  41,  64. 
Novices,  Sufi,  manners  of,  57, 

74- 

P. 

Patience,   15. 
Pilgrimage,  the,  45,  46. 
Poetry,  mystical,  specimens  of, 

66,  67. 
Poetry,  recitation  of,  70,  72 — 

77.  79- 
Poverty,    14,    15,    37,   43,   52, 

61,   109,   1 10. 


Prayer,   24,   37,  40—42,  75- 
Prayers,  specimens  of,  67,  68. 

82. 

Precepts  given  by  Sufis,  68. 
Predestination,    n,   16,   24. 
Prophet,   imitation  of  the,  27 

foil. 
Prophets,    the,    6,  22,  29,  69, 

83,  98,    108,   114,   116,   120. 
Purification,    manners    of   the 

Sufis  in,   39,  40. 
Purity,   115,   117.  See  safd. 

Q. 

qabd,  89. 

qddih,  89. 

qalb,  8,  95. 

qalb  salim,  21,  26. 

qasm,  94. 

qaf  al-^altfiq,  95. 

qidam,  96. 

qurb,    17,   18,   105,    119. 

qusud,  98. 

R. 

rabb  hdl,  95. 
rabbdni,   35. 
rajd,    1 8.  See  Hope. 
rams,  94. 

rasm,  92,  96. 
rawh,  92. 
rayn,  99. 
Recollection,  60.  See 


128 


Repentance,    13. 
ridd,   1 6. 
rizq,  62,  63. 

ruh,  61,92,  120.  See  Spirit,  the. 
al-ruh  al-bashariyya,  62. 
al-ruh  al-qadima,  62. 
rusum,  92. 

ruyat  al-qulub,  92,  116.  S>* 
Vision  of  God. 

S. 

sabab,  94. 
sab  bar,   15. 

j0&y,  15. 

^^,  63. 

sdbiqun,  24. 

j#£r,   1 5 . 

sadaqa,  42. 

sddiqun,    17- 

.ytf/tf,  9,  62,  87,  88.  5^  Purity. 

safd  al-safd,  88. 

safar,  52. 

jfl/w  al-wajd,  88. 

j^/t^  is  karat,  95. 

sahib  maqdm,  95. 

^/«£  ^/^,  95. 

^w/,   88,  90. 

Saints,  the,  83,  114,  116,  118, 
120. 

Saints,  criticism  of  the,  104, 
108. 

Saintship,  asserted  to  be  supe 
rior  to  prophecy,  1 14. 

saldmat  al-sadr,  63. 


Salvation,   104. 

sawdc,  50,69  foil.  See  Audition. 

samadiyyat,  25. 

sawdb,  64. 

saw  I,  91. 

Self-sacrifice,   52. 

Sensation,  loss  of,  in  ecstasy, 

79,  91,   120. 

shafaqat  cala  'l-khalq,  64. 
shdhid,  64,  88. 
shahid,  20. 
sharfat,   100. 
shatahdt,  91,   101. 
shath,  90,  91,  99  foil. 
jAtf///  al-lisdn,  91. 
shathiyydt,  99  foil. 
shawq,   19. 
Sheykhs,  manners  of  the,  57, 

74,  79- 
.?/«>£,  98. 
shirk,  23,  62. 
shukr,  48. 
shiiriid,  97. 
Sickness,  manners  of  the  Sufis 

in,   56. 

siddiq,   18,  71,    118. 
j-^,  60. 
j(/itf,  92,  93. 
Sin,    13,  63. 

Sincerity  in  devotion,  64. 
Singing.  See  samdc. 
sirr,  64,  65,  93,   106. 
al-haqq,  93. 
al-khalq,  93. 


129 


al-sirr  al-mujarrad,  92. 

sirr  al-nafs,  63. 

sirr  al-sirr,  93. 

Sitting,  manners  of  the   Sufis 

in,  55,  56. 

Solitude,  57,  58,   112. 
Spirit,   the,   61,  62,   120,   121. 

See  ruh. 
States,  mystical,   12,  13,  16 — 

21,    37,   64,    103,   1 06,   119. 

See  hdl. 
Stations,  mystical,  12 — 16,37, 

106,   119.    See   maqdm   and 

maqdnidt. 
subhdni,    104. 

Sufi,  derivation  of,  7,  8,  9,  62. 
Sufism,  definitions  of,  9. 
Sufism,  founded  on  the  Koran 

and  Traditions,  2  foil.,  8,  22, 

27  foil. 
Sufism,    principles   of,  47,  60, 

108. 

sukr,  88,  90. 
sumuww  al-qulub,  97. 
Symbolism,    10,    63,    87,   100. 

See  ishdrat. 

T. 

tafakkur,  64. 
tafrid,  91,  92. 
tafriqat,   59,  88,   118. 
tahalli,  96,   109. 
tahaqquq,  87. 
tahayyur,  90. 


tahqiq,  87. 
tajalli,  96. 
tajrid,  92. 
takhalli,  96. 
97. 


tahvin,  97,    116. 
tamannif  63. 

tamkin,  36,  37. 
tawj,  94. 
tana  ff  us,  91. 
taqiyyat,  64. 
tarawwuh,  92. 
tasdkur,  89. 
tashdid,  24. 
tawdjud,  78,  79,  89. 
tawakkul,    15,    48,    112. 

Trust  in  God. 
tawdlf,  90. 
tawdriq,  90. 
taw  bat,   13. 
tawhid,  9,  10,  35,  88,  92,  94, 

95,  98,   106,   108.    5^  Uni 

fication. 

tawhid  al-cdmmat,  91. 
taw  kid  al-bashariyyat,   10. 
tawhid  al-ildhiyyat,   10. 
tawhid  al-khdssat,  91. 
Terms,  technical,  used  by  the 

Sufis,  86  —  99. 
Thought-reading,  82,  86. 
Traditionists,  the,  3,  4,  7. 
Travel,  manners   of  the  Sufis 

in,   51,   52. 


1 3o 


Travel,   the   purpose    of,   in. 
Trust  in  God,   15,   16,  34,  54, 


IIO,    112. 


U. 


"ubiidiyyat,  59,   113. 

culamd,   2,  3,  4,  5,  7,  22,  30. 

Unification,   36,  59,   102,   103, 

107.  See  taw  hid. 
Union,    118.     See    jamc    and 

wusul. 

uns,   19,  20,   1 1 8. 
Unseen,  the,  definition  of,  23. 
nsu/,  60,   109. 


V. 

Veils,  spiritual,  84,  99. 
Vision,  of  God,    116,   117. 

W. 

wahddniyyat,   10. 
wahm,  63. 
wahy,  6. 
wajal,  24. 
wajd,  78,  89,  90. 
wajdu  liqd,  78. 
wajdu  mulk,  78. 
wajh  Allah,  3. 
wdjidun,  78, 
34. 


waqty  89,   107,   in. 
waqti  musarmad,  96. 

^,   13,  61. 
wdrid,  89. 
wasd^it,  99. 
wasdyd,  68. 

,  92. 

w^/,  94. 
wasm,  92,  96. 
Wastefulness,    106. 
waswasat,  40. 
watan,  97- 
^vatar,  97. 
Wealth,  worldly  and  spiritual, 

61,   109,   1 10. 
Weeping,  eighteen  causes  of, 

64. 

wuddy  64. 
wujiid,  79. 
wusul,  60. 

Y. 

yaqin,  20,  21,  97,   117. 

Z. 

zdhid,   14,  96. 
£tf/£#7,  42. 
zdlim,  63. 
^r/,  62. 
zawtfid,  88. 
zindiq,   118. 

14.  5^  Asceticism. 


GLOSSARY. 


Jo!.   Juljf,  "wilds,  wildernesses"  (240,2). 

f  ',£  G    -£ 

*  =  Jof  in  an  affirmative  sentence  (195,14). 
_j  of  person  and  C<J],  "to  take  any  owe  to  a  place" 


(178,  16).  WW»  ace.  and  «*,  "to  take  a  person  with  owe" 
(192,9;  429,6). 

>L   II  ^St  ^Lf  (37,18). 

^4^7  (37,19;   364,11). 
>L    III  ^[5  (140,10;   165,16;  198,20). 
1.   II  "to  sing,"   Verbal  noun  iuotj  (276,16). 
L>|.   Apparently  used  as  an  interrogative  particle  (225,  18). 
(168,12)  is  the  water-spout  of  the  Kacba. 


III  = 


G  o£  j  i 

i,  feminine  (217,  17),  but  perhaps  j*d)  should  be  read. 


yiL   iLUf,  "an  evil  impulse".   L^bj^p^  LfjLUj) 

(14,10);  ol^iJIj  ^1  o^U  (77,12), 
0|.    (157,13).  Cf.   Wright,  II,  376. 

^1.   Synonymous  with  *Lil  (255,  11;  386,  15,  16).  fe  Massi- 
gnon,  Jf*7a&  al-Tawdsin,  p.  162. 

£ijf,  "essence"  (32,10). 
(98,22).  Dozy. 


132 

G   £      o   > 

ajl.   X  V_AJ'UAA^,  "a  beginner,  a  novice  in  Sufism"  (142, 18). 
jji.    II  j^f  3j?  (37,18). 

*I£?  (37,19;  364,4,10). 
Jj.   jLjt  (18,6;  50, 14;  60,19,  etc.).    U  JL>i  (188, 20;  190, 15), 

Ujj,  interrogative  (308,5;   329,17). 
bj,   after  prepositions.      <s)bb  (34,5);  «b|  ^Xl  (405,17). 

£ 

V 

jkj,    "good  fortune"  (188,12). 

bo.   IV  with  ^1,   "to  manifest"  =  ^j3  (254,17). 
^XJ),  a  class  of  the  saints  (177,23). 

The  Persian  words  \^>c<u_Xj  LJ  ,  "0  unfortunate  one !" 
occur  in  the  reply  made  to  Abu  Hamza  by  a  native  of 
Khurasan  (331,4). 

j^Xyo,  "common,  profane"  (10, 18). 
fy.    V  J^  for  V£.  Of.   14,12;   87,1;  386,5. 
LJ.    IV     jif  in  verse  (251,18). 


,   "to   neglect,    to   abandon  the  observance  of 
religious  laws'1  (406,2). 

X-oLLJ!  (168,  14)  is  mentioned  as  the  name  of  a  place 
where  pilgrims  were  surrounded  by  an  Arab  brigand- 
chief  (Ibn  al-Athir,  IX  129, 16).  It  belonged  to  the  terri 
tory  of  the  Banii  Asad  and  lay  on  the  road  from  Baghdad 
and  Kiifa  to  Mecca.  Cf.  Bibl  Geogr.  Arab.,  VII,  pp.  175 
and  311. 


(146,  3  =  188,  15),  "pieces  of  cloth  inserted  in  a  garment 
for  the  purpose  of  widening  it".  Persian  jj^o  and  jj-j. 


133 

See  the  Lexica  under  (joy>o  and  Jawaliqi's  al-Mucarrab 
(ed.  by  Sachau),  p.  If,  1.  i".  I  have  not  found  any  other 
example  of  the  word  written  with  \  in  Arabic.  The  usual 

O  Cl  O  -• 

forms  are  (jo>o,  &o>j>  and  J^U>L>,  pi.  (jL>o,  and 


\j,  pi. 
,  "a  drop  of  spittle"  (79,6;  240,5). 


K»,gj,  "a  foul  smell".    Shibli   said,    "What  think  you  of 
a   science   in   comparison  with  which  theology  stinks?" 

G     „- 

(182,  13).   The   words  JU^j  jus  in  this  passage  differ  in 


meaning  from  the  same  phrase  as  cited  in  the  Lexica. 


~     „  ~ 

^  opposed  to  <3.»  (340,  4). 


VIII  ecy^-t  (409,14). 

Y  uto  be  satisfied",  j^uilj  ^UiiJL,  (237,  3). 

UJL>  JJi  (211,10). 

^wrrt/  of  (jl^b>  (204,  15). 

UJL^u  j,'i5  (150,4;  211,4),  where 

jLJLS  BL\>i_j  isjeJ  .   >See  Dozy. 
X  >  g  it    t*j$TJC^xi,  "concentrating  my  thoughts"  (168,  19). 

w  ^^  same  sense  (297,  1). 


G  -   o     _  -     o      - 

^u,  "a  box  or  chest".         -*-^uJl  is   enumerated 


among  the  possessions  of  the  Prophet  (101,  9). 


IV       l^o  =      L>|  (224,15=  180,7),  but  the  reading 
is  doubtful. 


134 


c 

3b-,  of  ecstasy,  "'violent"  (306,7;  434,9,11). 

^      O    >  3  3 

IV  iCJj(A^uJi   Qk-otJl  (27, 16).  Does   this  mean  "the 
that  are  fixed  intently"?  Cf.  Dozy  under  OL\>  II  and  IV. 
With  LJ,  "to  throw"  (193,22). 

G      O     3  3       O       3 

QL\£>=.f^i   Bj^o,    "the   end   of  the   izdr  or   the   part 

"*      & 

of  the  izdr  where  it  is  tied  or  folded  round  the  waist" 
(136, 18).  Freytag  renders  IM<-^>  by  "conclave  domus",  an 

03  03 

error  caused  by  his  having  mistaken  »j^\:>  for  »-J£TJ>. 
See  Lisdn  XVI,  264,17  foil. 

G       _     o      } 

VIII  ^yjL^^Aj  of  language,  "guarded",  "safe  from  criti 
cism"  (398,16). 

With  Q^,  "to  refuse  obstinately  to  do  anything".  Used 
of  the  nafs  of  a  Sufi  who  shrank  from  making  an  ablution 
in  water  that  was  intensely  cold  (146,  4). 

IV  "to  be  able".  Followed  by  ^  and  the  Imperfect 
(131,4;  156,5;  166,10;  291,14).  Followed  by  the  Imper 
fect  without  *.j  (50,19;  288,12). 

(181,18),  "I  should  have  had  a  desire 

for  his  sake  to  walk "  See  Dozy  under  _*a>. 

yto1^  =  "objects  of  sense"  (388,  6). 
Ji^-ki<Jf,    "the   desires   and   interests   of  the  lower  soul 
(nafs)".   Whatever   appertains    to   the   nafs   is   Ja=>.    The 


term  J^Ji^>  is  opposed  to  vJj^Ji-£>.  See  especially  47, 1 
foil,  and  336,12  foil.;  also  15,17  Ouy^Jf  J>^k>);  18,7; 
39,6;  77,11;  102,9;  164,8,10;  413,17;  414,3. 


135 

or  B^li,  "sweetmeat"  (101,12). 
,  "confectioner"  (185,  16). 
,  «w  ecstasy,  "the  state  of  quiet  succeeding  rapture" 

Go- 

(306,  15).      J^>  in  used  in  the  same  sense  (306,  18). 


,   of  aw   ecstatic  person,    "one   who  has  passed 
into  the  state  of  quiet"  (306,17;  307,1). 

G-   o     _ 

,  verbal  noun  (284,  16). 


noun  from  &xc  ^r>,  "he  turned 
away  from  him"   (229,  4). 

(37,17). 


c 

L>.   X  "to  hide"  (139,17). 
x>.   V  "to  be  agitated  in  ecstasy"  (278,6;  292,4). 

_     O—G   — 

Persian  »L\Jjy>,  "a  man  in  charge  of  an   ass". 


VIII   "to    be  disordered  in  mind,  to  dote"   (410,  21),  if 
the  reading  is  sound. 

O        o 

X-i^>.   Muzaffar   al-Qarmisini   (191,12)   and   Abu   Hafs 
al-Haddad*  (194,  11)  wore  two  khirqas  at  once.  See  Dozy 

o 

under  xiy>. 

M^j  "a  rag"  (188,23). 

O  o  - 

^a.v*:>  (329,  21)  "a  hole  (in  the  roof  of  a  mosque)". 

G  o    ^ 

£*~>.    x&L<£Uk>  (325,  5),   something  given  to  a  crying  child  to 

o     - 

amuse  it,  a  rattle  (?).  Cf.  x^uxi.^ui  (Dozy). 


,    "the    elect,    the   Sufis   who   have   enjoyed 
mystical    experiences"  (46,4;  52,16;  67,12  et  passim). 


36 


r>,   "the  Sufi's   of   the   highest  grade" 
(46,5;  52,17;  67,16  etc.).  See  under 


~>,  "intimacy".  L>  JJ  ^bu  *ili  Sl^l  (400,  1). 
VIII  wcwn  o/"  p/ace.  gJ&£x«Ji  ysLxJi  o/"  </<e  ocean  o/1  Deity 
(240,  5). 

VIII  «to  draw  in  the  breath'1  (248,18;  271,6). 
V  "to  save,  to  rescue"  (240,  15).  See  Glossary  to  Tabari. 

c,         _ 

l>  m'^  J,   "mingled  with"  (256,11). 

>,  "controversial"  (106,14). 

?.  w  •"  '  G  -   - 

oi-v_L>,  diminutive   of  oUL>,  "a  worn-out  garment" 

(249,  2). 

o     r 

(J**A>,  "withdrawn  or  concealed  from  the  mind"  (233,  15; 
344,  8). 

Go, 

,  "discussion"  (394,9). 


habitually,  ordinarily"  (391,5). 
,  o/"  /ot?e,  "corrupt,  spurious"  (208,  19). 
V  with  v>  uto  wrap  one's  self  in  a  garment"  (38,14). 

X  "to  induce  ecstasy  voluntarily  or  by  means  of  music, 
etc.  (187,5;   277,19;  303,9;  336,16;   342,6). 


.    IV   (358,  6)  =  u*^  IV,  q.  v.  VII  ^Loji,  used  mystically 
(358,7).  ^Ali,  "obscure",  "occult"  (240,2). 

0        «"  G    io_ 

JJ*UA>,  explained  as  =  a  -»Jlo  (358,5). 

.    The   Siifis   do   not   travel   Q^JJJ,  "for  the  purpose  of 
making  a  tour"  (190,  4). 


137 

The  Persian  words  c>^_j<->  [> ,  "O  friend !"  were  used  by 
Sahl  b.  'Abdallah  of  Tustar  in  speaking  to  the  father 
of  Ibn  Salim  (326,18). 

(33,11;   243,3;   384,14). 


/J>  pi.  (14,17;  42,7;  54,15;  296,10;  335,3). 

o  _ 

W*7A    J*c   or   Q£,    "to    escape    the   notice   of   any   one" 
(128,10;  423,3;  426,8). 

IV  with  uj,   «to  transport  the  mind"  (344,  17). 

VI  "to  affect  the  state  known  as  ^Uo  (see  the  defi 
nition,  347,  13)  or  to  induce  it  by  artificial  means" 
(187,6;  291,1,  where  the  correct  reading  is 


II  "to  let  any  one  taste"  (372,10). 


s.  ft^ 

(266,  5).  When   dying,  Murtacish  desired  Abii 


. 

Muhammad  al-Muhallab  al-Misri  to  pay  his  debts,  which 
amounted  to  eighteen  dirhems.  After  his  funeral,  the 
clothes  which  he  wore  were  valued  at  eighteen  dirhems 

t        ft     ___ 
and  were  sold  for  that  sum,  y*Lj  U»K  __j^i,  i.e.  the 

amount  of  money  obtained  by  selling  his  clothes  tallied 
exactly  with  the  amount  of  his  debts. 

The   phrase   bears    another  meaning  in  the  sentence 

=£  o,,  ,0.- 

Jj   ^A    UAoJl~>  U-LJ  (272,  11),   "Would  that   we 

were  rid  of  it  (the  samdc)  on  even  terms",  i.  e.  with 
neither  loss  nor  gain.  See  Dozy. 

IV  <jp  (252,19  m  verse;  317,6;  404,9).  &?e  Dozy 
under  IV. 


138 


AJli!  opposed  to      ilitjAS.  (368,  9). 


O       w  5 

oUeb,,  "quatrains"  (299,3). 

o£ 

^     with  j,   "giving   more   hope   to  any  one"  (62,  9, 


where  the  MSS.  have  L>J  and  the  text,  wrongly,  L>.l). 
Y  t0#A  uj,  to  be  characterised  by  anything  (6,17; 
7,  1,  etc.). 

III  sUJj-*,   "adjustment   of  rival   claims",   opposed   to 
alJyo  (425,6). 

0~  J  3 

The  meaning  of  (j^a/J!  ol3>^  is  explained  by  the  author 
(61,13)  as  L^ilcLb  if  L^kij  ^c^  L0^Xj. 

o 

VIII  with  ^,    "to   seek  profit  for  one's  self  from 
one"  (200,14). 

IV  used  mystically  in   reference  to  Jus^jJi 

(358,  7;   385,  5).   VIII  in  the  same  sense  (358,  7;  388,  11). 

Jj>^x  (358,7).   Cf.  ^o. 

)  .<& 

with  JbC,    "most   refreshing  to   Me  heart"  (217,2). 


objJ!  ^v&J),  "the  dancing  Sheykh"  (290,19). 
UftW  with  j,  elative  of  oJ:  IV  (142,6). 
iC-oUj  opposed  to  XJL\/O_AW  (29, 12). 

_  £  JO-     — 

The  words  ,*&jJ)  o^xXiJ  (397,  8),  "I  should  have  bound 
the  girdles",  appear  to  mean,  "I  should  have  caused  my 
hearers  to  depart  from  the  true  doctrine  of  unification 

tawhid)".  The   .0:  is  the  badge  of  dualism. 


139 


U" 

u  (329, 11)  —  .UJf  ^  *-X^-».  according  to  the  com 
mentator  on  Qushayri,   194,11. 

o 

Ill   .fj**,  "secret  converse",  feminine  (344,8). 

iXojj*.    Axyli  (364,19).   £>XxyL  (29,12). 

3  w,    S_o> 
JCx*w .   ^5y    r^*^>  "wild  marjoram"  (289,9).  In  the  street-cry 

(^j  JjJot-Av   LJ  the  redundant   a^'/"  is  probably  correct, 

though  Kalabadhi  in  his  Kitab  al-Tacarruf  has  ^5^  yJu*  L 
(Massignon,  Notes  sur  le  dialecte  Arabe  de  Bagdad  [Bul 
letin  de  Vlnstitut  frangais  d'arche'ologie  orientale,  vol.  XI], 
p.  11,  n.  1). 

VI  ylJcJi  defined  (342,  5).  See  also  under  <-*&>  VI. 
Ill  w^/t  j^J],  »to  rely  upon  amjthing"  (347,  8;  413,  4, 10). 

VI  with  ^j,  "to  affect  reliance  upon  anything'1'1  (187,  6), 
but    see    List    of   Addenda    et    Corrigenda.    Instead   of 
OJl  (291,1)  read  yi*jjf. 

is  used  as  a  Persian  adjective  in  the  words 
L*.  "Poor  Yahya!"  (188,12). 

III  passive,  with  j  of  person  and  uj,  "to  be  pardoned 

o  _ 

for  a  mistake11  (7, 16). 

Ow 

Xj^Ujw  (317,2),  "a  kind  of  boat".  See  Dozy. 

IV  ver&  of  surprise  (404, 20). 

II  with  ace.  of  person,  "to  permit"  (177,13). 

o 

iCx^,  "just  measure,  due   proportion"  (417,22). 
II  "to  let  go,  to  leave  unharmed"  (327,3). 


140 


LT 

G    oi  .  --  Goo 

^i.    V  c^-^j',   "inattentiveness"  opposed  to  cU^JUJ  (297,  1), 
Ui  (44,11;  412,19). 


J  .  II  (_X-jJs.xiJcJi  ,  "the  command  that  religious  obligations 
should  be  rigorously  and  perfectly  fulfilled"  (86,13; 
87,6,  etc.). 

«.   V  with  ^Ij,   "to  expect  impatiently"  (415,6);  with  J*c, 

„_  o£ 

"to  be  acquainted  with  anything"  =  J^  oy*I  (404,  0). 

Goo 

X  LJl-XCOCwl,  ''-eager  expectation"  (159,7). 

0~,~  •_,  <  )  G         _ 

LJj£  =  iLsyfc  (47,18).  See  Lane  under  ou-&. 
^yi,  "price"  (131,11). 

_  o    > 

i.    (317,  3),  "a  handkerchief  used  as  a  purse''.  Persian 


-        ^      O        } 

The  Arabicised   form  X^JLAV^  occurs  in  the  Burhdn-i 
Qdtf  (Vullers,  Lex.  Pers.  II,  426). 


ii,  "something  unjust  or  tyrannical"  (254,5);  "trans 
gression"  (410,20). 

j-xJa—  £  in   a   non-mystical  sense   (375,  6  ;   376,  3)  ;    in  a 
mystical  sense,  with  ^   (385,  12).  See  Dozy. 

-  G 

w,  mystical  term  (346,11;  375,5,  etc.)]  pi. 


(346,17;  380,12);  ol^         (374,11;  380,5). 

, 

fc,  adjective:  o'b^kii  oUl^  (380,10). 

,  "a  barn  where  meal   is  sifted  and  stored" 


(375,6 — 14).    This   word   is   unknown   to   the  lexico 
graphers. 

&.    II  (284,20;    345,18;    346,1).   The   last   instance   occurs 

s 
in    a  verse  by  Hallaj   and  alludes  to  his  ^LxA; 

Cf.  Massignon,  Kitdb  al-Tawdsln,  p.   138,  n.  3. 


VIII   with   ^j-c,   "to   be   concealed    from"   (225,3),   but 
probably  the  correct  reading  is 


V  with  J^e,  of  a  saying,  "to  be  unseemly  or  abominable 
in  the  opinion  of  any  one11  (398,  17). 

w^,    "an  ingot  of  gold  or  silver"  (326,  11  foil.).  Persian 


w  (177,2). 

V  with  Js£j  of  a  saying,  "to  be  altered  to  the  detriment 
of  any  one,  to  be  perverted  in  such  a  way  as  to  excite 
suspicion  against  its  author"  (393, 14). 

V  "to  beg  for  alms"  (197,  3 ;  210, 15). 

XjJuJLo  (72,  2  ;  424,  6).  Cf.  Dozy  under  xJbuX,^,  which 

is  incorrectly  vocalised. 

3    >  3    > 

IV   ^oxi  (43,  6)  =  £u 


The  phrase  ^Ji^s^o  AJ  ^_aA-ji  (generally  used  in  a  bad 
sense  =  B^kXaJL  *suM)  means,  I  think,  with  j  of  person 
and  uj,  "to  reveal  anything  to  aw^/  owe",  in  a  passage 
(426,  7),  which  may  be  rendered:  "If  any  one  really 
professed  this  doctrine  and  supposed  that  his  teaching  was 
revealed  to  him  by  Unification  (tawhid),  he  is  in  error". 


«jbo.    ...LsdxD,  "parasite"  (192,7).  See  Dozy. 
,  "crown-lands"  (169,18). 


VIII  "to  bewilder,  to  distract"  (296,  19);  mystical  term, 
"to  transport,  to  deprive  of  consciousness"  (228,  12  ; 
372,  19  foil.).  Cf.  my  translation  of  the  Kashf  al-Mahjub, 
p.  390. 

&ft\»M  (162,  6). 

of  sounds,   "composed  into  a  melody"  (285,8). 


142 


wto  .   L:Lui3  el/to  used   mystically  =  *LLs  (j^  or  L_jL&3 
(387,14  foil.;  389,11,12). 

G          o  - 

.*.*/nV,  mystical  term  (ibid.). 


VI  o/"  *Ae  eyelids,  "to  become  closed"  (251,  1).  VII 
J^c,  "to  cover"  (240,3). 

G      «  _  > 

^Juko,    «a   garment  worn  by   Siifis"  (27,13;  38,15, 

G     =„:> 

where  it  is  joined  with  iotiyo).  Not  in  the  Lexica. 

cj  » 

vJJpLL,  mystical  term  (294,3).  See  under  \3j£  (346,3). 
°  >=°r^  J>  (303,3). 

"a  tumour  caused  by  plague"  (135,  17). 

- 

,  "occasion  of  censure"  (385,13;  394,20). 

IV  (185,21;  406,16). 

V  with  if,  »to  look  forward   to,  to  desire"  (108,5). 
jJLb.  In  the  phrase  exX^wJl  ^JLLJI  (349,13)  the 
meaning    of   the    former    word    is    uncertain.    Read, 
perhaps, 

o  —  o   — 

^J,  "with  a  cheerful  countenance"  (161,9). 
otjj!  (52,1;  66,10  foil.;  412,  5,  8)  =  LuJLi  (14,  2). 
JLlL,  mystical  term,  228,14;  357,20  foil. 

G  o 

(j*ULjf,  ^fr^  a  mystical  sense  (388,11). 
,  "object  of  desire"  (98,2;  147,18;  158,17). 
,    "a  female  player  on  the  ttmbur"  (298,  6). 


143 
(344,  6),  "reserved  or  morose  in  disposition". 


G       —  J 


— 

Ill  JL*->LL-*  (303,12)  appears   to  signify   "cheerfulness, 
gaiety". 


xb,  purity  of  heart  (279,  20). 

G     w  -   1  ^ 

u^yJax),  of  saZ/,  "mixed  with^f,  seasoned"  (328,9). 


IV  "to  make  dark"  (411,6). 

G        o  ^          G        o^G-o 

xJLLo  .    KjUa*  (*-^5   "a  dirhem  wrongfully  obtained" 
(210,  15). 
VI  ir»7A  V)  /^'^^  (225,6). 

^,  "in  absence"  (265,13).  See  Lane 


e 

X  passive,   with   L->,   "to   have  anything  imposed  upon 

one   by    God    as   an   act   of  service"   (116,11;    195,19; 

318,11,13). 

X  with  Q£,  "to  become  effaced"  =  (JJo  (214,  5). 

VIII  ^eJJiit,   "keep  the   ciddat"   (139,19),   used   as   d 

formula  of  divorce. 

X  "to  seek  alms"  (171,7). 

Ill  "to  present  one's  self  to,  occur  to"  (30,  15,  17;  71,  17; 
83,11);  of  a  dervish,  "to  put  one's  self  in  the  way  ot 
any  one,  to  approach  any  one  in  the  hope  of  receiving  alms 
(48,21;  175,1;  184,13). 


144 


oLtoJjw,  "objections  to  an  argument"  (9,11);  "doubts", 
"evil    suggestions"    (71,2).    Cf.    AnsarPs   commentary 

O 

on  Qushayri,   II   150,25  and  the  definition   of  ^.Lc 
(348,8  foil.). 

»-c.    "to    know    God,    to    bo    or  become  a   gnostic"  (353,3); 
V  "to  seek  to  know   God"  (353,2). 


pt**,  "the  acquaintances  of  God"  =  ^.^LjtJI, 

"the  gnostics"  (344,3). 

->i,     —  .    - 
jt.   VI   sjfc  uUJ»,  in  a  verse  recited  by  Shiblf  (405,5). 

j.jc.   £.+-;!  jc  ,  "an  obligatory  religious  ordinance",  opposed  to 

L^  (144,15). 
.    VIII  of  the  mind,  "to  wander,  to  be  distracted"  (344,6). 


&lic  .   V  with    «Jj,   "to  have  a  thirst  for  mystical  experiences" 
(289,  3,  4).  " 

Jdac  .   V  M>fYA  Q£,  "to  cease  from  practising  rules  of  discipline'1'' 
(406,  2). 

Joe.    VI  "to  find  the  vision  of  God  or  the  like  too  awful  to 
be  borne"  (373,2). 

Sc.   VIII  "to  form   a  thought  in  the  mind"  (331,8  foil.). 


ic  .    JJifi,  "fortress"  (265,  3).  According  to  Lane,  this  meaning 
is  of  doubtful  authority. 

,   with   ace.    and  [y>,   "to   know   (distinguish)  one  person 
from  another"   (159,20). 

*iJL*Jo  ,    "a  means   of  livelihood   on  which   one  can 

0  o    - 

reckon"  (326,  6  ;  419,  13,  15).  Such  ol^JL*-x>  are  in 
consistent  with  real  trust  in  God  (tawakkul).  Cf. 
Richard  Hartmann,  Das  Sufitum  nach  al-Kuschairt, 
pp.  29  and  110. 


145 


»±  »  T.,';  opposed  to  '^joj-^L^J.j  nthe  Stiffs  of  the  lowest 
grade,  the  novices  who  have  not  yet  entered  upon  the 
mystical  'stations'  and  'states'"  (46,4;  70,16,  etc.). 

Ou  kglc  cJui,  "his  hand  festered"  (304.  10).  The  same 

phraae  ig  used  by  Abulfeda,  Annales  Muslemici,  vol.  Ill, 
p.  420,  1.  16  (cf.  Freytag  under  Jw«-c)  in  reference  to 
an  Ami'r  who  was  wounded  in  the  hand  by  an  arrow 
and  died  of  blood-poisoning.  X  with  ace.  of  y^r^n  and 
^,  of  God)  "to  cause  any  one  to  be  occupied  with 

actions  of  a  certain  kind,  to  predestine  any  one  to  do 
good  or  evil"  (26,  19,  where  w  must  be  understood  after 

^  jc;  38,18;  392,17). 
g 

,   "blind"  (255,6). 


t 

^  .   V  "to  become  strange  or  extraordinary"  (247,  10). 
~.i  JJb,  «a  foreign  country"  (192,21). 

O--  .  o  > 

r.£  .    VIII   ^sJow,   <ca  source  of  inspiration"  (381,2). 
.  J-  .   II  "to  plunge  any  one  in  ecstasy"  (381,  8). 

0  __ 

^c,  a  term   denoting  absorption  in  ecstasy  (381,9). 

lx3tf,  "erotic  poems"  (419,21). 
.,   "bleached"  (187,13).  See  Dozy. 


^ic..   II   with  ace.  and  ,ji,  "to  conceal  any  thing  from  awy 
one"  (290,21). 


^.   ••i^c,  "senselessness  caused  by  ecstasy"  (311,5). 

<5 

^Uc,    o/*   a    mystical   saying,    "abysses,    profundities" 

(181,20). 

k 


i46 

X   with  ^JJ,    "to   implore   the   help   of  God"  (173,12; 
184, 16). 

o  - 

yi,  of  mystical   language^  "depth,  profundity"  (381,1). 
L^lli,  "absence"   (387,16,17;  388,16   foil.). 
IV  and  V  used  in   a  mystical  sense  (374,  4, 6).   Cf.  the 
definition  of  (373, 16  (foil.). 


:^03.   o~CJ,  "gruel"   (183, 10). 

55          5   o 

X3  .   _yi-ftj>  Jlc,  "the  science  of  mystical  revelation"  =  Siifism 

(18, 16). 
>3.   I   do   not  know  the  meaning  of  <3_s>  in  the  phrase  o_3 

sjj.Lsrj  xi/  (146,3;  188,15). 

Kl&>5$i   "the  Absolute  Oneness  of  God"  (348,19). 


^AVO  .   V  "to  become  disordered  in  intellect,  to  lose  one's  wits" 
(285,  20). 

aJ.   V   M?^A   ace.   and   vj,    "to   provide   awi/   owe  with  food" 
(415,4).   VIII  iw  the  same  sense  (415,6). 
mystically  =  ^  (388,10). 


, 

}J5.  YV  with  ace.  of  person  and  U^L>w,  "to  deliver  a  greeting 
to  any  one  from  (^)  any  one"  (375, 1 1).  See  Dozy  and 
the  Glossary  to  Tabari. 

y    ~<& 

j;i.   v-jJsJ  w/^/t  j^JJ,  "bringing  awy  one  nearer  to  God"  (142,  6). 


147 


_y>.   IV  "to  fill  any  one  with  anguish"  (266,15),  where  the 
verb   is   parallel   to,  and   apparently    synonymous   with, 


3  .  Of  a  crude  mystical  saying,  "to  adapt  for  use,  to  soften 
it  in  order  that  it  might  be  communicated  to  others" 
234,4).  The  reading,  however,  is  doubtful. 

*£3.    V  of  clouds,  "to  be  cleared  away"  (343,5). 

.    V  "to  practise  austerities",  used  of  material  as  opposed 
to  spiritual  asceticism  (5,  2  ;  56, 1 ;  413, 13  ;  414,  4). 

.   V  of  ecstasy,  "to  come  to  an  end,  to  pass  away"  (310, 15, 16). 

(j-^t ,  elative  of  y»l5  (120, 12). 
,   with  ^  of  person,  "to  block  any  one's  path,  to  prevent 

any  one  from  going  on  his  way"  (62, 14).  V  "to  be 
unable  to  continue  one's  journey"  (189, 21 ;  cf.  Dozy 
under  the  seventh  conjugation  of  <r  \-t  5).  VII  "to  be 
reduced  to  silence"  (225,  18).  X  "to  make  one's  self  an 
obstacle  to  any  one"  (109,11).  The  tenth  conjugation 
does  not  seem  to  occur  elsewhere  except  in  the  sense 
given  by  Dozy,  which  is  inappropriate  here. 

XxLS,  "a  piece  of  money,  the  fare  paid  to  a  boatman" 
(317,3). 
ja*5 .   II  of  gates  that  are  opened  quickly,  "to  rattle"  (267,  5). 

JJLi.  V  "to  eat  little,  to  live  frugally"  (166,9;  191,17,  etc.). 
X  "to  become  capable  of  doing  anything,  to  find  one's 
strength  restored"  (329,19). 

)     s.     <;•&     o  Z-Z 

8V   O^   CT*   J^   ^i  "^ne  ^ea8^  I  can  ^°  *s  *°  see 
(291,6). 


?  "a  professional  chanter  of  poetry,  which  was  gener 
ally  erotic  in  character  and  was  recited  for  the  purpose  of 
throwing  the  hearers  into  ecstasy"  (186, 11;  290, 1;  292,  5). 


148 
-li   signifies   "to   rise   to  one's  feet  under  the  influence 

G 

of  ecstasy"  (186,15,16);  |.U3  is  used  in  the  same  sense 
(187,  5). 

,  "the  Sufis"  (186,16,  etc.). 
s,  "diarrhoea"  (150,1). 

5  G 

j>,  pi.  of  /*-jl—5,  "the   attendants    in   a  hammdm" 
(147,  18). 

G*.          o- 

xyo^xi ,  "subsistence"  (243,  3). 


,  "acts  of  self-mortification"  =  oL\£L^°  (415, 14). 
VI  yl&dl  vlo,   "love  of  amassing  riches"  (410,3). 
VI  with  (^Ic ,  "to  throng  round  any  one"  (233,16). 
II  "to  beg"  (191,18;  199,15). 

G  o  _   J 

,  "a  small  fragment  or  crumb  of  bread"  (205, 16). 
,  pi.  i*hft   of  limbsj   "clothed  with   flesh"  (251,4; 


352,  18). 

0          -O  5 


.  "the  hidden  vices  of  the  soul,  the  secret  feelings 
of  the  heart"  (171,4;  172,22;  296,16). 

G  £ 

(M^-JL^  (242,14)  appears  to  signify  "arcana,  mysteries". 
The  sajcj  however,  suggests  that  the  true  reading  may 

be  ^U^j,  "metaphorical  description". 

G  o 

^Ju5  ,  "a  bag  or  satchel  used  by  Sufi's  for  storing 
small  articles"  (194,  20  ;  266,  6).  According  to  the  Lisdn 
(XI,  221,  10  foil.)  the  U&  is  sbl 


149 


>\xJi    cbCo    &*3    ^^J    Jsj^b    ^Lcj    Lii  ^5 

Cy.  Jawaliqi  under  &£uU3j  and  Vullers'  Persian 
Dictionary  under  &LuJ: . 

£-   o-  O 

tf'.   V  ^yo  seems  to  bear  the  same  relation  to  Ux-Lo  as  j 
to   ote  (355,8). 

,  wse^  as  a  wown,  "nature  (?)",   241,19;  363,18. 
*ixJI  Lbl^,  "subject  to  change"  (365,1). 

^  U  $  in  verse  (255, 13). 
ftt.   II  vl^l  vjlf  (37,17). 


o£ 

^.   ^3  is  equivalent  to  3f  (399, 17).  Cf.  398,  5,  where  B  reads 

o£ 

*$}  instead  of  ^. 

L\J.   JuJ,  «felt"  w;orw  as  a  garment  by  Sufis  (188, 19). 
in   the  text  is  a  mistake. 

O  ^         5  •> 


£L\J.   Ill  oUo^U  (222,8).  Perhaps  olk>^x>  should  be  read. 

iiJj.    xJuftH  oLcJJ  (222,2). 
v3jJ.   II  «to  delight"  (368,7). 

.  Ql^vJ  feminine  (121,18;  411,9).  In  these  passages  ^UJ 
is  equivalent  to  ^Lo  or  «.U_c.  Cf,  also  44,2;  62,18; 
and  the  definition,  353,19  foil. 

o 

.  £axy,  «a  subtle  or  spiritual  influence",  such  as  resides 
in  music  (269,13;  284,13). 

.  IV  "to  cause  any  one  to  lick  (taste)  anything11  (253,  6 ; 
372, 10). 


150 


i&S  .    V  with  ^  ,  "to  receive  inspiration  from  God"  (423,  22  ; 
424,  1). 

&  .   II  "to  give  awy  owe  a  mouthful  of  food"   (184,  6).    Cf. 
Dozy  tmcfcr          IV. 


L<?sJ.   IV   M>*7A   ^J],   "to   communicate   anything   to  aw/  owe" 
(428,  16). 

U.    IV  with  vj,  o/  ecstasy,  "to  transport"  (245,14). 

^J.   i^o^U,  "gleams,  flashes"  (239,19). 

c/         c/  _ 


j  with  jJ]  ,  "taking  refuge  with,  having  the  utmost 
need  of  any  one"  (235,  15). 

J.   II   with  j   of  person  and  v_j,    "to   indicate   or   signify 
-'  _.  1 

anything  to  am/  owe"  (244,  7). 
^1.   BJLJ  veroa^  noww  (100,5;  173,7). 

^ 

jJ   wsed1   as  a  negative  particle  (26,8;  210,11);  as  a 
equivalent  to  ^JJ>  (387,13  foil.). 
xL»l3  (387,13;  390,5). 


lo   relative,  followed  by  feminine  pronoun  (2,7;  11,8;  123, 
19;  257,2);   by  feminine  verb  (320,  8,9). 

G       03 

*£«.   £xXx>,  "enjoyment"  (64,7). 
VIII  =  ^£  (39,5;  297,11). 
Ji^  =  0l5  (396,5). 
"apricots"   (199,16  foil.).  See  Dozy. 

used   figuratively   in   the  sense   of  "to   read   the   Koran 
laboriously  and  without  pleasure"  (43,  3). 


,  "adepts  in  Siifism"  opposed  to 
fj  (404,16). 

j,,  "in  public",  opposed  to  »^JWl  £,   "in  private" 
(262,  18). 

Si  =  0"Si,  "full"  (194,15).  See  Dozy. 

O     -  „ 

"inaccessibility,  secluding  one's  self  from  society 


(312,  1). 

c5          >o- 

(^A  .   LotXlf  X  *  g  A  ,   "the  ordinary  materials  of  life"  such  as 
food,  clothing,  etc.  (11,12). 

oy»  .   II  with  Q£,  "to  cause  any  one  to  die  (in  a  mystical  sense) 
to  anything"  (242,4).    IV  in  the  same  sense  (244,8). 

-yo.   V  "to  discern,  to  distinguish"  (311,19). 


.h>.'*  .  X  "to  elicit  by  mystical  interpretation  the  hidden  meaning 
of  the  Koran  and  the  Traditions  of  the  Prophet"  (4,10; 
6,3;  9,1;  14,14;  81,2,  etc.). 

;Jo  .   VIII  with  j  ,  "to  comply  with  a  command"  (230,  9). 
.   IV  2lJu|,  of  a  sweet  voice,  "melodiousness"  (269,  17). 


j.  II  "to  draw  a  deduction"  (306,17);  III  "to  come  to 
close  quarters  with,  to  have  actual  experience  of  any 
thing"  (15,2,14;  20,6;  75,13;  77,3;  179,17;  358,4; 
369,12;  379,3;  404,3;  422,4). 

G       -        J 

o^;^,  "mystical  experiences  of  a  permanent  kind" 

(3,19;  78,3;  378,20).  xJJLL^  (345,12),  "a  mystical 
<  state'  that  has  become  lasting".  Of.  R.  Hartmann,  Das 
SfifUum  nach  al-Kuschair^  p.  -86,  note  2,  and  p.  88. 

.    VIII  in  a  mystical  sense,  "to  enravish  the  heart"  (228, 
12  ;  239,  18). 


152 
&cio  .   X  of  spiritual  delight  (217,  3). 

.   (joJJ!  *Li\Jf,  "that  which  is  absolutely  and  unquestion 
ably  unlawful"  (221,14). 

.   v0^)    "to   be   intent,   to   concentrate   one's  faculties  to 


the    utmost  in  prayer"    (153,  15).    Of.    the    Glossary   to 
Tabari. 

^laj.  ^fej,   "mystical  speculation,  disputation"  (239,12,13). 

G  G    w  J 

jbli,  pi.  jUai,   "one  who  speculates  and  disputes  on 
mystical  subjects  (239,  12). 

&xj.   IV    "to   refresh,    revive,   exhilarate"   (106,3);   VIII    "to 
be  refreshed  with  joy"  (303,  4). 

o 

^sj.   Ill  t0#fc  jj-,,  "to  be  averse  to  anything"  (164,10);   VI 

o  - 

with  ^£,  in  the  same  sense  (169,11;  285,7). 
*^3.   xliU&ft,  <ithe  sensual  nature"  (368,13), 
iaSi.    VIII  o/"  purity,  "to  be  destroyed"  (341,2).   C/.  Dozy. 

oS 

t,   elative,  with   J,    "making  ^n'e/1  more   poignant" 
(261,  16). 
.   JsLo,   of  those  who  are  dumbfounded  by  fear  of  God, 

(84,6). 

>J.   V         j,  "elegance"  (5,2). 
.    Ill  8t3lu  ojpp.  ^o  B^  (2,14). 


^.    X  passive,  with  ^,  "to  be  possessed  by  ^e  thought  of 

God"  (398,13).   ^y^wlt,  ^.A^yi  (386,7). 
&&.   V  M>t7A  J,,  "to  plunge  into  sin"  (265,7). 


153 

,   "error,   mistake,   slip"    (7,16;  156,11;  393,13; 
410,20;  411,3,  where  it  is  opposed  to  »^>). 
V     <i^S'==LL^J',  with  t^,  "to  rejoice  in  contemplation 
of  God"  (372,  3). 

13  10  or  ^cO  j£>,  used  for  the  purpose  of  calling  attention 
or  for  emphasis  (65,18,19;  117,3;  153,19;  159,11; 
171,7;  177,23;  183,11;  325,6;  404,15,21).  The  phrase 
must  be  translated  in  different  ways  according  to  the 
context.  Cf.  the  Glossary  to  Tabari  under  y. 

Xj»-0,  "essence  or  absolute  nature  of  God"  (81,13; 
255,  16). 

A>10,  "my  eye  became  inflamed"  (174,3). 

G  ° 

,£010,  contrasted  with  ^10  (349,11). 
10 ,   explained  as  meaning  (j>jCxM  (350, 1). 


^ 

V  L\^ii  AXJ  (356,  18). 


.   IV  See  J\r 

.   Ja^,    "a   waist-belt   or   girdle",   in  which   money   was 
carried  (194, 12). 

-  \J&£&\  X*L,  "largeness  of  nature,  generosity  of  dispos 
ition"  (294,18). 

-  II  w»«*  ^,  "to  regard  with  suspicion". 

L^Ivj   in   ritual   religion   is    defined   by   the    author 
(149,4  foil.).   It  denotes  an  excessive  zeal  for  what 


154 

is    superfluous,    (faffiil),   leading   to   the   neglect   of 
what  is  obligatory  (fartfid.).   Cf.   145,14;  148,16. 

G  o  _ 

(jJj-**5    in    the   same   sense,    149,3;    154,8;    156,11. 
Cf.  Dozy  under 


G   .-  _ 


-  .-  _  G  _ 

.   Yl  J^ofjj  opposed  to  OiAe  a«<#  xjyj*  (340,  4,  5). 
.   II  ^  (210,  16). 


.    V   m^A   j,    "to    become    settled   and   established   in   a 
mystical  state  or  station''1  (369,  2). 


,  feminine  (282,2). 

.   X  "to  bring  to  completion"  (224,  6  :  read  sr^iwj 
wl>  =  «tlie  adept  in  Siifism"  as  opposed  to  the  novice; 

-  O  -   O     •) 

385,9:  *xcyU*Ji  £»UJt,  "the  ultimate  goal");  "to  take 


entire  possession  of"  (343,  3). 

.   VI  with  Ji,   of  benefits,   «to   ^e   bestowed  abundantly 
upon  any  one"  (193,  14). 

,   "to  make  an   impression  on  the  mind"  (342,  18)  =  «_ 
£.    O/1.  Dozy. 


,   "detraction,  censure"  (2,15;  20,8; 
376,17;  393,12). 

0 

.   JU%,   "protection  given  by  God"  (240,18). 
.   IV  J$  (30,  6  ;  34,  2  ;  81,  16). 


ivr 


ni 


rvv  <u. 


IV  \ 


f 


i  «  r  . 
m  <  HA 


\A. 


ryy 


ryo 
\^  « 
\yr  t 
\yr 


TAI 


\yr 


Ui 


tvi 


m 


ivr 


M.t  M.V-i.o  ^o-\^  t\.-A"\  iAY  <A--vr  <Y.  «oy 
Mor   Mil   Mn  MVi   MW  MTi   Mil    MU   MIT 

rro  ^r\i  <nv  <r.v  <r.i 


TAY 


ii 


n  Y 


irv  t 


ryo 


\vr 


.  O    i  ^  J.al\ 

i  rv  < 


vn 


vvi 


trx 


Mil 


r  AI  < 


no 


\i 

rvi 


U 


\v. 


irr 


MA-    i\Y° 


I  H  <  o. 


nv 

\ 


l^  Jl>;\ 


<rrv  <rro  <rrt  <rrv<n.  <r.\ 


nv  ^ 


r.n 


\VA 


ilo 


Jlj  JWJ\ 


r.i 


r  o"\  i  r 


<  1.1 


-.  «  rrr  «  r 


<TAA 


ill 


r\ 


r  AI 


30 


rrr 


1A 


v\ 


TAA 


i.y 


^    \  •  A 


rr 


\\\ 


<ru 


\\o 


O     < 


TAI 

r  .  1 


r.  ; 


-  <  ru  <  i  n  <  i 


rvi 


«rvv 


vv.  1  1  • 


4  *O\  vJL-t  c 


\  ^ 

\YA 


rr\ 


r\o 


r.Y 


\r\ 


in 


<rrr 


.  <r\y  <r.i 

TA.   t  TVV 


.i  <i.r-i.  . 


nr 


\ir 


C«1\  Jc   ^ 


«s 


\tr 


J 


ryc  t\\.  i  JU.J 


rvi 


< 

r  AA 


Too 


r  \  " 

.  0 


rt 


r  \v  t  r  . 


\  ^i 

I  VI 


TAA 


^\  >\ 


Jp 


rvy  *  r.A  «  i  • 


<v.y  it., 


.  v  <  r  .  r  <  i  AI  M  IA 


i  . 


n. 


vrr 

\ 

TA1  t         \  oe\ 


TAA 


pjjH  Jc 


MYY 


r  .  y  ( 

TA  < 

n\ 


ru 


\  i  \  «  \  ^r  1  1  n-i  ry  M  r 


ryo 


r  .  \  i  tij* 
r  . 


\  V 


cy.  <> 


loo 


111 


\V-\  IV 


IYA 


\VA 


rrr 


1.1 


11. 


.y  <rAo 


\r. 
vrr  ^ 


•Ufc  Jl>J\ 


il 


\  .i. 


rvi 


4fl\ 


1TA  i  1  1V  M  \  \ 

r  n  «  r  \  r 


JUP 


trv  < 


r  . 


i*t. 

\  1  .     d 


r  \ 


TAA 


\Sal\ 


MIA  Mil  Mit  MFA  MTV  MIA  M-i  <A1    <AV  <Yi 
<n°  M1V  MAI  MYl-lYi  M1Y  Mli  Mir  Moo  Mor 

<rry  <ru-r\y  <r.i  <r.t  <r.r  MU  MIY 

rio  ^.y  <^.  \ 


iA 


ryy 


MAI   MAt-Ul     Mil 

-rr.  (T\i  <ru  «r\. 


ti.  .- 


MiA    «  UA-M1    MIT 

^r.y  <r.i  MIY  MU 


To. 


10 


ryi  <  ryo 


itr 


To. 


.  A  ^ 

vrr 


^ 


lo 


.  i\  \o 


rvr  ^  i 


\  \0    i  A, 


MTV 


MYA   MV1 


.l  M1V  MAi-lAI 


Y 


ri. 


rvi 


«»\ 


\YA 


MA- 


«n.  ^r. 


ill 


TAA 


\yy 


TAI 


MAI   MAI    <  lyi    MY? 


29 


l\\0     L?. 

<r.y  <r. 


YA  <  in 


\YA- 


rv  MT.  ;j 


l.V  M. 


4* 


o  <  4»    JUP- 


ryy 


11V 


I   •V-aSJj   J 


irt-irr 


riA 


r.y 


c* 


t-\v  ^oo- 


\A\  «\. 


r  .  v 


1AA 


\A 


in 


TAA 


in 


MYY 


<nt 


IV 


m  <  \ 


\YA 


<rr  <  IY 


.  I  <  HA 


rvr 


°A 


\  1  A 

\  .  A 


rr.  <ru 


TA1 


\    <  oSj  a, 

C 


I  A- 


1TA 


vrr 

\  V  0    i 


it? 


vr 


t'U*  (It-ciVcTo 


nv 


i  IU  t  \AA 

<rn-nt 


\A\  i  111 


<rn 


I  VI  t 
T  .  o 


too 


Ul 


MAA-IA1 

-r.t  «  r.Y 


M\A  M\Y  «  \\o 
«  lYY-IYi 


m  t\\*  <  ur 


TYA 


r  0  .      l  t 


\.i 


r  .  "i  «  r  .  o  <  m  «  \  At  <  m  <  i  IA  <  o  \ 


.  i 


\Y 


in 

r  AY       i 


ill 


r  .  v-  <  t  A 


rrx 


\VA  «  \V.  <  IT 


<tr 


irr 


rr   ^  <  iA 

no  ar 

n  . 


11. 


r  .  . 


in  <  i-  •  < 


a1- 


\\\ 


rii  ^r. 


r  .  . 


<\AV 


riA 


PI    <  4tt\     JU 


\VV 


rv\ 


TAA  <  TTA 


rvv  «  r  .  A  M  . 


r  n 


r  n  <  n  r 


IYA 


r  .  v  t  u 


ar 


<ru 


a1- 


\AY 


IY\ 
\Y. 


Jils\ 


ni 


oo  it5?>-V\ 


IYA  «  ni 


Mil  tot   <i.1   <1V  <u^ 
M1"\  Ml.    MAt    MA.    MV1   MVo   MVi   MY^  MY 


lAi  <  IYA 


nv  cni  <nr 

.    t  \"U   i  \o\   < 


\\ 


r  . 


nr  MAI 


lYo 


4^9    i  Ju\    Mj    iV^i    ^ 


j  t-V;V\  J.; 


in 


(\)  J,Ji\.  (0  oo««,.  If  il^L^l  is  the  plural  of  dilj\  (see  Dozy), 

either  o^vw   (cf.  Kor.   79,  3)  or  c^tu,  would  be  possible.  (»)  ^^  • 


AJ 


* 


a-    LJ 


lAf.1936 


0)  Snppl.  in  marg.  (0   Kor.  17,87. 


f\j  u^  0\ 


JUS  flc  ^  _ 

J»\  ^  ii, 


j 


\o 


^lj.    J\     (J     iJ\     A.\s>\c>\ 


word  is  almost   obliterated. 


JuJ\ 


Jp  Up    <  ^iU  j£   ^  ti  L-L   A*5    vilila) 

i  u-)^.^alVj   ic\ 

J    ^V)- 


:>*  JjVsJ  <uj\Af.l92?> 

i\J\ 


0)   \y>Ua.  (r)  Text  om.  (»)  A*$>  .  (*)  Suppl.  in  marg.  The 

marginal  passage  reads  ^  i^Wc-  (J>  Joni\  oli^.  (°)  (jV*x_j  .          ("^)  ^V^^. 

(A)   UM_^«C-.  (^)  ^Ui^  ^r.. 

28 


5> 


GUV. 


\j\  5 


r-'^j    J   A-*JL;    ^    iclA\\    J\j\ 


j 


j 


iyv    V 


J.J  ^kbrAf. 


Jp  ti^«J 

"  \*  &* 

U 


o   r- 


Suppl.  in  marg.  (r)    5jL^\. 


Text  om. 


J^l  \S  jJ>' 


Ltf-  ' 

ii  j^\  C^  (j 


U 


<ui\  ^,0   *^  JS   (jr^  .oil 


\o 


4« 


Kor.   8,  23.  (0      .ix^j.. 


.,4 

A,  <ji\     » 


Jp  cu5j  jj^  Q»j 

j-  y 


>  <a\ 


j\    JL^  ^ci\ 


iiiV^_j  «U\  <*~j          \  JU 


dili  [0\](f>  ^  \'J\y\  V  0     Ci5 


Vklc   dili   J    . 


ȣ  r 


(0  Kor.  24,  31.  (?)  Suppl.  above.  (M  Text  om. 


ls  JVs 


5  V-      * 


fr  -.'        .0i» 

^  ^b    *^  i^r   O 


U  ^  ^^J     ^u      3  C        \  ^ 


0 


Cr* 


o 


J 


Kor.  o3,  11. 


iTA 


ju 


Vc 


ci\ 


0) 


iry 


4» 


j.  Vc 


UV, 


V\ 


Vc 


O"4     V^  C     (3"* 


"*       i 


Jp 


^  Jc 


is  «A*aJ\ 
J\  JiailV.  JV$ 


«.^  \>  A-oJ  4..  v—  i.^ 


(0  Text  om. 


i  40.V>V\  C^Wlc         i\    UlHfS  v_A> 


0\ 


^Jc    JJ  jl\ 

>  __  i 


^* 


V    4il 


\ 


LT-U 


J,\ 


..  ii,\U\ 

J,j>(n  \ 

U 


U.Af.1886 


u  \       u  4»\  4\L>  u 


0)  Text  om.  <r)\>.  (^)  Je> 


Ul\         ^  * 


b 


°"  s*' 

•xtt   ^   ^$>-   W    '«^*j  i  4.-JL 

J*\    UTir^ti    t^V'"^   4*0^" 


-*  £  VJ    *£  Uj  Cii    Ji  ^  Jo^  ^ij 


in 


0 


(M  Snppl.  in  marg.  (0  rL»  .  (^)  Kor.  80,  27—32. 


trr 


Jp    Lj\ 


*.    i\ 

&    ff*J\J    U\J\J 


di3\ 


4C\J\ 


AX^lJVt     LJ\ 


; 


JW.187& 


U 


U 


JV,     ll^ 


(0   Uaii.  (^)   Kor.   19,25.  (M 

text  and   J^L    is  suppl.  above,  (°)  Suppl.  in   marg. 


o\  is  om.  in  the 


V. 


Lj  V.jl^  ^  i^J  ^C:  \  VoU-  cr6, 


l      u' 


trr 


(\)  Kor.  24,  40.          (0  Suppl.  above.         (^)   Suppl.   in  marg.         C1)   QJ. 
(°)   Kor.  18,  64,  0)  Kor.  7,  142,  (v)   Kor.  18,  GQ.          (A)  Kor.   18,  72. 


tr  i 


0\ 


(3 


.    i  4^  diSi 

\ 

CVi^  JW 


1-1  \ 

GG,    igw  J\a 


^  >      - 


J  j  ^    ac;  ^  J         > 


U    ,'»^  ,'i\    L-*    ^^   ,  1V$   4j\Af.l86& 


L>       ,'^\' 


(^)   Kor.   25,  64.          (0  Kor.    15,  49.         (?)   Kor.   21,  26.         (*-)   Kor.    38,  45. 
(°)  Kor.  38,  40.  0)  Kor.  38,  44.  (Y)  Kor.  15,  99.  (A)  Suppl.  in 

marg.  (^)   ^^   written  above  as  a   variant.  0')  J  j--_^  - 


-j 


U 


J 


JuJ\  0 

.     i  >    j  0      ^.    A  V. 


if 


c«s**^  cr9  *^J  ^-^J  *•*•    •  -r^ii   ^  O 
<  dil  j  J  ialc    Ai*   dlta 


Af.lSGa 


(\)  Suppl.  above.  (0  Here  the  text  adds:   J^\  ^  UjJ\  J^>.\  J. 

Jf  these  words  are  genuine,  there  must  be  a  lacuna  in  the  text. 


<  OP  fv*y\ 


0\ 


(3 


(5/»- 


0-3^1? 


ci\  jVi 
Jj\  .  J  <> 


i  V. 


U 


(0 


Text  om. 


to 


J.    ak 


o*  « 

U 


i'      i    Vo 


Ul\ 


jv, 


^      .Y\  o 
)  O  «J^  \5j 

j\  U      _^5  Jp  jjy  JU\  5^5_j     J\  J-\J  4_J^        lj  dili  Jt 


So  text,  but  probably  we   should  read   ^v^a*  •         ^ 


it  v 


u 


Jlo   ti\   J^j  ^^    V   J* 


vi\U\  U 


~s 


cH   0\ 


,  0\ 


Vpl 


27 


o\ 


4  _  ,J\    ^fttA* 


VI     s  __  j\ 

vfiij    J    C 


A    Mfll 


l  (3 


0+-* 


V. 


V:Vj  V,  ^  f>-  VJ  ^  ^  cAs 


(D 


A 


r\y  \  jrl 


*- 


\\ 


is 


Jc  c^-o\J»j 


(0 


(«•)  So  in  marg.  Text  \ 


A,  c 


^-^  i«Js»j   i  ialc  (j  ^   di!  3 

u-^  -a-  o 


0\ 


jw:\ 


u-^AM 


^J  > 


o- 


The  last  two  letters  of 
by  conjecture.  (M 


(      Suppl.  in  raarg. 
have  been  cut  away  in  binding  and  are  restored 


ic 


JViJ 
\  oA*  oy^-  ^0)  V;\T0U  US 

dili 
* 


ac    \*  J^     * 


V\  oUJ\  d  Jy^A\\  -.  ^1  4a\  <^         \  J\5 


U  J\  ^       A) 


i  \  r 


^  x  __  ^  4—  ^  s-*^ 


\i\ 


.)»A.)     oJ»J.JtA     4.A^-    ^/V^iJl     v*)>^    L^-_5   J*&\    OJ\^A     \^    oj^al    (J"to    ^y 


^>  >Afl82ct 

^y»-^»  v  ^*^  ^  4>: 

j  L  t 


^U  Jl\    -\    L 


Cry. 


*   Ji 


0)  »JaM.  (r)   Suppl.  in  marg.  The  words   <u^  and   ^  have  been  cut 

away  in  binding  and  are  restored  by  conjecture.  (^)  Kor.  6,  161. 

(*•)  Kor.  39,  13. 


in  < u,  j\  j  U 


diii    O-.V    ^^    S^-j   ic  ^1    5yA^    ilj    <J 

U^ 

v, 


JAdl  JU  ^ 


\        M      I  *  "  " 

U       WJ 


JU  <j\  J^  ^J\  a^  (5/j  V- 
1^  cJd\  J  ^  U 
V\       j  A/US  ^  ^  x\^U\\  ^  rU> 

»\    .UjAf.1816 


J          ^         J 


p  U\ 

/u\  v^Jiai  t^vu  ^Ui3](°)  gji\  ^  <j 

U\ 


o    r- 


Oey^V  (0  J-Juy.  (*)    ^j,-  t1)*-.^.  0  Suppl. 

in  marg. 


u  . 


Vjji\ 
U  U\i 


J\5  Q 


>  U          J  i 


i     J      rb     f-  ^u-  >  J  - 


\o 

<J,\         3,  ,5JJ 


ft   1  ^l  U^>-  Uj>-  V\  4jt*   Jcsi    U 


0)   J-Ju.  (0   ]i>^L.  (?)   Cri.A^.  (*•)    C^>x^.  (°)^.^. 


^  iaVc   ,j.«  jTl>   J   u-Aj 


JoA 


;  1 


U 


ajij     «i^   4il\  J^-*"j    uJ^    viU.A3    jtX^ 


\JLil 


4,1  »5 


J 


f . 

.y^  H*"*  O"0^"     -k  >•  **  Yi  ^J'Jr^ 


(r)      ^.  (^)   Suppl.  above. 


j  \i    - 


VJ    y\3   ^yL\    Ju^ 


Jp  vilJj   ^  ^9  V^    ^ 


(^)  Ojjyi.  (0  Suppl.   in  marg.  ( 

(°)  Text  om.  from  Aj*\  to  Uj  <d^9_j.  The  words  suppl.  in  marg.  have  been 
partially  cut  away  in  binding.   In  marg.    ,jVi£\  ^j$\  V»_j.  0)   Jcj^. 


i.v 


Af.1796 
^  \    ^a>.^L    J**   ^  4tt 

,  v\ 


P-  A.,  ^o  Ls\  j^i 


(^)  At  this  point  there  is  a  considerable  lacuna  in  the  text  (A),  five  whole 
chapters  and  a  portion  of  a  sixth  chapter  having  fallen  out.  Their  titles  are 
given  in  the  table  of  contents  at  the  beginning  of  the  MS.  as  follows: 
(1)    viiii 
(2) 
(3) 

(4) 

(5)     ot         *-  <UC.  o  c          &.* 


j  •   Ttu,^a 

\s  \, 

(0 


\3\ 


JU3 


i  J^  w  j\  ^X°  ^-^  i/*^ 


i\  jw:\ 


U  ^JO,  j 
«i  ^r  V^  31^    J  - 


^%>  \r 


\o 


AX- 


U,  r- 


0)  Kor.  23,  110. 


(0 


i.o 


-^_|_jy\  <u-*r  ^  ~ 


J\3   Ai 

<^\  V\   J\  ^1    dl^L    ^ 

X?    ^J    t3    ^J    ^    v_^^>-    Jp    4^  J->P  ^ 


.  f 


-y0  f? 

4W    »l£\    .-, 

It  \       »      *  I  I 

..-     .  U-X\     \o 


V;\  Al         ^l      i\  V,\  \  U  J  *.  V;\ 

v\ 


CAd  A=.        (^)  <y^.*\.        (^)  ^c-  written  above  as  variant.        (*•)  Kor.  35,  11, 
\\.  0)  Suppl.  above. 


A., 


|l    4J53.    O^    ^y     ^^-a     i^/«XJ^     jW         ^J"!'     4.LAP-     A-l 

e"  •»  s~         " 

iC&  ^°J&j    ^y.  JS    J    JV«J    4JU\   a^rlj    ^\   Oir! 

y;  U  ri\\  U]^  4«\  u- 

i  JVii 


o&  ^/^*  O       ^^   ^-^J   -V^  O 

Sly  ^^^  4j)\  o^O-A  O^  Jyi  ^  tfj^-^M  ^   4.A&   ^^4  U  \ 


VI 

\i  <-VC  J  AU  A. 


U.         ,     Aft   ^.3   AJU-  \o 


\  \;\  oJ^ 

lj^i    ^    0U    JaP  Ja>-          di'A   diU,      ot}.   4tt\   dl^  V^   4ll\ 


\i  AU\  c5>-  *cS^  ^  oVulV\  ^  AHI\  dlly   J   AAJ\  r- 

U\  A^J  j|Iii\Af.l786 


(^)  Here  B  proceeds  (fol.  131a,  last  line):  A  ^>(  -^a  j_j.  This  passage 
occurs  in  the  chapter  entitled  ^^  uo»j  \^  ^j^  J.^  f\\*>j  J  ^>V  (f°l-  119ct> 
penult,  in  A).  (0  Text  ora.  (^)  Snppl.  in  marg.  (*•)  Suppl.  in 

marg.  The  words  \j\  and  <\i\  ^o    have  been  cut  away  in  binding  and  are 
restored  by  conjecture.  (°)      c  ^  .  0)  A»J  .  (Y)  Suppl.  above, 


o        U  ji\  ( 

V\ 


5    \  di\A.  a..,  (ji'xp-       sti      4.0  Uto 


O*£     4 


*  *   4 


\o 

<j^Vu) 

Af.lTSa 


0)  A  in  marg.  adds  j Juu  ^ .        (OB  om.  j\j£  \  ^» .        CO  B  om. 

(°)  B    J  V,As.         0)   B   \jT".         (Y)  B   om.   4\JU  ^J^T^ii  olj-        ^  A  ^^ 
s*  >    * 

(^)  B  adds  0jTj>  ^J.        (VO  Kor.  58,  8.  Kor.  has  *y>  N\.        (»»)  B  fiilj  V 

(^)   B   V,iu\     \»i>   O^T.?'  0Y)  B   (5^^\j.  (\A)  B   adds  ^-aU  ^J.a  ^j. 

Oi)  A  U>.         (r-)  AV,y.         W  AB  \k^.         (rr)  A  ^Urt. 


.  r 


Vl:  'f\/\ 


#  U;  Ji\  0\  1,^^ 
^  Vj^i\  0^  J 
A^J  U  0^Ju  ^(Y)  Vj  al\  JV5  A5 

^,\  ^)  jV»  *.;\    jJU*^ 

U  ^  ij^i  Vj^«  \^9O    J.~,Af.l776 


I  —  «  iiiyo  iX*  <ui\   J^-  ^,j 


°'>,M 

'  rb  A    4/ju    O  4p-  (A) 


»JV^^*r-/   . 

f.  -f  & 

£jb    *>.0,\    r    ,\.,  V\    L$*\   ^(     ^    *  )i*     2    U    ti\   ^WL*   \o 


B  om.        (0   B  adds  vilU.        (^)  A  }U>.        (l)  A  ojy-.        (°)  B  om. 
\,j.        0)Bj\y.        (V)B0^L.        (A)A^-.        0)  B  VtJc  *a\  ^j. 
(^)  B  om.  <li\  ^j  ^J\  J\5.  (^)  B  ^.  (\0  B  om.  from  >^  to 

*^j  W  (5j\  ^-  ^   The  words  M^^  5l  t5j^  ^  are  suppl.  in  marg.  A. 

(^)   The  passage  beginning  fcr1!  jVa  and  ending  A)  iV^  ^   is  omitted   in   B 
and  suppl.  in  marg.  A.   Several  words  have  been  mutilated  by  the  binder. 


.  «J 


AiU  «J\ 

o^  VijSi  JVs  ^  U  Ai 

>  4»\  SL 


J\a     L     L  o^V^  «j\  ^  >or)     -  . 


0)  Kor.  38,  20—32.  (0  B  orn.  (f)  B  «5_,.  (*•)  A 

(")  B  j^U.  0)  B  adds    k\  «\,.  (V)  A  51L,.  (A)  B 


0)  A   J,^3\.  (^)B^..  (»)  B  «\.  OOB 

0^)  B  ^AH  ij  i^«.  (ll)  B  adds  j_,\i  o,. 

26 


i 


*:  ,/»• 


JU 


U 


Jt^j  V^^>    r   AX^«  Uw 


^ 


f.1706 


JVU  4tU>\ 


0)  B  om. 

)  B  4    lip 


(0  B  om. 
(°)  A  Jii. 


0)  A   jib, 


B  om.  ^^  ^  g^]\  J\5 
(y)  B  adds  ^l 


jl;VC  ^  Ji^- 


4» 


J^J  ^A   5J^  "^  i—  i»    J  o^.-   ^  M  ^.-w^   A.\ 


0)  B  o\i\.  (0  B  om.  (^)  B   Os»W-  (l)  B  VUi  \f_,ii 

^iH  ^-JV,  \U^  jyi\  U^V,.      (°)  B  ^WJ.      0)  B  ^^      (V)  B  csi. 

(A)  B  J^.       0)  B  V,«xU;_,.        (>')  Unpointed  in  the  MSS.       (")  A  j-^A 
((0   A  Jj,.  B  Jj».  Of)  B   ^\.  (>i)   B  JJJ\.  (*")  B  U. 

<!"*)  B  ^\.  (W)  B  ^c.  (W)    AB   oa.  (»t)   A  o^'uU. 

(f-)  B  o>s-  <n> 


Uc 


Ju 


jl, 


V. 


0)  B  app.   yV^l.         (0  Kor.  57,21;  62,  4.         W 
«-j  ^\  J\i.  (")  B  om.  0)  B  •}!_,. 

B  ,i.J/\.        0)  B  dl_^.        0-)B01.        (H)  B 
)  B  0U\.        (^)   A   «&,.  B  U-.        ((0)  B  ^.i 

Y>  B  oV.Ji\.\.  (»A)   K    Oi-.  (*1)  B 


(Y) 


(i)  B 


cm. 


B  JiU. 


4S\    4,(1) 


\  V, 


U  0\ 


If  _, 


^\  JV5 


-  >  '  ^- 

to-lj  J* 


A. 


U 


\o 


,  \il 


J.J,  ^ 


jr- 


0)  r> 

)   B  om. 


B  B-r-  oU 

0)   A  om. 


(A)  B   AS.  0)  B    '<£  jj.  00  B   tfJu. 


()  B  ju*.^. 

(Y)  B   ^J\>. 


(\\) 


m 


0\ 


Jc 


V;\ 


>j       JJ^  ' 
J\5 


Vc 


B  oui. 


()  B 

(A)   B 


AB    o 
AB  ^Jy. 

J   to  jV 
B  BU5. 


(^)    A   5-X-i  and  so   app.  B.   iuo  is  a  correction  in  A. 
B  ^\.  (°)  B  jp.  0)  A  Jj^\.  (y)  B 

(^)   B  0^.  0  0   A    0\.  (^)   B 

°^)  A^Jj^.  B  0^\j.  O1)  AB 

A   ^St.  (\Y)   ABcu^.  (u)   A  0111   from 

c.  .        (^)  B  \x-.        (r')  A  U.        (^  )  B 


ilLJJ,  f 


0\ 


<U>\ 


\  V\ 


U 


AiJW 


Ju 


i^^  J>.  ov'.W  a 


0)   B  om.  (0  B 

(°)  B  adds 
18,  75.  0) 

(^)   B    lc         . 


B 


^  di^b.  (^)  B  &\jf> 

I1)  Kor.   18,  73.           (Y)  Kor.   18,  74.          (A)  Kor. 

(^')   A  0111.            (^)  B  ^\.  (\r)  AB  ^T. 

B  adds  0AM\.            0°)  A^.  (n)  B  J  ^.. 

i.                 (^  B  om.  4»\  ^-         \     \5. 


' 


oVut- 


5  0\ 


y, 


iiv.  c.u  0, 


4* 


tf  Jl\  IJ*  ^  (li-(A>  U 

^y^\  ^  -A*!  s^^ailV,  1L 


0)  A  om.  (V)  A        L 

from  Jr  ^  to  y. 
(\0  B  VL        (\^)  B 


(A)  B 
-  f. 
\i)  B 


0)  B  ^  . 
B  om.  ua\ 
0°)  AB 


(")  B  om. 
0  •)  B  om. 

<U1^    Jut    ,V  . 


f 


4\r^  ^(7)          \  (r)     ^  OsJJU  »^ 


,Af.l736 


-)  VI 


J^>  'U' 

)  ^  j^.;,  ^.;\  vij  yu<ir>     *£  "!»\  \l,  yj  jy, 

i,   ^  a\     j          *^  V\  V;\ 


WV.      »A,i. 

l  a«   jj  ^jjS\  j 

:j  V.-J  JiU\ 


- 

Jt  t^f 

,  __  ^t    '-J_/^i     ,i_J     *J«M     iAt    Jfxlijj     <-•<_/>      .>.      «_jU;      i 


(\)  Kor.  21,  23.  (0   AB  Oijj)>-  •  ^  B  ^  dUj>.  I1)  Here  B 

(fol.  232a,  1.  6)  proceeds:  -^  j^\  iLi^  J\  ^i^j  o\  <J\^  ^V^T  j.  These  words 
form  part  of  the  chapter  entitled  ^^  J\  ^a*j  oV::^C  <j  u-»V.  and  occur 
in  A  on  fol.  105?;,  1.  12.  The  continuation  of  the  present  passage  <u\c.  uu 
•/\  CA^\  occurs  in  B  on  fol.  122a,  1.  10.  (°)  B  ^^U'.  C1)  B  J*r  . 

(V)   B  om.        (A)  A  om.        (^)  B  ^  ^.         (\")  B  V^A,.         (\\)  A  V 
(\r)  B  JJ.          (\^)  B  J\5.          0*0  A  S^L^^.  B   5jU^U.          0°)  A 
(n)  B      ^?.  OY)  B      x^.  OA)  B    U\. 


4Jil 


i.  JW   U 


^    * 


V\ 


u 


U  ,i\          0  4^ 

-r  o 

^       •  _  *-^ 


J,V«j 


\o 


r  ci\«J(n 

>\  >  V\ 


r- 


0)  B 


U 


(0  B  oin.        (^)  AB  \^.        (M  B  j3^.        (°)  B 

(Y)    Kor.  49,  12.  (A)  B  adds  iV\.  0)   The 

(£>.   are  obliterated  in  B.        0  ')  B  ^>.?    •        00  A  \J\. 


B   L3fe».J.  (^)  A   om.   from 

0°)  B  ^V<T^. 
Kor.  9,  30.  (n)  Kor.   5,  21. 


to 


(H)   B  adds   e/j. 


jl  .  O1)  AB 

OY)  B    U\. 


-~  Jy;   tiUl  4tt 


.Ua^J 


Ju-Jj 


l\ 


0/>u>    ^ 


\  j  y»  j\  j\y«l\  ^L  \j  y>  <;\    Uj 

4.^,    Jlij.)    V.\    U\J    U*£*  ^.1    dil  JS.    4.^i.'»    ^.    v_jl^>j    Vt    (J,ViJ 

Vc  <i^aij  ti\«J   4ii\  Tcu^i  iiA;  diuj    1 

i  oUi  U    c 


i\Af.!73« 

r- 


(\)  A  <ui,u.        (5")  Kor.  21,  25.        (V  B        U.        (l)  B  oiu.        (°)  B  o\j 
0)  B   OJJ^.  (Y)  B       kj*j  4-Jf  J.  (A)   B      ji0.  (^)   B 


-)  AB      iJ**-  (U)  AB      i--  (ir)  B  ut-  (^)  The  words 


from  «u*j  to  Jq»\  ^   are   obliterated  in  B.  (^)  Tlie  words  from  4a\  to 

U^Vj.;   are  obliterated  in  B.  (\°)  B  -  (U)  B 

0V)  A^iV,. 


__ 

*» 


iL  ^  di^  j 


Lc  4.Ac  j          \  dil 


U  c^jV- 

\  \    \i          •   r      ->^*'\      -      *\"     s*  >"'  **         -> 
j,  u;-xn  j.^.  3  jU-  ^^6  V^  ^^  Jfc  j^j  A.--XS  4.^  ^  Sj 


V;\     V5         i    ^  ^  4       J.,    A     V5  U 


*>  .  ,      °>  .  ,      °>  . 

4tt  \Af.l726 


(M  B  ^.  (OB  om.  (^)  B  om.  from  ^-^J\  ^^   to  Vc  <LaJj 

A.  ^i^  (p.  ?1l,  1.  1).  Tlie  following  words  \jffu  ^V\  o^^i?  ^^  are  the 
beginning  of  B  fol.  230?>.  (l)  A  4$^ Vs.  (°)  A  4^VL>  ,  0)  A  iVf^V. , 
(Y)  Kor.  2,  246, 


-  » 
4li\ 


Jlo  J£j  dilJu  j\^a  y>  c5  Ji\ 


C 

^Uj«  ^.Ui  ^\  ^  ^ 

\i  a^ 


U 


P    C1-.'O     ^J^    Ic-V).^    TtU^iu 


(\)  B  Jx^.             (r)    B  di  oxi^.  B   om.             ()  B   ^iJ    J.S. 

(°)   B    o/i  Jo..                0)  B    o^Vi  Jc>.  (Y)   B   a.,               (A)  A   JU. 

(^)  The  words  <iA  Ji:^  are  obliterated  in  B.  (^)   B  Jy           (u)   Kor. 

41,  10.            (\0  B   ^J.            (^)  A  lr.  (^)  A  V^lc.          (\°)  A 
(n)  A  oin.           (w)  Obliterated  in  B. 


V- 


-^cJ  /-\ 

.y\    &  '}  -u\  -. 


,\iaj\ 


Cr     j  \j  "-!  Cr    j  o^-^^  Wi*^'1  ^  4;Vj(A)  j  tV^i   .\ 

Jii\\   (j'1*'  Ji«11  Jis_j   ciiii    -X«u  u-iiil  Jii_j    ^  Jp   Jis   iLss-   diiij 
^  «J        J    >i  U»  \jb  Ji\ 


^JM  J  AD  vfiJj  ^«  -^\j  **Vj  ov^  ^«^  <up  i-^  c^*^      °     • 

A  ju  «  j<>i, 

Jp  oJ^\    «01\ 


0)  AB   ti\»a.        (r)   B  jAj.        (f)  A  om.  from  ^  to  •&>.  t1)  B^U\i\. 

(°)  A   J$.            0)  B  _A«o.            (Y)  A  om.    Mlii\  ^  ^.  (A)  P.   o\x». 

0)  B  om.   jiii\  J.           H-)  Illegible  in  B.           (u)  B  om.  00  A  ^i, 
0?)  A  *Ac.           (^)  B   (V.  ^,           (^°)   B   om.   .AiA.  U. 


Jtii 


4W      dJjj 

k    O> 

JJi  J>\ 


U 


ij^\  J\5  ^ 


°  0) 


J 


^     ' 


A      .Vo  corr.  by  later  hand.        (r)  B  om.        (^)  B  «oU\. 


(°)  B 


0)  B   om.  from  o^  to  ^Ji>.          (Y)  B 

1)  B  om.   JW  ,uj^  ^-.  0')   B  om. 


(A)  B  adds 


A  om. 


SjWJl  ^  4.1      u,  U 

o  .     ^l         ^  o"      >        tf^<""" 

*      •         **** 


* 


u 

j  s^UVV,  JkV,  ,/>»  j 


(^)  Suppl.  in  A.  B  om.        (0  B  adds  ^iV.^.        (^)  B  ^15.        (M  AB 
(°)    A  A^W.  B  4^>.\4-.  0)  A   -G^.   B  ^Vy.  (Y)  B  app. 

(A)  B  om.  from    j^   to   ^.  (^)  B  J\j>.  (\0  A  ^\   with 

written  above.  0*)   A   0Li    .  (\r)  B  om.  0?)  B  om.  from 

Vi  to  mi\  ^ 


&^e   Jl> 


£n>  it 


j?    ( 


JL  iViS^  « 


; 


1& 


41) 


I    i^    '    ' 


V*    ^jl          Juid 


U 


Ju,U\ 


J 


* 


U 


(\)  B  A.W^I.        (r)  So  AB.        ()  A 
(°)  B   dili\.  0)  B  *\.  (Y)  B 

00  A  V.  B  ^.  0\)  B  di\U. 

to  ^  ^•J.  (\^)  A  U 

B  <i.  (\A)  B^.^. 

Kor.  17,  14. 


B  app. 

(A)  B 

)  B  o^  Ji. 
0°)  P,  V. 
)  B        -. 


B  o^U. 

(^  B  om. 

om.  from 


25 


VAt 


ill  jjj&f.  ^  j  jAdl  JU  j^  <^.j^\  j  . 

0^(0)  (3^  ^ 
\  M^  \J\3   *   V;\  (5a>\  °        (5>\  !      V,\ 


I  i 


•0*0 

Af.lTOo 


^  Jj^       5>  i>  villi  Jl 


U         \   4J        \1\ 


\)  A  ^  ji\  with   ^\\   written  above.        (0  B  <u.        (^)  A  om.        (M  B 

ex=»j.  (°)  B  adds  oUY\  ola.       '    ("0  B  A^\.  (Y)  B 

A  OvUM.  B  0jV>M.  (t)  B  li\.  00  B  om.  (U)   B 

B  diii  jTj.  0?)  B  adds  ^VW4\.  (\i)  Bom.  «uj\  ^,  ^\ 

B  Ui^  «..  (^)  B  AL-.  0Y)  B 


lt   J\ 


b  \i\ 


4B 

J\5  ^ 


«i^    4il 


Af.i09i. 


(l 


(^)  B  o.        (f)  B   4lU        (^)  B  ^,.        (M  B   J^  JP.        (°)  B  >J*>r 
0)  B  om.  (V)  B   adds   ^U  ^  j.  (A)  B   A^.  (^)  B  ^\. 

00  B  Aii*.  (\\)  A  om.   J\3.  (^)  A  o^.  (^)  B   o^o. 

(^)  B  J)^V\.  (\°)  AB  0^>1?-  01)  B  V"  (W)   B  adds  L^ 

\.  OA)  B  v>,.  (^)  B   ^aiU.  (rO  AB  tfjj\  but  in  A 

is  written  above.  (r^)  B  AJ. 


Ito    4il\ 


•K        •"  \  v- 
4j  \->^    Oj  '-*U 


(^)      v     - 


-W  U   S 


U, 


tdSU  VA  0\  ^ 

. 


>j   U   3JL3>-   Jp  JA.    ^-^j^    '   c^-Jj    (5**- 

v  lis  «  *jlu.\  U  j  J*  V\  sj^\  Jk      <• 


v.  Cu  < 


i  ay.  ^a 

U\    (5  Ji,    ^,    \o 
J   jy^U^j        AtoV^j    diUl 


i^  J  JU 


i   J  J/\  di\l\  U 


r. 


B  4ij\  J-^.         (0  A  il\j.         (?)  B  om.         (M   A  om.         (°)  B  app. 

0)   B   «JVi.  (Y)  AB  J  J^.          (A)  B    0-rJ.          0)  A 

with  g^JL\  written  above  as  a  variant.        O1)  B  XaiU^.         0^)  B  A> 
00   B  app.  _^L. 


1  ,j.^   o\ii^ 


\^i\  Y\  isxtf?  ^.^yS\  Ac. 


io 


(\)  B  om.  (0  B  adds 
0)  B  £  3W  juj,  4^  JW 
0')  B  ij,.  0»)  AB 

(^)   AB  yb.        0°)  A 
B  om.          ^C..  (\A)   A 


B 

(V)  A  om. 
(10  A 
H)   B    U  for 


A     .  . 


(A) 
.  B 


B  ora.  from 


(°)  B  J 
(\)   A 

(^)  B 
(W)  A 

to      Vi 


'O      > 


j^^i  Vc\ 

Vp  ^a>.  V?  ^ 

)         *e-  U 


o^_   ^     JC. 

\.         (\A)BW^. 
(r>)  AB   ^Ju\,\.  In  A  4^Ud\  is  written  above.  (n  )  A 


0)  B    -YU.  (0  B  i  (^)  B    ^\     D.          I1)  B  o 


B  jjj.  0)  B  ^.  (V)  B  ^^.  (A)  Bom.  ( 

)Bi,.  (\\)B\.  (^)AOj..  (^)Aom.  OM  B 


0\ 


VWlc 


t 


iV«\    ic 


i  JL, 


0)  B 
^i 

00  A  om. 
for 


B  ,S4, 


Ju, 

f>J\ 
-U  U 


y  0\ 


\j\ 


B  adds  V/J  ^  Jc.  (^)  B  ^^  i^A\\  J   U\ 

(M  B  J   U\.        (°)  B  lii^J.        0)  B 


.        0)  B  om. 
B   oi     c>. 


c_j  to 
Kor.  18,  109. 


Bt<;  t-,\  V\. 


U\ 


J\jO) 

J 


j-tcj 

'  ^  O^  ^  f 


<> 


l>Llc\   U   0>J  _P   J\5    c5\        S\  y.jAf.1676 


il\   Ac 


B  adds  ^-  <r 

(»)  B  y,_,.  (1)  B  om.  (Y)  B 
(>•)  A^^.  B  a\  {J^-.  0»)  B 
(**•)  B  Jc.  (*»)  B 


)  B 

.          (A)  B 
OH   B 


(l)  B  Uy. 

.         (">)  B   JoL 


£*  ^  fte- 


V. 


v.  oW 


4»\ 


Af.l67a 
> 


U 

j    LA5 


)  B  om.  (0  B  oin.  4a\  ^^  ^  j\3.  (^)  B  Oj1>  Jr>.  I1)  B  ^\. 
B  o/3  J:>  J\3j.  (^)  Kor.  18,  65.  A  Jut.  (Y)  B  i<-J.\\.  (A)  B  adds 
<Uc  j,-^.  (^)  Kor.  18,  65.  00  B  o  Aic-as-^.  00  B  <Jc 


00  B    Uc.  (^)  B  \*j.  0*0   B   J,^.  (\°)  A  om. 

(^)  B    ^  43^5.  OY)   Kor.  5,  71. 


>~      ^    <        v^x 


JVr)  V- 


4-15  Jc  ^  U  J^-  jk;.    L   »Jo.j  <5y  \J\Af.l666 
.9    Jp    ix^x*    J^!^^-6  JtA*^    V^    f*^-^    ^'^    J°    ^^   ° 


0U 


»\i\il\    it^ 


c  VY^*) 


B  jij.  (      B  J.  B  0*  ^.  B 

B   JuJ.        0)   BdiijTj.        (V)  B  ^'iU\.        (A)  B  U.        (^)  B  ./ 


00  B  -ulJ^^  oiU.  00  A  ^.  m  A  4iU.  (^)  A 

(^)  B  ^\.  (\°)  Kor.   12,  76.  0~l)  B  0/3  >  J      . 

OY)  Kor.  43,  31.  OA)  Kor.  17,  22.  (\^)  A  .  (r«)  B 


t~il~, 


J\iJ 

il  I  ,j\  diii  O^j  (AiJtj  ijVAe. 

y  ii>t  \i\  ^bl  J\i 

l\  J\5  t 


;*  U  ;j0. 

S^^S    ^^^  <-**^>         (0*t  Vj 


(0 


\o 


J^V^    ^j  ^V,  ^    V*-   \i\  \^   ^JalJ,  ^VxI^U^) 


0)  B   oW^i.  (0  A  i 

(^  A  s-JL^.  B  om.         (°)  B   S. 
this  and  the  following  verse.        (A)  A 
(\\)  A  Jail.  00  B 

(\°)  B  t 


.   B  i^LJL-.  ()   AB 

0)  A  Jo.  B   bus.        (Y)  B  om. 
(1)  A  o^k-.,  .        00  A  ojf^. 
B     >U.  (\i)  AB  <^U. 


r,   j 

Jp 


Go-)  V 

V- 


-  (5  Jl\ 


0)  B  >j5^.  (r)   Kor.  53,  11.  P)  AB   Ji.  .  («•)  B  om. 

(°)  In  B  the  third  verse  precedes  the  second.  0)  B  ^Ji>_^^>\  (j  <it-  AJO.  . 

(Y)  B  app.   4\5J.         (A)  B^>-^1  U   ^li  0<\.          (^)  B  ^^.         00  A  U-. 
B   Lp.        (^)  B   JiU\.        (\0  B  y^.        0*)  B  Ac^i.        O 
(\°)  A   i*UJL^.  B  A*ioi^.  (^)  B  i<4i—        ^.  (\Y) 


\  L.  V 


0s" 


\i  "^ 


Jp      Si    \i\ 


to 


(\)  B  adds  Ji\5i\.        (0  B  om.  this  verse.        (^)  B 
(°)   B  >,,^.  0)  A  d\\£.  (Y)   A    o^. 

0)  B  om.        (\0  B  j.\j;.        0\)  B  dli^.        (\r)  B 
0*0  B  o/i  Jt>.  (\°)  Kor.  83,  14.  (H)  A  om. 

(\A)  B  .j,.       0^)  B  ^\.        (r-)  B  JU.        (r\)  B 

(^)   B  \e».  (ri)  B  om.      \5  <?\.  (ro)  B   o. 


.        I1)  B 
B   (5-ri\ 
.        0^)A 
OY)  A  5 

(rr)  A 

(n)  B  JW 


v\  t 


sliU  J\  .lil  J\  iilC-  ^    *    S^ll    J. 

V   ^   ^   4.^j(i)  jyl\  jJ(^   JU 


r\ 


JU  io 


0)  Perhaps   5yb\Jai\.  Cf.  p.  ^^°,  1.    \Y.  (r)   A  <ui^  with  ^li  written 

above.  (^)  A  te.  B  adds  ^^U.  (M  B  om.        (°)  A  JU.  B  o*  ^ 

JyAlT  ii\/3.  0)Aoy.  (Y)  B  orn.  ^  U*  j.  (A)  B  ^3  . 

(^)  B   j^y\  £>y\.  (\«)   B  Uy_,.  (^)   B  J\5.  00  A  trans 

poses  the  two  hemistichs  of  this  verse.          0^)   B  V^.-  .          O1)  AB 
(\°)  B      \^.  (\-\)  A  .  OY)  B 


4.)\    4JG\    4^'   '    9-UMJjl 


JU  <;\ 


0\ 


9- 

us  j* 


)  JVi 

J\j\     i^\^ 


r\ 


U  l0'  JU^  J\i 

U,  ^.L^yi  j  £> 


\o 


(M   AB    j,\o.  Cf.  p.  r»i,  1.  1Y.        (OBj^j^.        (^)Bom.        (M 

(°)  B  jf.\  for  ^u  f^.              0)  B  \i^.             (V)     A  ^\.  (A)  B 

C1)  A  has  AX*   with  v  written  above.           00   B   <ui\  J&.  (n)  B 

(^r)  B   J..\J\\  J\3.            (^)  It  is  not  clear  how  the  following  words  should 

be  pointed.  B  has  ^dJJt  jT  ^  VJfT  J.  jC.        (^)  B^.  0°)  Kor.  6,  7. 

(H)  B  om.  from  Uy.\,  to  ^UVl.        (\V)  A  ^ A^ .  B  ^bi.  (\A)  B  om. 
lift  J.    In  marg.  B     *z. 


Jy-^>  Jj\ 


V. 


Ju  ' 


^i  •—  *~j 


Y)  Jj\   .11^ 


,^   (3> 


J\5 


\o 


U 


0)  B   A4V^.  (0  B  f"iJ\  ^lc.  (^)   B   c*i.X^.  (l)  B 

^J\  4.Jfc.         (°)  B  om.         0)   Kor.  20,43.        (Y)  AB  ^V.  .        (A)  B  ^. 
0)   B   Jt>_5js>.  (^')   Kor.  20,  40.  0\)  A   ^.5£.  00  Kor.  6,87. 

0*)  Kor.  22,  74.        0*0  B   j^\^\  £y\.        (\°)  B  i\»J\.        (H)  A 
B  ^A«^i.  (^Y)  B  J*^.  (\A)  A  ^b  J\.  (^)   B 

(r')  B  iU^..  (n)  B  J\5.  (rr)  B  om.  B  adds  app.  d))j>  ^»*  J. 


* 


-    OP-?    * 
-e    >'0  -* 

* 


U 


y.'  '  -*  ^J^j  ' 

J\i 


>\ 


V. 


Jc:. 


0)  B  V/^Vo.        (0  AB   ^Jj*.        (^)  B  l,(J.        I1)  B  om.        (°)  B  <C^. 
0  A  t^j.  (Y)  A  om.   this  verse.  (A)   A  <wL;.  (^)  B  j: . 

•)  B  U><£\.         (v-0  B   ,-,.         (^r)  A  U,.        (^)  A  K^,.        (^)  B     \\3,. 


B   ^jatf.  0  y  B  ^4\ai.  (\Y)  B   V^s-.  (\A)  A   JaP. 


a,  JUi 


:U\   J\S 


7*i«  *   ^U*» 


^J 

>^ 


)  B  >^^  *a 
A  j*.  B  om. 

B 

B  ^i,t. 
B 

AB  U. 


0)   B 


B 


B   S. 


(Y)  B 


0')   B 

.l  B 
A  \i. 


\)    B    ^,Jc>. 

Kor.  10,  59. 


-Xs 


o\il\ 


V-  ^*  Sj^ 


£  \° 


(\)  A  Jji\.         (H  B   J*-.         (?)  B  om.         (M  A  ^^.         (°)  B  ^. 
(1)  B  j£j>.  (Y)  B  \^.  (A)  B  ^^1.  0)  B   J^  j^. 

00  B     a-\^  ^.        0\)  B          Al.        (\0  Kor.  17,82.        0?)  B  oA- 
AB  app.   .Uju,.  (^°)  AB  ^, 


«3\t  ^(^   Jc 

JV;  , 


0)3^4.         (0  B   <JW.         (^)  A  ^b.         WB.'jVi,.         (o)  Here  A 
lias  in  marg.  some  words  which  have  been  partly  cut  away:  ^ki    ^ 

-^6]  fy  JV^   i.\U[-V^  ^].         (^)  B^\.          (V)  A  £*.          (A)  A 
B  om.  from  o^  to   ^V^  ^.  (I  •)   B   Je^jF-.  (\1)  A 

BuJj.        (^)Bom.        O^Aob^^^- 
A  adds  <**j>  j  jst.        (\Y)  A-fiii.        (\A)  A 

Ba  U.         (H)  B  \       \.         (rr)  A 


rtjj    A«i  j Jtu    )    O\    ui  :a    rci.U    1   \J\^  '    o^rJiJU   (^ »  yui 

^  \  *  \  ••' 


Ca\    o 


JW 


xAf.!G2a 


\o 


(\)  A  om.  ^l'>  I  \j>\.        (0  E   V<Jc.        (^   B  om. 

(°)  B  ^.             0)  B  om.  y=U  ^  &jf..  (V)  B   U. 

W.jf^-O*5-        0')Bdm.        (^)B^is..  00  A  f^       (^)ABuo>- 

(^)  So  AB.           (\°)  A  om.           (H)  A  jf\  .  (\V)  B   ^J.          (u)  Kor. 

18,109.              (^)  B   cu^i.              (r>)  Bj^.  (r\)  B  adds  o-J\  \AA. 

(ro  B  U^.       W  B  J.\j.       (ri)  B  cri.U.  (ro)  B 

(rv)  B  ^1  J\>.           (rA)  B  adds  &\}\.  (ri)  B 


»UJ1 


~  ^  r\ 


j\  ^^  Vi>  iU,  ^1  Oj^rt  5^  ^.^.V^  iJjV\ 

^    Ju  V\ 


,Ji>\  U 

r  ^  *^(t)  ^\<l)  a^  oi  ^  JV5J  'fvJ* 
JAM  Jy  C\j 


0)   B  ^\.        (H  B    ^.        (^)  B  ^H.-        C1)  B  om.        (°)  B  ^ 
0)   B   J^  pi\\.  (Y)   B  om.  from  ^  to    U  ^  .  (A)  B 


(V   A    Ju^J^.  00  A  \1.  0\)'A  <u^.  (\r)  It  is  uncertain 

whether  A  has  AlLi   or  <^U^.  (^)    B   J..  (^)  B  app.  ^. 


-  __  i\  <-i; 


-Xft\  Ixse^Z.?    *    4.J        >    V-    yy 


^U  JV5  '> 


j» 


U 


MAf.l61a 


U 


)  B  J5.  (f)  B  tfj>i\  Oy-      ^..  B  om.  C     A  « 

Kor.   «4,9.        0)  A  Vl^\  altered    to   \^\.        (V)  A   o-lf.        (A)  V 

i.  (^)   B   iU^.  00   B   £U.  (^\)  B  Ui. 


J\J  \i\j 


<u*  OL 


tS^rt  y>  *!\ 


^\(n)  j\s 


V     • 


dill,  *kij<U 

j,\  J\S 


J  J\i  *i 


\)  A  J\c.  (0    A  ^L^.  B  ^JVoj.  (*)  A  cJV^.  B 

B   ^-^-i.  (°)   A  j^.   B   Juui.  0)    B    ^i,0.  (V)   B  om.   V^ 

^.  (A)  B  om.  (^)  B  om.  k\  AJJ^.  (\-)  B  ^j^.  (\\)  B  «diwi^. 
)  B  j-J^-  0^)  B  v.  (M)B  oW^\^.^U^.  (^)A^>^. 
)  AB  ^  V..  (\Y)  A  e^.  (\A)  Kor.  85,  13.  01)  B  ^,1 

l>^^  (r-)   A  om.  (f\)   A  ^J^  \vitli  ^y   in  marg.  as  variant. 

A      9  ^.         (rv>  jj  Vc.         (rt)  B       sJl         (r°)  A 


V,\  0 


jT\   i-.J*y    ^    ^    di; 


ii(l)  V;\ 


*     -^ 


I      ''\\    \     °\      >"\  '     \\                       '  \          \ 

L, _  iJu.ii     ',     -^f-     <0j\  ir*f ' '  *  ^X»M>-    ^^ ^  IAA  .•j'^' 

*"    "s\  "0'0.T          <<""'>\\   -  °'  \ 

(3^    *— *J  i^5^'  *  > ^»-*%-li    ^*  *» 


^  JAsJ\  Jy  iL 


0)   B  om.        (0  B  LjLJ.        (^)  B  Jj«>.        (M  B  J\5.        (°)  B  om.  ^ 
U.  0)   B         ..  (Y)   B      \^.  (A)   B  Y~JJ.  (^)   B  U 


A    i.            ()   B  J&  ^j       J.  B  43.                    B  c3      ^jj 

\Io>    £*+.             O1)    B    oin.    4^  L$-l\'  ^0)   A    ^   U^^\   ^.A*  "^  _^  _yb_j. 

The  missing  words  have  been  supplied  in  marg.  but  only  part  of  them  is 

legible.            (H)  B           .            (\Y)  A  . 


L    J,5 


4fl 


Jy      j 

Ju\<(->  v.  j\  Sju 


J   V.\ 


0)  B  om.  (H  A  0V<T. 

B  r\c  J.  0)   P,  £M\  Jc  0C. 

\  J.         0)  A    .\i«.          00  B   OJ 
B  0\  U,^. 


A  diii  Jc.^.  («•)   B  ^xUi\. 

(Y)  Kor.  16,55.  (A)   B  om. 

(^)   A  om.          00 


i  ji\ 


M    JW!\ 


Af.l50a 


\o 


^t      J[>.      i  Ala     ^>\.^>     J    JVl 


J     All  I, 


J\3  AJ 


i^  JU  <j\  «U 


\i  j 


0)  B  om.  (0   B  v 

^^i\.  0)  B 

)  A  ^.  00   B 
to 


B 


(*•)  B 

B 

B 


(°)  A  J, 
(A)   B  adds   jxU. 
(\0  ]j  om.  from 


<  JiVilV\ 


- 


*-.! 

\0 


(^)  B  ^V^,.  (0  A  j\^)\.  Cf.  p.  m  ,  1.  A  sitjpra.  The  following  words  occur 
on  p.  ft  •  ,  1.  r.  (^)  Kor.  77,  8.  (^)  B  ol^  ^l  3j*  •  (0)  B  om-  (1)  B  J^- 
(Y)  B  4iLj.  (A)  B  app.  ^Ic.  0)  B  j^a\.  ('  •)  A  ^.Jfc  with  ^ 
written  above  as  a  variant.  (u)  Illegible  in  B.  00  B  ^.  0^)B^\J^ 
(^)  B  J\5.  (\°)  B  jW\.  (H)  B  ^  OY)  A  ^jj.  The  reading 
of  B  is  doubtful.  (1A)  U  ^L.  (^)  B  dAU.  (r")  B  «uUj  V.. 

(n)  A   ^.  (fr)  B  om.  from  _uJ\  ^  to  JLAl 


ii\ 


V. 


0)  A  V.  J\.  (r)  B  om.  (^)  B 
SSas-j.  0)  B  Ju&.  (V)  B 
•)  B  om.  from 


-        (0)  A  adds 
A   Jjo.        (^)  B  J^,. 

to   9-^.      J>.  u)  B  om.  from  JoV\j   to 

(^r)   A.  J^^ji\.  A  adds  J^oj}\  ^-l  S\^.  d^ 
0*-)  A  V>.  (^°)  A     ^VV  (n) 


^  cArf 


^& 


JAl\\  Jjjdj    ^    ^  *^        *    ^J 

"\\  "     ^     ^       >   "*  \     '°\ 

--U23     o^j  \ 


> 


V. 


41 


U 


0)  B  ^\  ^\. 
(°)  B  om.        0)  B 

00  A         o. 


0s-)  A        ,0.  B  om. 


(0  B  ^UJ.  (^)  B  0\. 

\5.        (Y)  A  om.        (A)  A 

B  f>!.  OH  B   ^> 
^°)  B  <u^. 


_  J\j  <0 


U  \1 


j  \    ,  __  £ 


«s     , 


ju 


fV- 


i       *tJl  C  '£  \. 


0\ 


^ 


J\i 


(U) 


\j  ft**. 


^^  05   iiV,^   J  V.   «\  *.^}   ^iV\ 


(\)  B   om.  (0  B 

0)  B  J^.  (V)  B 

('  ')  B  om.  this  verse. 

(\M  B  \i\i.  0°) 


A  oiJu 


(V  A  om.        (°)  A  ^V. 

(A)  A  4^%.  (^)  B  0Vul 

00  B  j^.        (^)  B  ^ 
.  (\Y)Bora.      V<-  J 


(\A)  The  words  from     \\3  to   <u-v  Jcj^  are  snppl.  in  marg.  A.  (^*)    Kor 

13,  39.  (r«)  B  ^.  (r\)  B  ^^J.          (ro  B  ^3  for 

(^)  A       U.   B        V».  (rl)  So  both  MSS. 


un-a 


« 

\  0\ 


U\ 


/\  V\(V'    *Jb        a     "j    U 

.  JU  4>  J 


V  >K 

il  ^\ 

o  ^  U 

^>     4»\ 

,  cj^S  V;\  J\a 


V. 


Jlj_,    <  (C\J«11 

U 


)  B  om.  from  J_,   to  oVi-.       (0  I!  om.       (f)  B  j^\  Jl.       (*•)  B  jli. 

B   j^l.  0)  B  ji^\.  M  B  j*.  W  B^^.  (t)  A  om. 

A  Ji.        (»)  B  ,j!-.       (^)  A  A(t  with  Jfc  snppl.  above.       0?)  B  ^liK 

B  J^>-       °0)  B  lj^       <n)  Kor-  5>  !•        (W)  B  V        <U)  B  J\»- 
A  j.jl\.  B  lj»yi\  ^j.  (r-)  B  om.  from  lil  to    »~0^. 


4U  j;  ^    A!     4i)\     iVx*)  Jlu  sa  Ju*        4Jll 

V.  ^  u-/r)  : 

JU. 


4. 


L.          .' 

<B\  <^j(r)  (Sj.Jr 

C  ^J  J\; 


\o 


(')  B  adds  tsj\}\.       (0  B  om.        (V  B  ^U.       W  B  j-y^ .       (°)BO.. 
("*)  B   ^.-Xj^H.  <v)  B  ^   .  (A)  B^yi.1.  This  saying  is  explained  in 

LMn  5,  308,  penult,  Cf.  Lane  under  _,_>.  (1)  B  jy»-K  0  ')  B  «\>fc . 

(»)  A  «J^  viJS  j$*.  oW.%  dJb.lyi.\.  ((0  B  j.X\.  (lf)  B  ^  In 

A  U    has  been  written  above  the  line  by  a  later  hand.  0*0  A  ^» . 

0°)  A  __,yj.  The  reading  of  B  is  doubtful.       OT>  A  t?iV;_,.        (w)  A  J^W. 
B   Jo\i.       (u)  A  ^.W.  B  Vx^,.       (^)  B  ,&._).       (r')  A  om.  this  verse. 


^         \ 


J>  j  4.i.iw»j 


ii\  s^W  JU      ^1-  \l  il 


<OJ 


*j  i  v^UA  3^ 
t(A) 


JuJ\  i.*.  ,  \° 


B  ^  . 


(T)  A 

^.  0)  B 

A   ^\3.  00  B 


(^)  B  om.  (^)  P, 

(Y)  A  JW.  (A)  A  om 

OM  B  U,.  00   A 


cAsi  ^V 


i  V; 


u\ 


\  —  *    4Jj 


V\ 


0)   AB 

I4-)  A  om. 
(A)  A   c**-j 
(\H  B  JW 
(^)  B  oU 


.  A  in  marg. 
(°)   AB  app. 
(^  B  adds 
m  B 


(r)  B  ^ 
0)  B  A«-\ 

(\0  B  4» 
(^)  A 


A    5 

(Y)  B   om. 
(u)  B  <^. 

)  AB   ^. 


V, 


JVs 


>_jP" 


v\ 


U 


O>^    *    T  • 


jjj\on  ^  2^ 


\o 


r. 


(\)  B 
(°)  B 
(^)   B 


(H  B  om. 
0)  Kor.  53,  11. 


(?)   A  om. 

(Y)  B_U1. 
(^)  AB   \Jub  A\. 
]J  Vc.        (\°)  B      S\ 


(A)  A 
\)  A 


Ja\ilY\  »J* 


JuJI 
y-Xiu    Jp    V^w&Uj    «Ui 


>  J(T)  J\s  <ul\ 

4»  <  t    o-          C-     ^  5? 


^x^ 


>j    >    4»\ 


4» 


\Af,155a 


0)  B  J,  (H  B  J,^^  X^^.  (^)  AB  jU.  (^  A  ^  with 

_j  written  above.  B  \jbj.  (°)  B  ju»^\.  C1)  B  ora.  (Y)  AB  -AJ] 

ji,   but   cf.   p.  °°,  1.1  supra  and   the  Nafafat  al-Uns  of  Jami,  N°  22. 
(A)  A    £W.  (^  B   i^.  00  Boj^\.  (\^  AB  om.  from  J\5 

to  J^V^.  The  words  are  suppl.  in  marg.  A.  00   B 

(^)  B  oVU^.  (^)  B      U. 


JAd\ 


V.  YJ  * 

°'"£»** 

>\  1  jV  j\i 

^  V\ 

^ui  Ou\\  5,  >  u/j  ^isii  j^^  Ouii  J\>y\ 

V.  oUV,    l  V. 


5 


1ui\ 


4.  .^  i-X  i  4^    ui 

\  J\y\ 


^ 


\  ^\y\  ->£>y\  v!Lw>-  <;a  Jc.fr  4^  JS    V-   u^*5.    ci    ^^    ^**j 
SJo          V«.^>  \j\  <L&)Y\   JAJ,      4  s_j.ji5  J       U 


(\)   B  om.  (0  A   \j>.  (^)    B  A,  Jii^.  (M  A  Vc .  The  reading 

of  B  is  doubtful.  (°)  A  <AxJ.  0)  B  \L\  U  \i,\^.  (Y)  A  dS Jo^- . 

(A)  Bi5J>.  (**)  B  dUo.  00    B  ioW!\.  (\\)   B   jtrt. 


t tY 


j\ 


,\  ,5  Ji\    \ 


V. 


i\Jl(A) 


«J 


^   r 


V\ 


U 


Jy  *r*  J  «\ 

.,\AJ^   4^-  4,0    dilj 


o- 


A  c^JJ    but    JJG   in  niarg.  (r)  B   il\.\aL-V\^. 


B  om. 


(A)  B   i\i.  (^)   B   Jes-jjs.  <w\.  (\')  Limn  xiii,  200,22  has 

Jj\o\  dl0.        0»)   B   J\5.        (ir)  B  JW.        (^)  A  5^U\.        (\ 
0°)  B 


u 


JUl\  Jlo   U*?j  uaxli\   uJjU\\  Jlo-   AA& 


> 


A^  ^1\ 


\)  B  ^.  (H  A  dJuU\-         (7)  B  \i^.         (•)  B   ^.          °    B  app. 

\  4i  _,^.  0)  A^LJiA*.          (Y)  A  ^^A.         (A)  T>    om.  this  verse. 

A  ^Ui.  (^)  A  om.         0\)  A   l^,,.         (\0  B  ^j!  .         (^)   B  «... 

B  ^.  (\°)  A        U,.        (n)  B  ^LO        Ji\  J\.        0Y)  B  om. 

B  om. 


Ui    f 


'>Vt 


V. 
V. 


v\ 


i 


o)  B  ^  0,  ^  u  >v^\  ^  j  Coi\  jl^0.       (n  B  ^  ^\  u\  J\LO. 

(^)   A  ^.  (i)  B  ^15\.  (°)  B  jt.  0)  A  ^\I\\  40  J3  \i^.  B  om. 

from  ^j>\ii^    to  AJV  (V)  A   ^UJ^  .  (A)  A  ^\  j>J**. 

(^)   B   ^  di^G.  (\0   B   jjjj..  0\)   B   \i\i.  (\0   B   J^. 

(^)  Kor.   2,  246,  (^)  B     \\5.  (\°)  B  om. 


( ^ )  A  ^o .  B  uJyo .  This  verse  is  cited  (unmetrically)  in  Massignon's  edition 
of  the  Kitdb  al-Tawd*ln>  p.  138.  (r)  A  jja".  (")  B  ^j  Jii.  (L)  15  J^L 
\c^  li\.  (°)  B  ^VU.  ("^)  B  oyi\.  W  Here  B  proceeds  (fol.  122«, 

1.  10)  iy  J1!  ^Ws  J  c^^>^  ^^  O>j  •  These  words  occur  in  A  on  fol.  173a, 
last  line.  The  text  of  the  present  passage  is  resumed  in  B  on  fol.  191«,  1.  4. 
(A)  B  oin.  0)  A  iliVC.  00  A  **.  0»)  B  ii^_5(?)_iu.. 

(H)  B  ^. 


>      "O     >  ^  •*     >      t  ^       J>  •»  '- 

'  (-r*|Xl*M<*^      3y>-  Vx>      v^JL,.'*^      ^J,\    *    jjild   ^-^    • 


-- 


^ii  J\3  ^i5  U\  jC»  V- 


U 


,.    Jo. 


U  ji\  J  ^ 


,^^  s-^>  Jp.  J_^   ij-.-X.  S^n/^j    i  *»J  [ji 


0)  B 
(°)  AB 
CO  B 

(^)  B 


(0  A  U^y.  B 
1)  A        *,.        ()  B 
)  AB 
(^°)  B 


(A) 


(l)  B  om. 
!>'  (^)  B  ^ 
»  ^)  B  om.  o>U  o 
(W)  B  rt 


sjUa*  -^>^\5   ^^i   ^  V\    ^i>.  ^ 
U 


>\ 


u<v°) 


^  4>l>  Jj\ 


0)  B  _^u.        (o  A 

)  A  ^u.  (°)  A  ^Ui\j.  I"1)  AB  ^J.  (Y)  B  om.  (A)  B  ^ 
(^)  The  words  from  \i\  to  Ja*i\  Jlo  c^^  ^  are  suppl.  in  marg. 
A.  A  in  marg.  \^Vs.  (^)  A  in  marg.  ^.  (u)  Bj,^^.  (\H  A  j<5. 
(^)  AB  tfA..  (\i)  A  ^V,.  (\°)  B  ^Ji\.  (\")  A  \i.  (W)  B  adds 
(U)  A  cul.  (^)  A  W.  <r-)  A  ^J. 


t  JW  J   a,Jl\  f 
(3  j 


\ 


, 


0)  A  <uij5.   B   ^x^j\.          (r)  AB    o^j.         (?)  B  UOAUJ.         C1)  AB  4.^. 
(°)  B  jp*£},  j^\.  0)  B  CX:>,,.  (Y)   A  4^.   B   oy.j\k-          (A)    A 

^^Vi^.         (^)  B   ^\UJ.        (^-)   B  ^V..        (U)  B  ^U^..        (^)  B/3. 
0^)  B  orn.  (^)  B  om.  ^U^'  <\U1  J.  (\°)  B  fU\.  (^)  B  om. 

from  dUi  <j  to   A!  <ui\  ^V^.  (w)  B   J^  j.t-  « .  (^A)  A  ^^U\. 

(^)  A  U.  (r>)  B  ouir  from  j3     to         l. 


J"-    '  J^j  '  -^j  ^^ 


VI 


*«r 


0\  jf. 


0)  B  om.  CO  B  j^. 

(°)  A  ^xij.  0)   B  Jii.  (V)  B  om. 

00  A  dlys-.  B  dl_^s-.  0^)  A  jkL.  (^)  B 

(^)   B  Oj^.  OY)  A  yi.  B  ^Ji:.  (\A)  A   S 


. 


\  ° 


(A)  B 
\)   AB 


i.  U 

V. 


<C  X, 


C-ic 


u 


'        & 


(^)   B  ^i.  (0  B  om.  (?)  B  W.  W  B  in  marg. 

*>}>  ^  >  >'  ^-^  J  ^  J^  ^'  (0)  B  ^b'  °}  A 

(Y)  B    of*  Jc>.  (A)   Kor.  85,  3.  0)  A  C^   and  so  throughout  this 

definition.  0')A^.  (n  )   B   adds  ^A\.  (^  B   ^yi. 

(\?)  B   3^1.  (^)  B  b_jil-.  0°)  B   o.x^.  (n)   B  pA~  fjc. 

(\V)  A  pj*.    corr.  in  marg.  B  om.  (^)  A   ^U\.  (n)   B  . 

(T-)  B  app.  ^..        (H)  A  JJ.  B>.        (rO  A  o/.        (r?)  A  l 


J\ 


(0 


'  ^ 


lc 


ic  1:  JUhrt 

j\i\(U)    i;y     J 


A  om.  this  verse.  It  occurs  in  B  after  the  words  ^  ^j  V/.~i 

(i."\).       (0  B  j±  Jol.       (^)  A  U^.  B  j  V..       (M  A 

with  AlVoi\  in  marg.  (°)  A  CA^\.  B  >A  0)  B  om.  (Y)  A  \^. 
(A)  B  J\5^.  (^)  B  0,.  00  A  J*V^.  0*)  B  0\s?\.  00  A  OU\. 
(^)  B  o^\.  (^)  A  \,*\*j\.  (\°)  A  om._j  0VcV^.  (H)  B  app.  j, 


**  cA* 


4JL2>-  £;>.  jl.  A^U-  A* 

CO-£  -t 


L. 


V. 


(°)  B  om.  0)  B  jVi.  .  (Y)  B  om.  from 

(A)  B          .  (^)   Kor.  35,  29.  00  B 


B  W.  0Y)   B   £,..  (u)  A.  J^i.  B 

Nafafat  al-Uns,  p.  93,  1.  2  foil. 


JU 


\o 


to  ousx    . 
.  ^)  A   om. 

.        (^)AW. 
A  J*j.  B   j*j.   Cf. 

22 


o 


r\  « 


li>  JU 


JAf.l49« 

U  ^\5^l 


(Y)  Jl\  J 

d  \«a**  (3^\ 

JiJSu5l\  ^  o- 


riOJ  u-i*^  ^  JVai  Jx^iU  r-V4   -V  (3 


(\)  B  ^U.        (H  B  om.   4CJLU  JK        (^)  B   o^U  Jr>,         (^)  Kor.  3,  127. 

(')  A   j^\.  0)  B  ^Ui.               (y)  B  om.              (A)  p,  J.^  ^  . 

0)  B   ^iutt.  00  B  <u^,             0\)   B  ^_P\.             00  Kor.   24,  25. 

Kor.  has  <u^  y.  (^)  B   J^aii^  .                 (U)  A  Lr<^y\.  B   ^J^W^. 

0°)  A  \j>.         (^)  B  adds        ^U.         (\V)  B    U      «U\.         (\A)  B          . 


JV» 


,3    ^ 


,j\jr 


U.    ij*&\0\    "1\O    ,_^JLfl)\     .   -UM     «A«    ^^)JL\\    4ji^J    \o 

"  'x  ii  ."^.C 


^> 
J\5   <dJJi  ^     ;\  JW  J\  JW 


(\)   B  J>u.  (0  B  app.  ^\.  (?)  A  J\  ^   ^9.  (t)  B  om- 

(°)  A  ^.  The  word  is  partly  obliterated  in  B.  (nO  AB  JW.  (Y)  B  j^)\. 
(A)  B  ^.  (^)  B  ^.  (1  •)  B  \i/j>.  0»)  B  ^.  (\H  B  ^  ^ 
Jg3i.  '  (^)  B  ^.  (^)  A  o^Vb.  B  app.  ^.Jfcj.  (\°)  A  5JoW. 
(H)  B  ^  d^U.  (W)  Kor.  50,  36.  (\A)  B  jl^V).  (^)  So  both  MSS. 
f'f.  p.  rn,  1.  \"\  *egf.  (!"•)  Perhaps  Jub,  but  the  MSS  read  as  above. 

(n)  The  last  two  letters  are  obliterated  in  B.  (IT)  B  sV^U 


SJ?  \4  V,\  1^  U  V;\,  itf  iT^O)  -J 


,„ 


X)^j>    I  o 

(\1) 

Af.1486 


0)  IX  om.  U  ^  ^1  ojj,.  (0  B  on,.  (V)  A  ^  corr.  in  marg< 

B   ^.  (t)  AB  c^*.  (°)  AB  ^ilj^.  (1)  AB 

(y)    A   ^\,.  (A)  B  jTu.  (t)  B  adds  V^,.  00        om. 

^  ^  ^  JU.  (I  0  B   UU,  (»H  B  o/3  J>.  (\^)  B  j^. 

W  B   ^.        (^0)  Kor.   23,  73.  B  om.  ^.        0")  B  J^  ^.        (W)  K  om. 
from    d)]^j  to  4«.  (\A)  B  JVi  JVi.  (\t)  A  om.  (r-)  B     «-  lU,\. 


iuj,  f>9«ij, 

ii»aJl,  JLL},  i/lij, 


jei    V.\  ^i  V.\    S 


0)  B  om.  fU.^  JV^\O.  (0  B  j&\-£\.  (?)  B  om.  I1)  A  om. 

(°)  AB  VS^  ^_j  \j>  iu  CA_J-  0)  B  jV-ii-V^*,.  (Y)  B 

(A)   A   -u*i\.   The   word  is  illegible  in  B.  0)  A    ,*&\\v   B 

(^)  B 


^  ' 


.\i\i 

w«  JV 

J,   J,  \V.  ^  ^-^ 

5»   k  di 


J\ii  ^JW  V; 

J\5     A*.     j^ 


0)   B   o^A-ii    \Vs.  (0  B    e..  (^)  B   *L-.  (*•)  B  om. 

^— 


A  om.  from  ^S  ,  to  <uU.         0)  B  c-i^i*.         (Y)  B  ^\.         (A)  B  om. 

i.        (•>)   B  ^A^.         (^)    B  J\jji\. 
)   B   om.    p  U.  (n)   B    OA. 

0Y)    Here   the  text   of  B  breaks  off  (f.  191a  1.  4)  and  proceeds   j^f.  j\   jVs 

(^     *SjLjT     ^    ^    l^a>    1.    18).    The    words     ^-\   d\tu>    ^j^>-^   occur   in    B   on 
' —  C_ 

f.   1096,   1.   2.  (u)  B  adds    k\  «us^ . 


JV3  L  o)  v,;\ 


J\3 


r>^\  fa 


t!    V*  « 

T  \ 


i  0\r  jy, 


^ 


i  U 


I  vUa^   JVs   r   4il\ 


'  axa 


(5-X-,S-  \5 


0')  B 
(^)  B 


.  (      B  ^A,.    . 

0)  B   jii\.  (V)  B 

(\\)  B  om.  J. 


B  0111.  (l)  By. 

(A)  B  JJUP^. 
(\r)  B        . 


B 
B 


U  JU 


"    J^*i 


Ji  j    "i,  dJJVwi       A,  jUj  ^  JV»  ? 


J 


V\ 
jU       ^ 


(')  B  cm.  (f)  B  Jj\.  m  B  o-lj.  (*•)  B  VjdW.  (°)  AB 
0)  A  ^AL  B  jJi.1.  Perhaps  jtiil.  (V)B^J.  (A)  B  j^-l.  (^B 
00  B  om.  from  (?  to  jVJ.  (")  B  jji.\.  (^0  ]i  J^.J 

(^)  B   (i\.       (»i)  B   ^.        (>°)  H  ^jy.       (H)  B  ^Vi.       <^v)  B 
l'A)  B  0111.     l. 


Ujx)\ 


<i\ 


ex-  - 


Jlii 


*\1\ 
iku-  ^   ^ 

>J\ 


I  . 

c<Juj   J^Vj5Af.l46a 


0\  >;  >  ^\       JW  0^T  JV; 

^" 

t      V;\  \j 


0)  B  om.  (0  B   JW.  (^)  A  \j>.  («•)  B   ClJ^.  (°)  The 

commentator  on  Qushayri,    194,18  gives  ^  Js^'-  as  a  variant.  0)  A   JVs. 

(V)  B  U,.  (A)   B         .  (^)   B  L.  (VO 


>  ^    Jp  iJ-^J    JVi    4H 

j»\i   jjjjj'i  ^JJ»  Jc  iai-j    «j^  J^ 

i  JJV  J.U  J\>\ 

,    Jc    iai~i.     \j 


J\5  JUJ 


U 


V* 


J  ^  Af.l45(, 


^)  T,  adds 

B  om. 

B 
)  B 


.  (r)  B   om.  411  \ 

B   ^-.  0)  A  om. 

00   B  ^ff. 
».  (^)  A 


-fr]\  JVi. 
(Y)    B 


V,\ 


B 

(A) 


A  J*\ 


* 


0\ 


JL  o^  O°fj 


\o 


0)  B  om.    '£*\j\.  (0  B 

°)   B   ^.  0)   B 

B       i^.  0-)  B 


)  B  om. 
(Y)   B 
B  4cJl. 


(A)  B        . 


\  j*\ 


.  —  j 


y\  Jj^  JU 


0\ 


Jli 


U 

0 


J\a 


U  ^^  4.1 
\J\  c 


i  J\5  (i:^ 


•      f 


U 


iA;  a\  JVi 


JU 


,i  I  JU  *Jj  (Si 


(\)   A  om.   from  jjU   to   JT*\:  ^.  (r)   B 

(*•)  B   om.  dJii  ly.  (°)  B   ^ .  0)  B 

(A)   B  Jp-V\.         (^)  B  ^\.         Or)A-4i^-, 

(^)  A  Cr^^JV,.        (^)  A  ^\^\  J.        (\°)  B 
B    OuU^\.  (W)   A      . 


y. 


UC 


0)  B  ^. 
1)  A  jU\. 
)  B   ^\. 
^)   B  oA5, 


4» 


V.V, 


^t   53 

j  0\ 


B  om. 
(Y)  In  A 

00  B 
(\M  B 


0\ 


()  A       ii).  ()  B  ^  . 

is  suppl.  in  marg.  before  0- 
.  (^)  B  V^^i. 

(\°)  A   j*-\.  (H)  B 


y, 


^\  j  JV5  JV5  j\ 


u 


B 


(A)  B 
B 


^4 


vlilj  0/'0\  ^  ^  Jy 


(1)   B 
O1-)  B 


\   J\3 


:(*•) 


Jtif  cd-iJ    O^*1*    i>*   CyO.   Vili-   J-U    j\ 


jjt  ^  J\» 


(0  B 
(°)  B  om 
•)  B 

0°)  B 


«,_^.  W  B  om.  J\5 

0)  B  V..        (V)  B  oU/\Y,.        (A)   B  (jati. 
(")  B  J.J.        00  B  0\  J\i.        (^)  B  li... 
(^)  B      \i.  (W)   B  i. 


V\ 


a- 


>  o       A  j>  ft* 

V.  y*o  j 
U\(V 


l)  J\i.  0\  jj* 

J  jg&j  JA5 

C\jT\ 


a\ 

«l  JVu        ' 


0\ 


0)  BjL^l         (OB^l.         (f)  B  JiJ\.        <l)  B  dJJi  o^.        W  A  j 
JjS\  c£ili  for  «;_,  j  dAli.  0)  B  cm.  oU_£l\  o«.  (^0  B  om.  In  A 

is  written  over   s)c-  <A)  B  olu'  (V)  B  J-  ((''  A 

)  B      J.  (^OAJrfjl  (^)  B  Je.j^.  ((i)  B  J,. 


V  fir- 


JU  o5j 


>\ 


i    1 


«a 
0\ 


\     - 


0)  AB   ^,. 

)  B  oU* 


H  B  om.  ()  B    o 

0)   Kor.  40,  62.  (Y)  B 


B  ^. 

B  om.    . 


A  om.  ^^>  ^3. 

(A)  B  ^U     . 


A  \.  B         . 


0  o3 


ibv\ 


a>     ,\  Ui  Ul  V. 


0\ 


A^> 


*a 


** 


B    ^\  &.         (0  B  U.         (^)   B  Uj.         (l)   B  oin.         (°)  B 

0)   B    5jLi\.  (Y)   B  0/3.  (A)  B-ora. 

0)  B  ^.          (\")   B  om.   ^W^  j.          (^)  B  jC^\  J.         (^r)  B  ^ 
(^)  B  Crv.^-  (vt)  A  gives   ^U  as  a  variant.  0°)  B 

W  AB   oU.  (w)  B  om.  ^J\  o^.  o-' 

21 


i  * 


JU  J^ 


\  V.  « 


i  c/. 
,  ^i  o/:  0\  r,*>™  yf\^ 

j>  >  ^  ^L 


Jc 


ii;  L, 


(»)  A   A.  0")  AB   tsy.  W  B   om.  C1)  A   «f\  £.  The  passage 

beginning  ^^J   and  ending  ,v-LJ\  ^Jc  *  l«»V^  u>.>_j  is  suppl.  in  marg.  A. 
(°)  B   jp.          0)  B  ^\  ij^Jo^.,  (Y)  A   om.    '"U^  ^.          (A)  B   ,o\j. 

(^)  B  W.         00  B  jo-M.         (^)  B  A,jU        (\0  B  5\jo.         (\^)  B  om. 
\5.         (^)  B  adds  oi.         0°)  Kor.  19,25.         (H) 


iA  Jp 
JAi,  (5  Jl\ 

0\   ^U, 


VI 


u 


A  J*4 


4il 


\ 


U.  (0  B 

0)   B  <u^:.  (Y)   A 

8^..  00  B  om.          (\ 

(^)  Kor.  2,  262.  A  om.  1^. 


a^Ail  dili 


.  B  om.  (A)   B  adds 

^.          00  B 


i  JA\  ^  dlli 


J 


JOi 


V' 


(*)  B  oiii. 
(i)    B  J^. 
0)   B    U. 
(^)  B 


(0   B  om.    U\  ^Jc 
(»)   A   ^.  (1)  B 

(*•)   B   Jc-^jt.  (")   A 

W  A 


B  om. 

(V)  A 


(A)  AB  jy 
(»0  B   ,W:\  J 


0\ 


U\  J  y« 


*• 
\A 


-s>^  r 


4fl\  J^-j  Jc 


o 


f  5y\p 


V, 
»^l»    <««»• 


\)  B   om. 
B 


B 

A  f^  (Y)  A 

(1  ')   B       bVi. 


B  ^.  00  B 


(*&• 


U3 


U  c 


* 


l 


\(ri) 


U  JU  J  JU 


V    J^d    ** 


J\a 


(n> 


0)  B  ^.        (HBvUJc. 
0)  B  ^  J  .        (Y)  B  o-i 
^»j.         (^)  B  ^. 
(\°)  B  jAj.        (H)  B  ^^' 
(r-)  A  om.         (H)  B      V5. 


(      B 
.        (A)  B 


r>b  . 

JB^.  0*0   B   <Xf. 

)  B  ^\.  (n)  B  tfj. 

B           \.  (^)   B 


L;  jl\  J  J,*j 
>j  >  ^ 


& 

•Xto'1  -     w 

'U'Af.l406 


t  M\      >*  »  C\  •">  \     .  v  A 

\^,-\m  •<**  *      i    *  \XJ<  fl  1      7»X^"    \  ° 

^ 


B  .lJYV  (f)  35       3  0^   for  0V     0.        >_,.  (^)  B  om. 

(1)  B  om-          (0)  B  adds  5-          (1)  B  adds  ^ 


0\ 


o.;o 


i^Ji\  ^y  \i\J  oi;  Mai- 


U«J\ 


ir) 


(^)   B  adds  Jc>_5j.t..             (r)  The  words  from  ^\  to    *  VJu!)\  are  suppl.  in 
marg.  A.           (?)  A  om.          I5-)  A  cJW-  B  o^^-      -    (0)  AB  oy^^- 

0)  B   ^.J.             (Y)  A  ^by.  B  oV^L            (A)   B  ^J^.  (^)  B   om. 

0-)  Kor.  50,  34.               (^)  B   io^il\.               (\0  B  \1.  (^)    B  J3\. 

(^)  B  AUu.        (\°)  Kor.  34,  3.        (\1)  B  Jc.        (\Y)  A  \3\.  (^A)  AB  0\^.  . 

(^)  A  U.           (r-)  B  om.  4xWi:  "lk^  Jo\,.           (r\)  A<Ja^.  0"0  A  om. 
A       ut.           (ri)  B  4»\  ^. 


JL 


i_^     4JU.^4>.^    «U*i>    - 


4—  Ac 


\i  VY>  0Vrt  >\ 

tf  j.\  u 


VlU\ 


lyi^  ^  «  ^-  ^to^  ^- 


b  V^7   1«]\ 


o 


\o 


0)   B   Uc.  (0  B   v-  W  B  A^-.  (M  B   *1  (°)  B  AjjT. 

0)  B  ±<£.  (Y)  B   <u.  (A)  A  A»Ui    with  >\iii   in  marg.   as  variant. 


B   o^jp  js-  <u   and  so  A  in  marg.        00  B 
Kor.  2,  2.  m  B  \  0  i)  B 


.        (u)  B  adds 
(^°)  B 


-)  B 


(r\)  B 


Jc 


V* 


\(°)  \1 


j     1.  Jlj\\ 


ly  oLte-j  v  "-^Vi;  ^  **ie  A.;Vs  dili  ^P  ^,0   V.  UVs  (^ 

)  <ui\  w==-  5^  *Sj 


B  om. 

(°)  B 
(>•)  A 
(**•)  A 
<u)  A 


(0  AB  (5iV        W  A 
B  ojijii.        (V)  B  C.\cjl.        (A)  B 
(")   AB  o^i^aui.  (ir)  AB 

^)  AB  \;\J.  (^)  B  \^.  (        A 

)  A  U.         (f')  B    .\;i.         (n)  B  om. 


G\*i\0 


0\ 


^VU     0\U\     V.     diii 


(\)  A  om.          (0  B 
0)  B   om.  (V)  B  <Ju^. 

(^)  B      ,.        (\r)  B  J. 


x«\3  U 


fc- 


(A)  B 


B     . 


B  \ 


^i 

«» 


*  ^i  V.  j> 

>  J,\  s^Vi\  _,\  iiiLL  i 


U 


(\)  B  V^\.        (r)  B  adds  <w\  A^.        (^)  B  om.  c^Y\  O!.  I1)  B  Jjiil. 

(°)  A   j-b.         0)  B  om.         (v)   //^a,  II,  269,28,  has   jj\.  (A)  A 

B  app.  4J^  but  the  last  letter  is  obliterated.        0)  B  om.  A..  00 

0»)B  J\5.        OH  A          U        (^)  B  \.        (^)  A  <u^.  0°)  B 

(^)  B 


u 


V. 


,  U 


j^io.  (0  B  I*. 

snppl.  in  A  before  J*\. 
from  A$>^  to  ^J;.  00  A 

0^)  B  ^y\.  (\i)  B  \i\i. 

(\V)  B  adds  lc\  4a^. 


B  0*.  (l)Bom. 

(Y)  B    o\^.        (A)   B 

-          (U)   B   cJ- 
(\°)  B  Ui\. 


\cJ 


v. 


U^\  >\ 


(°)  B 

0)  B  om. 
13  J  di 
)  B  Ui. 


u 


B  om. 


U 


U 


B 

(\0  A      Afti^.  B 
after  ^.  (\°)  A 

OA)  A  U%.  B   <% 


0)  A 


u 


(r)   B          .  m  B  fvt\.  (*•)  B   ora. 

B  om.  0)   A  ^L  JVW.  (V)   B  J\5. 

\.  0  ')  B  ^.  (\\)  A  AU£ 

A  V^.  (^)  In   A  V^lc  is  suppl. 

B  om.  ol*        .  0V)  B 


i   U\ 

U 


\J\ 


U 


GTL 


r 


o    4»\ 


js>  Ub*-  Vv»\ 


\  a    J\5 


4j    ^C    lj    < 


0)  AB 

(^)   B  a, 
(Y)  B 
00   B 


*?   but  A  gives   »*i  as  a  variant.  (r)  A  om.   ^>j]^\ 

-  (^  A   jp.  (°)  B    ,,.  0)  AB 

(A)  B  om.         (t)  B  V-U.         (»  0  B    <  .         (^)  B 

Of). 
B  iu.  '          .  B       .>..  (^)  A 


)   B    , 
.  B 


xi 


t  ^-1   ** 

\i\  Jy,  0^4;\  4B 
•^  J\5  <,\  CA.\ 


J\a 


J\»Af.l36& 

- 

°Ij 

^     U  4ii\  <**(^  ,v!ii\  ^: 

i      V;\ 


(>)  B  om.         (0  B  dili.         (f)  B   «\Jcj.         (*•)  B  U  (»)  B 

0)   B  app.  Jj*.              (V)  B   -jytj.               (A)  B   j^  .  (t)  B 

(*•)  A  J^.jS\.  B  om.                (")    A    #..                00  B   ta\  for  «\ 
m  B  o\yU\,.           (ll>  B  om.  a\  fj  aiti\  JU. 


-j   £9j    r 

*.\\     •      •  >x     T-°-   <r  > 
Vl         uj9        -sb 


^  * 


i  ^('} 

^^    ^ 

5\       ^>^  rV5  V^  j£>\     d\  j  ji  \i  JU 

l\  0 

AJi 

lli  * 


0\ 


i  J\ 


r- 


(^)  B  om.  (r)  B  ^Ao  with  cu*-  A«i  written  above.  (^)  A  ^.a. 

(^)  A  om.  oL V\  °Afl> .  (°)  The  words  from  JVij   to  US    are  suppl.  in 

niarg.  A.     The    copyist    states    that   they  were  omitted  in   the  original  MS. 
A  J\?.  0)  A  om.  (V)  B  ,J,U\  o^-  (A)  B  adds  '/^  j=- 

(i)  A  ^\.     oo  B  <u\.     on  A  4-     ^ir)  B  A*M.     o^)  B 

(^)  A  oAftU.  (\°)  A  Jc. 

20 


JV; 


\  .*>y\o>  ^  J\s  0\ 
V\  U* 


« 


J\5 


V. 


J\5    eX.    A 


J 


\a 


\o 


A  om. 


(»  ')  B  om.  <al 
.  (^)  B 


0»)  B   c\\. 


B 


U 


Jb    AiV 


0)  A    £\ 
0)  B  U^. 
A^\  <u>-J. 
0*)  B  om. 

JU\\. 


(0   B 
(Y)  B 
0   B 


>\ 


(^)  A  J 
(A)  A 
0\)  B 

A     -l\. 


B  om. 


r- 


°)   B    L 
for 


.  r 


J\j 


JjbVi 


*•     o  "  }  ^          o  ^    o       °'  . 

j    5^  •  ^^ 


i. 

.  Af.l35a 


B  om.  (0  B   J^.  (^)  A  ^>=fj  with  ^.^  written  above.  B 

.  I1)  7/fyrf,  II,  260,  22,  has  ^,y.  (°)  I/nja,  ^\^.  (1)  B 
3_^V  (A)ABpA*a  f.Jc..  (^)Bom.  dill  ^-j  ^\  JV5.  0') 
Kor.  39,  24.  00  B  oi  .  (^)  Kor.  22,  3G.  B 

Kor.  4,  45.  (\°)  B 


JVi 


o 


f. 
c5 
j  ^  Sfi  \S\  a^ 


-          ^  ,5 

c       O 


.  V. 

4JJ\  J\i  U.   Jo-_, 


0)   B  oin.  (0   B    ^\  Jc^\  0\^  J'S.        (^)  Kor.  18,  47.        (^)  Kor.  2,  104. 

(°)  A    ^1^.^  0*  y*b.  0)   Kor.  24,  39.             (Y)  B  adds  ex*  <m\  J=>^. 

(A)   B  Ai.  0)  Kor.  22,  45.               00  B  om.  c*-                <n)  B  ^\. 

(\0  A  ^<L.  (^)  Kor.  22,  36.            0*0  B  Of*  Js>.            (\°)  Kor.  2,  192. 

(H)   B    0^.  (\y)   Kor.   18,  47.        (u)  B   ^.         (\^)  B   ^.        (r-)  B   \il,  . 

(^)B^.  (rr)Bt5^\.            (^)ABJ-Ju..            (^)Aom.        (r 
(H)   B  dii. 


t 


U 


4-u 


V. 


J       fifc*^  }*   J 


0) 


B  U,Ju 
B  om. 
B  om. 


(OB  oin. 

0)A  v^V,0 
00  Kor.  57,  21. 


B    o 

B  U 


U 


(^)  B 
(°)  AB  ^ 
as  a  variant, 


V.; 


*> 


» 


j'1''  Ju^\  JU 


\>\ 


0)  A 

(^)  B 

AB  Us. 


B 


for 


<W)  B   j. 


^-V-  (1)  B 

05.  (A)  A  gives  ; 

0  0   B  om.  (^)  A 

B  om.  j,  J\5.        (^°)  A 
(^)  B  ^ 


9cJ 


>»   \2 


^  ^ 


4-3 


4J\         AJ\    d 


4» 


(\)  B  om. 
0)  B  *J 
(\0  B  om. 
(^  B  Ai> 
OY)  B 


(0   Kor.   3,  47. 
(Y)   B 


AB 


(A)    B 


B  om.  from 
OA)  AB 


to   \c\ 


(°)   A  U. 

0)  B  dJ\j>. 

o   for  <\i\  JuP. 

(^)  A  om. 


nv 


iijl  Ji  \i  Uj'w)  J\    ?  iij 


B  jU-r,.  (0  A  r^i)\.  (?)   A  \il.  (l)  A  it\   with 

as  variant,  (°)  B  U».  0)  B  jV.U.Ja;  -~*},.  See  Yaqi'it  under 
i\,\;>iW.  Other  readings  in  J.R.A.K.  for  1001,  p.  724,  note.".  (Y)  B  ^-.t". 
(A)  B  J  J^,.  C*)  B  _^.  0')Bom.  (")  A  ^iM  with  j«-\  as 

variant,        (>0  A  JUUV.        (^)A«iUc.        (^)  B  j^\.        (  (  °)  B 
(")  B  U~.  <>Y)   B  V..  (u)  B   *U  JJ.  (n>   B   ^Vi. 


m 


Jj 


JuaJJ,   iAu-Yl    J*      V\    cO^>    kloUoJ, 


y 


\  ;\  silli 


£f\ 

' 


u 


i  u 


)    V 


(  __  i 


\o 


(\)  B  iai.^.  (r) 
0)  A  0,ji\.  (Y)  B 
00  A  0V<  B  CX 
^\  4^,.  0^)  B 

(^)  A 


(^)  B 


B  adds 
0*0  A 


()  B   <5jy*.        (°)  B  om. 
(A)   B   A^U,.        (^   B  ^. 
l0.  00  B  om.  g^l  JU 

i.  B  oi\.  0°)  B    oii. 


J  -A, 


U 


JVu  Jt>J\  Jc  Jj\  'f 


4il 


-05 


U 


0)  B  om.  (r)  B  om.  from  o 
)  A  j£>^.  0)  B  j^  JV5. 

0)  B^^.\.  0 

B    45.  (^)  B  om. 

B 

B 


to   J_y,.        (^)  A 
(V)  B  adds   &\}\. 


B 


C4-)  B  y\^ 

.(A)   A    oj^V 

0\)  B  J 

0°)  AB   ^ 

(^)  B        d\ 


*W>   J    {j3yA>-\    ^jZ>yA>-    v_A^j    J    ^_Jb    < 


^r)  U  ji 

gU\W  J\5 

(V  of- 


V,\ 


»*  ^^  ^*^      A      ~       *^    ^ 


^ 


0)    B      -.  (0   B      ii\.  (^)  B  Vii\.  I1)  B  om. 


(°)  B  om.  0)  B  ^  0\.  (Y)  B  J£>V,.  (A)  B    ik,.  C1)  A  5^\ii. 

B   0^\^  jt^.  (\0  Kor.  57,  21.  (^)  B  om.       '«i\  J\.  00  Kor. 

27,  90.        0^)   B      tf.        (\i)  A       U,.        (\°)  B          V        (^)  B 
OY)   B  adds 


,    1L 


0)  A  om.  d 
)  A  ^u.  B 
)  B 
)  B 


i\  \2  viL 


B  adds 


0\ 


j         \°)  JV5  ti 


O)  B  om. 
00  B 

(^)  B 


)   B  om. 

(Y)  A 
\)  B  j. 
B  adds  \iJu- 


ti\  pL  V 
JJ  *.  0 


B  Ufc  0\x»- 
(A)  B  V;,> 
\0  A  Jo 


B 


So  both  MSS.  0"')  B  om.  /^C  As  <\  V- 


<\ 


<^    »» 


**' 


t  i_V>        j^     >».      '        **t'    * 


s,  J  j-  \i\  JiU 


\j    \i    iL-   ^-VM,   <ai\ 

o^V'^  dili  ^  _,\ 

i-xi,  >u,  J«>^i  ^  'f^^(A)  *; 


(\)    B    om.  (0    B  Jr>\^  U  1^.  (?)   A    O^V,.  B 

(l)   B  ^.  (°)  B   om.   jj^\  AiiVj,,.  0)  B  om.  <\i\  -u-j  ^\  J\3. 

(Y)  B  ^*c-.  (A)    Kor.  57,  14.  0)   The  passage  beginning  Ljj  and 

ending  laL-j  o^  >»J  (P-   ^" ^ ^>  1-  !)  is  suppl.   in  marg.  A.  ( ^ ' )   A  om. 

(u)  A  J  J\is.         (\0  B   ^L  j,  ^.          0?)  B  om.  o\  ^.         (\M   A  om. 

r.  25,  28. 


5^1  J\l 


i 


»^.     4fl\ 

O  \li  Jy;  0\ 


iU  JU 
f    £ 


(\)  B  om.        (0  B  adds  &\}\.        (^)  B  A^L  .        W  B  oi*.        (°)Bj-\. 
0)  A  om.   *j£  Jj  Joj.  (Y)  A  om.  (A)   B  ^.  C1)  B  om.  ly 

D\  ^c.  (\-)  B  o-\9.  (^)  B  J\SJ.  (^)  ^Mm,  VI,  111,  1.  Other 

references  in  JM.A.S.  for  1901,  p.  740,  note  3.        0  ^)   A          .        (^)  B  V*  .  ' 
0°)  B      i,.  (H)   B  \ 


*1  jiU  lli  Jy.,  J\  j  ayiU-U  J\y 


\i\     4., 


CO 


t 


J- 


U 


^-^-'j     ^\A9     J\3 


.Af.l30« 


r- 


0)   B        ^.  H  B 

Kor.   26,  218.         (Y)   B   om. 

)   B   V,jW.         (M)  B_^:. 

)  B  ^.        (^)  B  adds  <\i\ 
M-J.  (n)  B  om.    U 


><A\  JU 


\5i  (°)  B  om. 

B   V\.        CO  B     k. 


B 


)   B  j\5ji\.        (\A)  B  om. 
-)  B 


y  JL 

*  j  J  ^  u 

JuJ\ 


U  Jc  dlU 

««-    4.'.\    4)1\ 


^)  B  om.  (0  B  J^.  (^)  B  jj\.  (i-)  B  l(J\.  (°)  B  ^  VA5^. 
A  djo\  <uW«j  as  variant.  (Y)  jl*~*  V,  in  I/^/a,  II,  259  penult.  A  in  inarg. 
.  ^3  tSA^-  u*  •  (A)  B  J-i-0.?-  ^^  B  J^'  ^  *)  B  and  A  in  marg.  ^u*\  . 
)  B  om.  4»\  <^J  ^\  j\5.  00  A  diiJ^.  B  diiJ^.  0*)  B  y\5. 


oVJi\.  '      0°)  A  ^.$\       £)   with  4.J  as  a  variant  for          j.  B      , 


B  &>\.  (\Y)  B  ^.  (\A)  B  U>.(^)  B 

19 


*'  J\9  j^j  \J^  •^  A.^S.;  ^  f1- 

<J^  ^  ^J\  J\s 

Ju-    A^   C^ 

J       \j\     J\ 


r  AA 


>*  t3  *\ 

_^  V -  V 

^   \  \  S         V  \  ,  \  \    .  .      t          I     I  \  (    . 

«     ini,       rp.    ^-UwV\    ^y»    dJlO    ° 

A  u  fl\*r  '  <ui\ 


\ 

'.129a 


\)   B  45^  ^\.  (r)  B   v.  (V)   B  om.  (i)  A  \^\.  B 

B  ^^\i      ^U.  0)  B  0^>;0.  (Y)  B  om.  <us\  ^-^  >^\ 


A   .^.  B   ^.  Of.  Aiisdl,  375,  17.        (^)  A  li.        (1  •)  B 
B  —  U\\.  00  B    0\         and  so  A  as  a  variant, 


TAY 


>->  0          >•£-- 

A 


4tt 


ci\  l3>^r)  ^ 


\c 


Jo  ^ 


Aii^J.3    i 


iAkiu-^U 


0)  B  om.  oUj  £s.j  js-jj.  (0  B  AX-\  lfcJo\.  (^)   B  y-V\  ^V, . 

(M   B   Jijji.  (°)   A  _,.  B  om.  0)   The  passage  beginning  ^-_j  and 

ending  ^-ijjU  ig  suppl.  in  marg.  A  but  several  words  have  been  cut  off 
m  binding.  (Y)  A  ^j.  (A)  B  app.  gj&\.  (^  A  /^.  The  following 
word  is  almost  entirely  obliterated  in  A,  and  is  written  in  B  without  dia 
critical  points.  0  ')  A  oj-^.j^-  (U)  B  om-  ^\  *3~j  '^\-  (^r)  Ao^i.) 
and  so  app.  B.  (^)  A  OyU\.  (^)  B 


Jp  ^ 


(A) 


4fl 

g 

j>i5  *;v* 


j\s 


Jji.Af.128a 


ex,  >A\ 

3c\  V\  di 


\ij^  JVs 


* 


10 


\i  j^  i 


(^)  B  om.  Jy,  ^A\\  ^^c-.  (r)  B  J=^\  ^^5.        (V-)  in  B  these  verses 

are  transposed.           (M  B   !>,.  (°)  A   jix,  .  A  gives  ,iL»   J  as  a  variant 

in   marg.                 0)   A   JJL:.  (Y)   B   ^JLj..                (A)   B  -i^W  \,   ^V,. 

(^)   B    £  0>"  fji  jT^\\^.  (I  0   A  JW!\.        0»)  B  om.        OH 

(^)  B         U      \^ii.        (\i)  B  l.        (\°)  B  adds  0          .        (H)  B 


4tV^     •/      Ofj    t  JyO     A.J^    U;    4 


VV  La* 


u 


4]  JVo  j^jj,  ^3i\  ^  £Li  «c-  \j\ 


o^«.i  JS    ^  JaS* 

t  Al\ 


9ci3 


(^)   B   ^J.        (0  Kor.  73,  4.        (^)  B  J^.        (i)  A  yUi.        (°)  B 
0)  B   v^^-  (Y)  B  orn.  A.V\\  ^j  ^\  J\3.  (A)   A  om. 

U.  (^)   B  om.  (^)  B       \^.  (^)  B   om.  from  As   to 


O 


\i\5 


5 


0)   A  ^,0,,  (r)  A         .  (^)   13  ^.          (i)   B  0111.          (°)  B 


0)   AB    ^\0.              (V)   BdiijjVC.             (A)  The  passage  beginning 

and  ending  dali  AJW^*  v  (jVa  is  suppl.  in  marg.  A.  (^)  A 

.        (VO   B  oj^-        (U)  A  k^.        (\0  A    -Sj.  (\^)  AB 

B   AoUi.              (^°)  A   ^Ji.              (^)   B  iUld.  (w)  B 
A   c\.            (^)  B    5L\.            (r-)   B         -i^. 


UY) 


0\    ii, 


u 


VuiV\  ^.j^  4.,   J., 


L  V, 


(\)  B  om. 
(°)  B  om. 
0)  B 


.        (0  A  adds  o\/V        (^  B-^ 
B          i_v  (Y)    B  om-  ^"  ^- 

^  U;,j  \c3  V\.         (\0  B  jTi  j 
B   A^i.        0*)  B  4»\  f^Tj.        O 
)  B    o/i  .>.  (w)  Kor.  54,  17. 

Kor.   59,  21.         (^)   B   <w\  i^ 
A         \.        (ft)  B  om.     V^i  A\\.        (^)  B 


)  A  om- 
Kor-  2,  166. 
0»)  B  om. 


B  om. 


Vul=  Jo  ,3  ujV. 


JU  .;\  < 

u 


*   p 

a~L>>  j>  U 

^  ^!  *'**  vlilaij  diAc 


V^  °^  5U  \J\  ^  J\5  *J\  \o 
J^J    r^\   v-ix^:   <-JC\-  V'.\  \jj_j 
U  c-^tr-         5l.c>    Jx«    .VJll       \       -*J   ^*9y.    ) 


fu  i 


r. 


p.  735,  note  1.  (rr)  B  ^^.        (^)  A  JU.        (ri)  A  U.        (r°)  B  4 

0)  B  oin.  (r)  B  ^p^.            (?)  A  gives  ^9^\  us  a  variant  for  OLJ\\  . 

(*•)  A   JVW^.  (°)   B  diu~.          0)   B  J\ii.          (V)   A  om.         (A)  B  jl  ^. 

(^)  Kor.  3,  182.  00  B  j£.                (\>)  B  o«  .               (\0   Kor.  17,  88. 

(^)  B  o-fc.  (^)  B 


it 


» 


JU  o-  jj\     on      u  J.  ^  dUi  >_,  >o') 

y\s  a^T^  <£  c  l 

J\y  'J^  ><A) 


Jo    ^.t  -.^  ^_,V^\\  A,  J\kS 


-f  \ 


(*)  B  adds  vie  o>\  ^.  (0  Kor.  5,  118.  (f)  B  Jj-J\  ^.U  o.. 

(M  B  dJli  Ji..  (°)  B^  0)  A^.J5.  (V)  B  <!..  (A)  B  ^-. 
0)  Kor.  47,  18.  0')  Instead  of  Aj  J\  B  has  \i  V.  U\  ^  aA<\  \jl\5 

J5\  jit  ajj\  dUjH'iil  J\i.  (»)  B  om.  (»0  ]!  ora.  f  .  (>f)  B  JW. 
(**•)  Kor.  8,  21.  0°)  Kor.  5,  86.  01)  B  \j_f-  [.  ^\  ^  ^£  ^s-\  \J 
j/1  o.  .  (W)  A  0111.  (u)Badcls\il  W  Illegible  in  B.  (r-)Bom. 
from  Ji.._,  to  oV._,.  (rl)  The  name  is  doubtful.  See  .ZZMS.  for  1901, 


S  j  a  ,^!  ^VT 


JP 


0\  i*  V;\ 


Js>    S^ 


4   1^1 


J""'^"    I*  4-  ^'j    44J.\_^5    ^    j>-^-'    C-r  1\J    \2 


^»    «L? 


(^)  B  om.  4U \  ^-^  ^i\  J\3 .         (H  u  j^J  .         (V")  Kor.  73,  4.        (*•)  B  ^  A^^. 
(°)   Kor.   13,  28.          ~  0)   Kor.   39,  24.  00  Kor.   22,  36.  (A)   A    J^. 

0)  Kor.  59,  21.        00  B  <uj\  ixio-  o.  \cA,^I,  Wi\c>  o\J .        00  Kor.  17,84. 
00  B   adds  0:-^  ^JJ5-        W  Kor.  39,  19.        O4-)  B  ,5^. 
(^)  B  om.        OY)  Kor.  95,  1.  B  &£\.        (\*)  B  om.  J_,\  Jil . 
C"0  B   f^J\  Jc  ^.  (H)   B  J\SJ.  (T)  Here   A  proceeds:   Jc 

'/I   ^i^9    \y     .Xo    ^i\   ^^     U\   «Jc    ^V,   Uiaj     .^o^Ui    Ai 
0"^)   Ivor.  4,  45. 


«    **  s" 


(')  B   Jj; 

0)  A  4^\. 
0*)   B        . 


>\  v^. 


(0  B   ora.         (^)  B   ^ 
)  Kor.  57,  21.        (A)  B 


r- 

Af.1256 


(°)   B  ^  . 

0  •)   B  Vp  . 

A      o\., 


TYA 


Cr* 


4fc\  Jp  jjAxi  N, 


(V 


>^  r^**       ^Ir*  ^^A2^ 


- 


i\   »\?    o  _> 


JcP- 


^)   B  adds   Jc\  A\\\J.        (0  B   om. 
B  iuU.        (°)  B  A^l-.        0)  B  Sj 


(A)  B  om.  <&\  ^•J  >ii\ 
.  01)  B  adds 

B  £J.  (\i)  A  0.  B 

A  ^W.  Oy)  B        V 


s       J?\. 


A  ^ki'.  B   ^o.  ^>^k.. 

Jo.^  5ki^.        (Y)  B  adds 

B  om.  (\0   B  om. 

(^r)  A 
A         ii\.  B 


ryy 


t  d     <3 


u-  0V<f  L 


* 

"*" 


;  ttt\  JU 


JJJJ,  iaj,  ^UJ,  y 


x 

1^  ki* 


« 


^^  ^ 


^ 


B   om.  (0  B    0-.  (^)    B   <u\  < 

A  .   B  .  (Y)  Kor.  2,  225. 


W  B    ^j.          (°)   B 
B  om.  <w\  ^ 


^4 


( 


0)  B 


K  oin.  this  and  the  next  four  verses.         (0  A   oJuJc. 


)    B 


A    ,-,*. 


1\..  (u)  B  om.    kl  <uj\v  00  B  om. 

-/  i>  k_/  -^  v>  r  ^ 

<u)Wtf-.  £~M     \\3.  (^)  B  Vft»\^"\..  0*0  A  om.  from  <u.t.    5i  to  Vc Jc>\ 

./    Q         lj  V    •       i^  _/  < 

ori\  ,j.  dl\Vx>  ^a    but   the   passage   has  been  suppl.   in   marg.  Cf.  Aghdni,  IV 
21  foil .  0  °)  A  -, J\  \\(. .  ( n)  B  \^ J,o .  A  ^i\9  j Jo  .  ( w)  A  i ^U\ . 

(^)  A  om.  0  ^)  B  adds  »_J\.b  *4^  ,-»).  (^')  B  om. 


xo  *£  x  "£  <•  x»   /  o  "°       i    Ax1* 

^.  j:>\  o^4\j  *  «&\    j    «**•    *i5^«\    J> 


^J^jd  -U:°r)   °J   V/\  *U« 

' 


* 


i 


0)    Both    verses  are   cited  in  Lisdn  13,  127  penult.,  and  the  second  verse 
ibid.,  429,  16.  (0  Lisdn  has  "^  .  (^)  B  j..^  ^^1  .  (^  This 

hemistich  is  partly  obliterated  in  B.  (°)  B  c^«L  .  0)  B  UJ  <us\    a.^. 

(Y)  B  f/i^.        (A)A.J>t-        (^Ba.        OOBJj^l        (\\)B0AA^J. 
(^)  B   0¥:  (3iO-  (^)  B>\,  O1)  This  verse  is  the  seventh  in  A. 

A  ^<  B  o-#?.  (^°)  A  <vi^*-  with  «u^   written  above.  O"1)  A  JVo 

•A>\  corr.  in  marg.        (w)  A  J^U.        (u)  A  ki.        (  n)  In  B  this  and  the 
following  verse  are  transposed.        (r  '  )  A  JL*\  <j  j.U»j.  .        (  r  \  )  A  J^.U  .  B  J  ^  . 


o^\ 


.  ii  CLs 


V\ 

\ 

jc\  V. 


"*\  ^£  rvi 


30)Af.l23a 


-"W  \T\- 


U    <r     ^  UjH      a^^  ^Y>  4a\    l\  U  ^  J 

,00   ^ 


(\)  B  iJbi\.  (0  B  VioY^.  (^)  B  om.  from  ^Yl,  to  fy\  i\\j^. 

(M  B  om.  ^\  <^j  ^\  J\3  .         (°)  B  j&\  ^.  .        0)  A  ^.        (Y)  B  om. 

(A)    B  om.  jV^J  J^*V        0)  Kor>  30'14'  °'}  B  i>JL>'         (U)BAA 

(\r)  A   om.            (^)  B  adds   jj^\  «iiV,o.  (^)  B   om.  from    ^  to  A*. 

(\°)  B    -^   _^.                (H)   B  Jc  A\i\  \      \i».                OY)  B  Vu^o- 
(i  A)  B         I-  ^V 


s 


Uu~    li\    1   dD- 


4.        j^  d.,     jcd    *.U 


\i\  ^ 


0\ 


Ai  0\ 


Af.1226 


(*)  A  -iUi  Jp.  <r)  B  om.  ()  B  i.  -  B  e'.  (°)  A  ^. 
0)  B  om.  4\1\  <j-j  'fp\  J\i.  00  Kor.  51,21.  (A)  Kor.  41,  53.  0)  B  >o. 
0')  B  ./i  J=..  (")  B  \;jU\j.  (»n  A  Jjt.  Bjv  forjl;  jj. 

(»?)  B  OvJV  ((l)  B  ^.  (*°)  A  «\jl\  o'l  (n>  B       jSV. 

(W)  A  om.  (U)B  i^\J\j  Sjy^\  OsiJiCu- 

£\  Jj  Jl\  J\5.  (f-)  Kor.  31,18.  (H) 

18 


rvf 


J\i 


>-  J\S 


U 


0)  B  om.        (OA 
(°)  B   ^.  0)  A  J 

(A)  B      flistf.         (^)  B 
(^)  B 


\.        (*)  B  J\5  for  Jy,  O^T.        ( 
(Y)  A  om.  from   sl,Vs£  J^c-^  to   3U 


AB   J,U.         (^)  B 
.  (^)   A      ^L,.   B 


A 


rv\ 


JVa  \T^\  ^ji\   ^Ia>   Jp    JA\\    o 


L,\      JL  J\5 


B  k~s  c-»«-.  (0  B  -u*.  (*)  B  om. 

as  variant.  (°)  B  ^.        (^)  B  om.  «)i\ 
(A)   B  adds  tf^U.          (^)  A  AC^  .         (^')  B 

.  (\0  B   U\.  (^)  B 


B  ora.  A  with 


\5.        (Y)  A\i. 
(u)  A  om. 


>Vs      t"Y. 


u. 


0\  iT\  fuj\ 


0\ 


j  U 


0\  i 


(\)  B  om.          (0  B   o 

^  ^J  '^  J^'        0)  B 
WBJLJU.  0)   B   Jd> 

00  B  jiiVi.  (^)  A  Jl. 
OY)  B  ±k.  OA)  A  ^j 
^J\.  (rO  B  \. 


Oi  JV5 
u  ti  j\i» 


Oi  J\5  jj£j 


0) 


AB 


00  B  om.  te^b.  (\\)  B 

B  ^W.        0°)  B  N\it.  (HJB^j 
)  B  \^.        (r-)B  ^.        (r\)  B 
B      ^.            (ft)   A        . 


B  om. 


JVU  c 


« 


*  U  0\  J>.( 
°          \i\  li« 


U 


\Sj> 


\Jb 


- 

,  _  >lt 


yi 


The  words  from  <j_j  to  i-j.Wi\  ^j 
(^)  A  \j>.  (M  B  adds 
(Y)  B  «J,.  (A)  AB  AI  £»L..  A  gives 
(^•)  Kor.  6,  96.  0\)  B  J  . 

0?)  AB  om. 


are  snppl.  in  marg.  A.        (0  A 
i\.  (°)  B   om.          0)  B  ^. 

-L.   as  a  variant.        (^)  A 
0  B  om.  from   J\i   to  J 


riA 


0)  B   om.  (0  A  A\J.    B   A\i\  ^   with  ^J\  S  suppl.  in  marg.  after   S. 


(^)  B   Js^JJ.         («-)  B   J 
(A)  B  £XV9.  0)   B 

(^)  B  Jvi^.        (\H   B  om. 
(\°)  A  ^^^  fj,l..        (H)  A 
(u)  B  om.  from    ^  Jc.  to  ^ 


0^5.         0)  A  &jj.         (Y)    A  om. 

(»  ')  B    y\5  for  ^  <^-J  ^\  J\5. 

0^)  A  0\^.  B  \^.  (^)  B  0\. 
\V)  B  adds  ^J.  0  A)  Kor.  18,  1-2. 
(r>)  Kor.  31,  18. 


r~lV          i  CJ& 


JU\ 

_Ll!<r> 


U; 


» 


» 


.  ^  J\5 


(\)  AB  db\3.        (0  B  om.        (?)  B  Jc^js..        I1)  A  om.        (°)  A  A. 
0)  A  AjiUJ.        (v)  B  JL^J.         (A)  B  J5i.        0)  B  ^  J=>.        (  ^  )  B  d 


A  om.  from 
B  om.  48  \  <«- 
B  A*  for 


_, 
Kor.  35,  1, 


A  om. 
(\°)  B  om. 


j>j\ 


j^  ju 


0 


05 


(3 


pe 


V;\ 


3   \o 


0)  A  0 
0)  A  LL-. 


B  ^u 

(A)  B 


AB    oUu  . 
0)  B  ^  ji\ 


B  adds 


(0  B^.         (^)   B  om. 
B   om.  from  £   to   J\b 


B  adds   <a\  dJu-J.  (H)  B   J\SJ.  (\Y)  B  om. 

.  (^)*  A  -ri2tf.  Cf.  Kor.  45,  26.  (r-)  B  JVi. 

fr)  B 


)   V. 
-\  V,  J\ii  <iJj» 


w^  X,  vU^  ^  >\  ^U  X,  ~^\ 

UJ\  ^  iSVili  ^»i\  JU  X,  £y^  ^  JS-\ 

-Xis  i_s\.ivH  iil, 


J\  j 


t»T     **"'     00  iUa?-         C      \  let  U 


-  O        0 
«<J       1 


J\B 

Vt    4.! 


(^)  B  om.  ^  ^li'.  (0  B  J^JP.  W  A  \3.  (^)  A*p\.  (°)  B  om. 
from  ^_jj>o  to  ^\«wj^\.  The  words  *<J°  ^Jjj  which  are  the  last  words  in  B 
fol.  62a  are  followed  on  fol.  62&  by  the  words  A>  viii  \p  -^^^  ^i-H\  which  occur 
in  A  on  fol.  1096,  1.  13  =  p.  Ti^,  I.  ?  supra.  0)  The  sentence  W\  J\5_, 
*A  begins  in  B  on  the  last  line  of  fol.  131a.  The  passage  beginning  V*  \  »  u_j3u 
•_-»\>  and  ending  ioVCU  JW  ^_j  JuS'  is  repeated  in  B  on  fol.  2426,  11.  1—3 
(Y)  B  om.  (A)  B  app.  A^\  j\.  (^)  B  UV^\\  JW.  0  •)  A  JL. 

0\)  B     \«,  (\0 


\   ^V£"     fit 


Jc  ^ 


^    W 


u  j^\  ^       o/  0\  b 

^  oj^  ^^ 

^    ^5-0)    Ju\Af.ll9a 


(\)   B  om.  (0  B  ^.  (?)  B  J\5.  (i)  A   ^^  .  (°)  B  Vij. 

0)  A  •  adds  Ocj  .  (V)  B  OP.  (A)  B  om.  dJu^  f  J£  ^.  (^)  B  Aa\\=>(«tc). 
00  B  ^\j£.  (^)  A  Js.  B  app.  ^Ju:.  (\0  B  \jtP.  (^)  B  om. 
i^o^  iS^j'.-  ^  )  A  V^LI  Jus  with  V^.Joa  written  above  as  a  variant. 

0°)   B  app.   o-X^i  but  the  latter  half  of  the  word  is  almost  illegible, 


\1  \>.\ 


_fJ\-\  Jl 

_iJi*\S.  k  AA 


,, 

\  V\ 


dk\ 


0\  15  ?-  \  dik-\ 


J  -VH  »» 

JV; 


J\  Ji, 


(\)   B  0\.          (H  A  di^,.          (?)  A  ^j;.          W  B  om.  (°)  B 

0)  B  app.   oyj.             (Y)  B    ^3.             (A)  A  o^->-.  (n)  A 

(^')  B  r^jV^  which  is  also  given  by  A  as  a   variant.  0\)  A 

00  Bdli\  \;J,  d)L\.         (^  AB  ^.         W  B  ^^.  (\°)  A 
(H)  B   v.            (\Y)   B   j^\  48J,.             (^)  B 
(^)  B  (5\i\  instead  of  <&\  A.J-, 


V.V, 


i3  y  4jj\  co  j 

&*    J^J(1 

J\3    \y.Jt>-  jL*C-j 


U   . 


B  om.  (H  B 


00  B 


V- 


dllc  JUV1  ^  lilJU  J\  - 

^ 

V\ 


\- 


B   \Jut_j. 

0)  B  J 

B  ^\\y. 

)  B  om.  4 


(*•)  B  om.  from  J^  to 

\.  (V)  B  om.  }^ 

00  B  om.  <,i  j. 


diUl,  p 

JV,  di;\  ^ 


dii\> 


U 


U 


c 


ol 


dil     .j\  V.\ 


\o 


j(*Y) 

\i\jr. 


(0  A 


(V)  B  dJuJi.  (A)   B 

\.        00  B   U'  di;\ 


B  om.  from  \J       to     V.        W  B  om. 


00   B 


B  om. 
B  dJb 


0>0  B   J  J\y.         0A)  B  ^\  d 


^t 


ii\JL\ 


U  i 


ii)VJ\  J 


.       U.    \i       oi^0)  o 

.U  I  -V/\  ill  '       «:(V) 


J>\  >  ^U  iiJe  i 

4»\  I  U\  W  C    *! 


iJ\  U 


0)  B  U(..  (I" 

(°)  B   adds  J\5  ^ 


om. 


A  om. 


B    om. 


0)  B 
0)  A 


(^)  B  ^.  (*•)  B  JL^  J\. 

f«.  (Y)   B   adds  C. 


00  B        . 


B  app. 


0)  ^      )  C 


V. 


\i , 


di.  J3'^  i^ 


U 
?  di 

<> 


dili 


^  0 


Jp 

0 

V;U 


0)  B  om.  (0  A  4c>^*.~~*  with  ^_&    written  above.  (»)  B 

il»jTj.          (*•)  A   (j\cA.WU  with  o^a**   as  variant,  B  uv*i^U.          (°)  A  Jic 
tJ  but  corr.  above.  ("^)  A  gives  ^s£-w  as  a  variant.  00  B  AJ  . 


(A)  B  om. 
reads 
(^)  B 

(\A)  B 


As. 


B 


t>._?. 


')  It  is  doubtful  whether  B 


B  J. 


B  UJJ    d,. 


j  0\ 


t  oV,;  V;\      \  ^\  ^ 


t  U 

j«)\   4^    U   Jc  ^i    ^Ji\    4A1    AV/\    ^_lcJ    J    Jyj,    1^5o-    C^>cC-    41)  \ 


V\  J\  r- 


0)  B  £y.  (0  B  om.  (*)  B   ^jU^-  ^  A  U^.  B  >\  \c3 

\       \  J.  (»)  A  .  B  .  0)  B   dJUu.  (V)  B   -j. 


,^c-. 


(\0  A  om.  0^)  B  om.   O^A"  O^3  dlj\  \Ai.  (\l)  A  U 

but  VJc      ^i-  written  above.        0  °)  B  dJu,*J  .        (n)  B  jut.        0  Y)  B 


Toy  <Ui\ 


f\u 


A>  V.  \     iiLJU     U       \  &j&\  U 


i>  d  U  V^  iS.  c£  U  V  ^Urrt  ei*,  <»\  ^      \  J\s 

)j^  a? 

U  J\  V^.U 
(v-  ^  c 

)  j\y 


*  _^  j,\  J\5.  (H  AB  JV^.  (?)  B  v-  ^)  B  ora. 
(°)  The  original  reading  of  A  seems  to  liave  been  \\^Jl\  ^.^^^ujii.  ("^)  B  JV^». 
(Y)  B  JA\.  (A)  B  adds  jJ^\  ua^.  C1)  A  \*.  (\-)  B  om.  from 

^\  to  4«\  <^-J  o^  t5 Ji  jfX  ^-  (U)   ^A-  00  A  ^« 

17 


P,  V,    vli;    vL,^^    \i\    *    OxUj,  ^J^Vas  JV\   ^JLs^    1  _  £- 


0 

> 


Jj   U 


J    dillc   ilU    J5J    dl£   ,  \^j 


0)   B  om.  (0   B  app.  yj  .  (^)  A  diVil.  B  U,  .  (M  A_,yJ\. 

Bapp.  ^,j^\.  (°)  A  ^V^.  B  viAst^..  Perhaps  f\£'s  .  0)  B  jJji\. 
(y)  A  V^..  (A)  A  ^  U.  (^)  B  om.  from  ^^  to  y»Vs  di^J  .  0  ')  A 
oL  V^.  (")  A^iUi.  (\T)  B  ^jM  4«\  j^  ^\  J\  <£.  These  words, 

which  occur  in  B  on  fol.  54a,  last  line,  are  followed  by  the  verse  UL^J 
{_  V*I?  v^;'  QJ  ^\.^£  (P-  ril,  1.  lAftipra).  The  remainder  of  B's  text  to 
the  end  of  fol.  56a  corresponds  with  the  text  of  this  edition  from  p.  T0', 
1.1  to  p.  for,  1.4.  0?)  This  is  the  beginning  of  fol.  5G&  in  B. 

0*0  B>.  0")  A  \jj.  (H)  AB  ^.  (W)  A  \^.  (U)   B 

adds  <\.  (H)  B      \. 


TOO  'flrlA-ik  ^    ^    £    fjV*i\    J 


*v-     l;  ^uc  * 


.^  f  "c"  ^      i     *       o  -E"    -  ^  .          > 

U    ^J&*j  ,   A_^\     -\  J5    ^j  jj 


JLP 


s- 


^-    OlJ.lc  \  jU 


instead  of  Ofc  4«\  ^.        (0  B  ^J.        (^)  B  om.  A»\  is-j  l5j\JJ\ 
•sJic.        (^)  B   W-.   A  in  marg.  ^_^ai\  ^awai.  J^Tj  as  a  variant.        (°)  B  om. 

tST'S  tf*  *»»  rf  "^ 

(^)  A.  \.^\.  B  \.^.\.  Cf.  Massignon,  Tawdsin,  162.  V^;  \  ,  orV^\,  stands  for  V/^J  \  or 
\f£\.        (Y)  A  V^U.  B  V^-U..        (A)  B  l^.        (t)  A  VpJ^.   B 
(^  )  B  ^JAii.        0\)  B  VkU.        (^r)  AB   o^y.        (^)   B  om.  from 
to  ojU  J>xii  .  (^)  A  jCU.  0°)  A  V^Vuo. 


rot 


^       >/ON     \      . 

1        ^•ias"    ^        (j,^    i 


^)  B   l"^  A.\_J.  (r)  B  om.  this  and  the  following  verse.  (^)  B  om. 

So  both  MSS.        (°)  B  U.        C1)   Partly  obliterated  in  B.        (Y)   B  V^li. 

AB  ^,1  (^)  ABVjjC.  00  B  0\.  (\\)  AB  ^_^^. 

)  A  JU.  (^)  B  om.  dib  Jut.  OM  B  ^^.  (\°)  B  j,\t. 

)  B  ^-a.,.  (w)  A  ^1'^,  vocalised  by  a  later  hand.  0A)  A  ^jk^V.^. 
)  B  1^  Uft..  ^0  B  . 


Af.ll4« 


u 


X,  • 


• 


Akc- 


0)  AB   r->.  (0  AB  Uyt*.  (^)  B  4j\  <^J  jxii^. 

(°)  B  om.  0)  A  j.  (V)  A  l^.  (A)  B  U. 

is  the  beginning  of  B  fol.  52b.         (\-)  B  ^.         00  A  \3. 
(^)  B  ^c.  (^)  B   ^,.  («°)  B  f\.  (H)  A 

OA)  A  dio^,.  (^)   A 


(i)  B  0\. 

This  verse 

\0  B  <,^. 

W)  A  V,,,. 


- 


ii3  il^   'o  ,jj\  Jt  t 


V. 


5 


o 

0\ 


d 


i 


\o 


0)  A     vk.  B 


(0  B   r«\t. 


(°)   B  \ii\,.  C1)  Here  B  proceeds  (fol.  5G6,  1):  bc._,  ^<i«>  jy\  o\  di 

(A  fol.  115&,  5).   The  present  passage  is  continued  in   B   on  fol.  241  ?;,  1. 
(V)  B  jjLSJJj  for  <a\  <^  j^\  J\5_,.        (A)  B  j/i        (^)  B  Jii,  .        (\  •)  B  o^. 
(\\)   B   ^3\.        (\0  A   «JLi.        (\^)   B  ^\.        (\i)  B  om.        (\°)   B  ^U\ 
^jJi  ^   for  Jip  ^  f  .  (H)  A   ^.j.  (\V)  AB  ^^  ^  ^\  \f 

•<£\,  but   corr.  in  marg.  A.  0A)   B  om.    -uAtf  <j  , 


JVs  *Jic  ij\_/  U 


u>-  j\  v^n  ^;-  ^  ^  . 


J\       V. 


0j\5 


\o 


0)    B     ^   AU,   U 

(r)  A  <u  with  V^  written  above  as  a  variant.  (^)  B  o-A£>^.  C1)  The 
reading  of  B  is  doubtful  as  the  beginning  of  the  word  is  obliterated:  the 
last  three  letters  seem  to  be  *Jr,.  (°)  B  ^jb*  *J>j£  uv^'  Oi-^93  Alij  _j.ft_j. 

0)   A  ^.  (V)  B  JLIL.  (A)  P>  C>.  (^)  B  y-.  ('  ')  Bom. 

(^)  B  adds  Ov^\  Oi^ft-  (W)   A   jxl>  •  B      -l~  •  A    in  marg. 

-^c  Uj\5  !Lwbi\,         (^)  B  adds  G^,  < 
A  V\>.  (H)  AB  VWj\.  (\Y)  A 


To. 


-^    t->j   V\ 


j\  *  j\  ^Ji^  ^\  i,0 


* 


Af.ll3a 


0)   B 


B    ,v 


.  A    p^. 

0)   B    ^jU.  (V)   Kor.   26,  62. 

(A)   B    0,^l.  (^)   A  Ju>^\.  00   B  V^J^.  0\)   A    ^  \3Jl, 

ljut  in   niarg.  UL»  and  ^aj|  as  variants.  (\r)   B  ^^.  (^)   B 

>.  (\i)  B  adds  C«i\.  (\°)  B  V^  ^Vi.  (H)  A 


jic       o  * 


^  ^ 


Af'1126 


W)*V 
U 


0)  B   om.  (0  B   JJJ^I  (^)  B  om.         j\.  (^  B  om.     c^ 

Xjt  O!  ^'  (°)  B  <u,  .  0)  B   jl.  (Y)  B  om.  ^c  ^   J-^^  J^- 

(A)  A   i5jV»i^\  Ac>.'-  ^^  Botl1  tlie  text  and  tlie  meaning  of  this  verse 

are  uncertain.  (^)B^.  (u)  B  &\.  (\H  B_^.  (^)ABU.. 
(^)  The  original  reading  in  A  seems  to  have  been  J\^J\.  (^°)  B  adds  T^\. 
(^^BV^.  (^)Bj3_,.  (^)Adi^.Bd]Vl  (^)B^.  (r')Here 
the  text  of  B  breaks  off  and  proceeds  u^^j  J-aj  j^L  (B  fol.  686,  1  =  A  fol. 
68&,  10).  The  present  verse  occurs  in  B  on  fol.  546,  1.  (riO  A  ^>jj- 


^»5^~Ji  »xij  ,j\   y3 


°^  .  C 

U  ,  1J»  U 


U-"\  *  '•>—  i      7-1^1 


<JW3 


>ocr 


>   X1S\\         °  <*     *         T''     tf-  ** 
(j*»\    *±c>j   j~>    Jc     ^ 

^  —  ^    d  —  •     t*4        *^  — 

'    >\     ->M 

*  ^ 


0)  AB    ji!..        (0  B  0^\.        (^)  A  £  f. 
^U\  OyJ!\.  0)  B  om.  (Y)  A  om.  (A)  B  V<J. 

B  _^\.          00   A  ^   (J.LJ  for  J  J,.          (\\)  A  J^. 
(^)  A  J\. 


0*0  A 


(1°)  B  om.  this 


verse. 


B 


.  om.   4»    A*J  . 

(n)  B  Li>\  and  om.  from  V^^  to  uy~N- 
(rr)  B         ^-  ^r^  B  om.  from  to 


^      •*•* 


*   \<^'°     \"   "   >  °    "'  '•    *    \<^ 

,  __  y  JuP.  L.seP  Oj-^9  *  ^-ij^    x  __  P 


jU\ 


(\)  A  dU\  Vyj.  (0  A  app.        .iJ.  (^)  B  J^\.  (l)   B  ^ 

for  Oyi\  ^ji^.  (°)   B  om.  0)   B   1  (Y)  A   <^.  (A)  In  A 

the  first  hemistich  runs:  <u?>\  *->y  3\&>\  djo.  0)    B  J-_^  JL»\-jV\  cAa. 

00   A  dl^.        (\\)  B  15JL\.        00  B  ^,J.        0^  A  >J\.        (»i)  A. 
(^°)  A  ^\  for  Caj\  ^.  (^)  B  app.   ^J^  .  OY)  A 

(U)  B 


4fl\    A^ 

o 


^«.      ^, 

JVs  <; 


U  Aiil  jyo  i^\  Jcju-\  ^  Jo  ^4 
\  Jji^   c^>-\  jA^  <  SJa>-   J1     O"*    °^*^'b 


B    Ov'.             ()  A  oin.             (      B      -.             (l)  B  om.  (°)  The 

__  ,  5 

passage  beginning  j>.  \  ^\^  and  ending  ^J3  ^  A;\   occurs  in  A  at  the  end 

of  the  chapter  after  the  words  ^_^\  <uA._j.        0)  B  (_rjL»i\  (Ju^U).  (Y)  B  0111. 
4a\  4.4-j  ^\  J\5.           (A)  B  V^J.           0)  B  ^V^.           (  ^')B  om.  from  ^ 

to  ^Y^.        (u)  B    viV^.        (\H  B  adds  c5j\Jl\.        (^)A\3.  0  *-)  B  om. 
(\°)  B  adds 


\ 


dili 


u  « 


J       r 


^  (u,\  A,  u  .jiipj  (^  v  u 


)  B   om.  (r)  A 

B   +\£.  0)  B 

B  Os..        00  B  <^. 
A  .  B  ^-        ^ 

.  (^)  B  , 

(r\)  B  jjj\  ^J 

B      c.  (r°)  B 


.   B 


V.V,  < 


-  V.  Vp 

i  ^  0s- 

J\i  Ji\J  J 


J  i 


n,  <  ^v\_,_,(A)  .Jo  a.  di\  ,v.5_,  (  dJVii_, 


oAf.llla 


o 


^)  Ai.U1! 

A   aU.  B  ^U.        ( 
\^  for  ^/IU.  (r-)  B 

^.         (rr)  B  app.  **.. 

(H)  B  . 


A  om.  (l)   B 

^.  (A)   B   dh^. 

.        (^)SobothMSS. 


^ 


J  uJy£\3  G4j          jO    ^  <  Aoo  ^  ,  lo^iU   tab. 

A'  ' 


Ji\ 


diAc  A,    jo\  U 


J   iVj   diy^  diV? 


(\)  B  A^.         (0  B  0j^JU.         (^)  B   0!*\5.         («•)  B  J5.         (°)  A  . 

B  ^k.  0)  A   Oj^».   B  0^\5i*.  (Y)  A  om.  ^  y-\.  (A)  A  om. 

(^)  A  gives   i^  di^  as  variant.  COB  dLJ^H,  .  (\U   B  ji*)  . 

00  B  oy.          0V)  B  om.          0*0  B  adds  ^\   >\.±  o\.          (\°)  B^l  JAo. 
j^\.  OY)  B 


,   dl 
c* 


o 


.(i)  ^  CP^  A,  dil 


diU*   f^    J    dll^^^1)    dkUU.Af.110a 

Vc  Lie       (di^U   j^    cdiiL^     di.  9>*y  ^  ^\°0) 

P-    \° 


(0  B   J^^.  (r)   B   v^J.  (^)   B   ^vj-p.  Here  the  text  of  B 

breaks  off  (fol.  239  a,  last  line).  The  following  words  (B  fol.  239  6,  1)  are 
i~.aJo»  Jo\.^  ci  «^\j  Ajti."  y>  ,  which  occur  in  A  on  fol.  108?>,  2.  The  present 
passage  is  continued  in  B  on  fol.  G2Z»,  1.  (1)  B  *,.  (°)  B  om. 

0)  B  5jU\.  (y)  B  ^0.  (A)  B  ^3.  (^)  A  fU\.  0  0  A  Jc. 

(^)    The  words  from  ^i^  to  «ui\  are  suppl.  in   marg.  A.  A   o^J  Ci)\^  . 
(\T)  A  adds  JW.  (^)  A  ^.Xo.  (U)  A  dl-^^.  B  dilb^with 

the  first  «/•»/  stroked  through.  0°)  B  ;\.  (n)  B  U.  0Y)  B  adds 
4»\  'Uo\.  OA)  B  app. 


rtr 


pf  Jp    d 

\Aji\ 

1*^ 


U 


i5\  Vc 


V. 


V,     , 


\o 


(\)  B  JbJ^\.  (0  This  is  the  last  word  on  B  fol.  241a.  Fol.  241^  be 

gins  with  the  verse  ^U  J^  ^^  J>J  \^.  Vj  which  occurs  in  A  at  fol.  113?>,  5. 
(^)  Here  begins  B  fol.  2387;.  A  vfi,  j^  .  I1)  A  dljTi  \3\.  (°)  B  adds  4  . 
C1)  B  adds  «uj\  .  (Y)  B  iuii\  .  (A)  B  om.  from  £\\*~  j^  to  di!  ^^V,  . 
0)8^^.  00  A  Uii-i.  (^)A0<;^.  00  B  app.  ^>,. 

(^)  B  om. 


Af.l09a 


di\ 


\c 


u 


0) 

0)  B 
(I  ')   A 
(^)  A 

(W) 


(0  B  Vc 
(y)  B 
v\)  B   A 
)  A 
\A)   A 


B  om.  (*•)  B 

(A)   B   om.      . 


00  B 


om. 


A 
A 


18 


f    t-j 

l^\    ^ 

di. 

. 

U 


oi  U  ^^  ^  < 

i^ks^  JW  (5-X^    dUW   J,    Uc    ^jy*^1)   JW 


U 


Jc  v  U  (ji^    ,^-\ 


(0    Here    B  proceeds  (fol.   238  b,  1):   iLb-  (dl,  .j>.)  di^ 
y  jt.  ^V^a^-VV  These  words  occur  in  the  following  chapter 
\  jj-Xo  J  (A  fol.  109a,  16).  The  present  passage  is  continued  on 
fol.  239  6,  1.        (?)  A  -w-  JLL,  .        I1)  A  di\U  .        (°)  B  om.        (^)  B 
00  B  VJfc.        (A)  B  Vft,.        (^)  B  a.U\.        00  B   ja*j. 


with  ^   as   a  variant,  00  B  _,.  (^)  BdiJc.  0*0   AB 


0°)  B  fy.  (H)  B    JoJ^  ^Vf     for  o3c>,   ciV  OY)   B 

(\A)-B    i.  (^)   A  \.  (rO   Bdii. 


, 


g>  U 


- 

^\   O!   -^Ji  vJ\J  iV-(V>   0«   ^ 

u  '<&  }  diii  ^  AW 

J\ 


S>\ 


\    B  orn.  4a    ^•J           J5.           (H  A       L,.           ()  B  om.   M-V    j 

l^L<\\.         C1)  B  om.         (°)  A  6j^\.         0)  B  om.   Ja^  J\.  (Y)  B  adds 

&\}\.           (A)  A  V^-U,^V^.  B  Uw^r),  •           (^)  B  ^j.  (1  ')  A  J 

(^)  B  om.   JW  4ii\  ^  0\.        (^r)  A  Jk*I.  Cf.  Kor.  81,  4.  0?)  A  J 

(^)  B   jUi\.               (\°)  A  ^Jc>V\.               (H)  A  ^.  OY)  A  ^V 

(1A)  B  om.  ^_Ao.                (n)  Partly  obliterated  in  B.  (r>)  A 

(r\)  BdU,. 


0\      i 


A.Uj 


^i 


Jc  0\>        .  a«   ^Jt    ijy    JV5    *i\  «>Y\ 


^^"       ^          ' 

.  li\ 


(\)  B  tfjj^.        (H  B  ora.        (^)  B  Ac\.        (^  B  \\      j3.  (°)  A 

0)  A  om.  ^L!  jT  J^^.             (Y)  B  Vv^j-             (A)  B  j\.  W  A   J. 

0  ')  A    )t\  ^.        (^)  A  ^*\\  as  variant.        (\r)  B  ^.  0^)  A 
(^)  B 


v,  iSi 


\  ^   u\  ^  v 

„ 

Ji.j  dJLo  "^  dko  j  i«k.  di-L 
i  JP  i-i-J,  il\M\,  i 


(J,\ 


e  i    JLW  I    /)  \     ^_-A-4\^  i  A 


* 


JJ  ) 

di'A    5^jll\      \ 


0\ 


(^     B 

(°)  B  J\>. 
J\ii  t,\^T. 
to 


(0  B  ^  (V)  A  AUJ^.  W  B   Jp  ^  J  >. 

0)  B  om.          (V)  B   ^ii\.         (A)  B   ora.  JU.          (^  B  om. 
(\«)  B  0\  ^.  0»)  AB   dW.  (\0  B  om.  from  \j 

(^)  B         .  (\i)  B 


v. 


J\  io- 


, 

J\  j/;  ^j  -$2\  ,>> 


^  \»U-J\ 


0\ 


0)   B 
)   B 
)   B 
)  B 


(0  B    om. 
0)  B   ^ou- 


B   t53  C      A 

)  B  for  A\i\  < 


.  B 


o  j\    t^  oV-'V    j 


0\ 


0\ 


V.    din-       xjj    o4  \       t    i\ 


U  o-*.    « 


0\ 


S    '      .  +         '  x 

,#j»  \~*\    a    U    OVf    «   Jj»  >-»,*),    '  Vv-J»  J^U  V  Af.l'XJa 


Jj\  j  u^  iJ\ 


y 


^-     .  v£  tfi  u  '^ 


(t)  A  \f.i».          '!> 

WMi.mi.  «\  4^,  rfW  J\J. 


n  W  o;  Jirl  4»\  JL^..      0-Mt  0>)  it  4ii\i_,.  OOis 

J)  U,.         (It)  A    jr^.         (»«>   I)   >j.        (11)   J,  ^.  (\V,   „ 

II  ^.        M>  Al!  V_,.        (f-)  A   \i,j».        (H)   I!  >%,  (ff,  A 

I!   o,n.  <ft)  A    ^^.  (f»,    |(   „,,,,.    t#J..  (fl)   |!   ^ly 

A  A\d\.          (fA)  ](  a«  for  «.  4«i.  (")  A  «,.  B        - 


J\  V.   o>   Jp 


J  u^  0U  «,  j\^ 

*!  o- 

cW   J\ 


J 

)  Ju^\  J\ 

ji  %  Jl>  J  J^;  U  ,vOll  II  v  ^ 


V\    villi    oj 

v\  dlSi 


IJ  4»  ^^.  (0  B  om.  (  B  U5\.  ()  A  om.  (°)  B  j  . 
0)  Here  B  (fol.  1096,  1.  2)  has  A  oV»V^\\  ^  ^^  UW-  o-o-\.  These  words 
occur  near  the  end  of  the  oVa\j3\^  oV,^  o\J\  ^V^"  (A  fol.  147&,  1.  2).  The 
continuation  of  the  present  passage  occurs  in  B  011  fol.  232a,  1.  6.  (Y)  B  ^\  . 
(A)  B  0V^  for  £  I  0)B^J\5.  00  Bv^.  (V^B^U.^. 
(^0  B  iw^ifc''.  (^)  A  in  marg.  vju.LiKj  as  a  variant.  0*-)  A  ^J,>o  written 
above  dVy  .  0°)  A  om.  from  J^  to  U.lu.  (^)Bo^.  (^Y)  B  ^1^. 
(^)  A  j\3*.  B  ^U.  (H) 


J  ^-jj 


0)   B  0111.  (H  B  ^u  J\5_,.-         (^)  A^W.  B  ^.,5.  W  A  V 

(°)  B  ^.         0)  A  *jj.  B  ^J-         (Y)  A   o^-.        (A)  A   ^U..  B 
0)B^.  (^)  B    o^^.  (u)ABj\i..  (^)  This  passage  occurs 

in  B  supra.  See  p.    T^l,  note   V.  (^)  B   o^>  .  (^)   B  ji^. 

(\°)  B  (>vLai.  (^)  B  _jLai.  (w)  B   ^^.  0A)  A  om.  from 

^to      LJ.         (n)  B 


m  a^  J      \s\  .Jl^  J.LU 


> 


irt  V  ^  V.  jU-Yl  fy  J\Sj  <  *^\\ 
^iil\  J   J&W  V.  JU*V\ 


r\ 


J\5    c£^\    (3 


U  >i\  u-cH  4,  ^  ^  V. 


\o 


* 


-   0  fy 

Uc  u3\  U 


(\)  A  ^\.  (H  B   ^  jU.1^  ^W  JV5.  (^)  B  JL.  W  B  om. 

(°)  B   ^j.)i.  C1)  B  app.  JjjWj.  (Y)  Here  B  inserts  the  concluding 

words    of  this  chapter  from    '^\  o-J^\  J  dj^>-  \*  \ty  to 

^\^.  (A)     B    ^<    NJ    U  ^J\    ^    J\5j     A,     Jc    ujy-i, 

L/.».\A  <,.        C1)  A  -u^..  The  reading  of  B  is  doubtful.        (^  ')  A  l&£\. 
A          \.  (\0  A          . 


V\ 


0U\  i 


0)  B 


(Y) 


(A) 


B 

B       Ji\. 


B  om. 


0°)  B 


°  B 
(^)  B 
(\\)  B 


rn 


\l 


JjL 


(0  B  om.          (0  A  JL/Vj-         (^  B   ^'.         W  A  T.         (°)  B 

0)  B<^..  (Y)  A  J^V,.  B  ^^Vj.  (A)  BjiJ.  C1)  B  0111. 
to  ^\  Oy-.  (^')  B  ...VsjJ.  The  word  is  partly  obliterated.  ( 
(\0  B  . 


fkj\s.\  uJiUj,  J£JL\ 


rrA 


l5\  V;\ 


A. 


^^ 

JVd     J.lj5\      J.J 


\o 


(n 


(\)  B   L)i^\  J\  JjJ\  Jyo^.         (0    B  om.        W  A 
(°)  B   cJLj.  0)  A  \i.  B  _,:>.  (v)  B  adds 

A   orig.  4^  but  coir,  by  later  hand.  0)  A  ^- 

(^)  A   ^3y  i\.  00  A  om.  (\f)  AB 

(\°)  Cf.  Kor.  76,  1.  (H)  B  il\jj.  OY)  B 

(^)  A  oYV  B  oL-V\.  (r-)  B 


(*•)  B  J^JP. 
(A)  B  om. 
0')  B 
\^)  B 
A)  B 


. 


rrv 


AU 


^  fjxl\  v^Vi  Jc  ^ 


^i,J  (l\lal\  o^P 


J  4t^-«   i*  oV 


Jp 


J\  J 


dii  J 


B  om.  (0 

0)   B 


B  o^t.  (l)  AB 

(Y)  Kor-  35'  29> 


B  adds 


B  has 
from 


A 


to 


00  B 


B 


B  di^  for 


B   om. 


\j\ 


4il 


> 


Jc  Ojijl\.  JU  ^ 

U,j  oi«J\  c?^  e>*!  jJVki  r  oi»J\  'J 

*  *  '  ' 


411  \   ***j 


0\ 


5  JU<°>  Ji\  ^   JL 


(\)  B   jVi.  (0  B  ^,.  (^)  A  U  with  ^written  above.  B 

(l)   B   ^j.  (°)   B  om.  0)   B  £.  (Y)  B  ^^.  (A)  B  ^ 

C»)  B  adds  lfj^\.  00  Ai5Ji\  ^J\.  0\)  B^yjiV,.  (\0  A 
0*)  B  dL^-.  (^)  B  i,l<r.  (\°)  A  jT  (\1)  B  J^,.  (^Y 
from  fjt>j>\  to 


*" 


£jj 


Ic 


0)  B  jjj.  (0  B  ora.  (0  A  \jb\jiw *il.  B  appears  to  read  Vk^j,^,  but 
the  word  is  indistinct.  (0  B  *Ju .  (°)  B  ^^c^  ^L^oA.  0)  B  AiJiio 
^  A*J.  (Y)  B  ^.AU.  (A)  B  J.U..  (t)  B  ^.o.  (\«)  Kor. 

05,  2.         (^)  A    Ulj.         (\r)  B  <ul^\0.         00  Kor.  30,  39.         (\0  B  adds 


15 


^0Vs\  cj^U-k  J,U\  Ji\  ^V£    rrt 


V\ 


J\  ^j  0\ 


J\5  aW  i-^^ 


JV«.3    A]\^«,    J   J^i    J&j     Ait—    JVaJ    4ll\ 


0\ 


i  J-*  l  di 


0)  A  ^^i.  (OB  om.  (^)  B  V^.  (V  B  Jji\  altered  to  j\5ji\. 

(°)  B   JJ.        0)  AB  ^^L-,.        (V)  B  ^\  c*-£\  j\.        W  B  U  ^   j. 
(^)   B  adds  ^j\J\.  0')  A.  Vkr.  B  W.  0*)  A  dlU.  B  diVsi. 

}•  ^  e»  ^* 

Of.  p.  \  A  •  ,  1.  Y  supra,  where  read  dA.W  instead  of  dilv-  .        (\r)  B  om.  -/\  A;  b  . 
(^)  A       U\.  Boi\.  (^)  A.B.  (\°)  B      D.c.4jj. 


J,\Lu  ^v 


J\i 


')  Jo-J  JU  Z 


JU  tfjtf  U» 


J  JV;  ^j 


JL 


Jo 


(u>  Jl\  JviP  ^ 


0)  B 


(0  B  om. 

B  om.      J 


00  B  adds  dllU  eu  (Kor.  67,  1).        (u)  B  om.        00   B  J\5 


B  V. 


B  adds 


B  jc.        01)  B  J\_i. 
fO  B  om.  \i,. 


Jt*   . 


C> 

B\  J...S. 


\  cJbU-J,  J,U\ 


f 


rrr 


'.lOla 


0)  B   Ckj\   instead  of  JW  <w\  ^ 
B      £~\.        (°)  B  app.      .        0)   B   om. 


42,  52.          0\)   B   ^j  J\5.          (\0   A 
(^)  B  U£         (^°)  A  ^.  B  app.  ^>. 
.         (^)  B  om.         (^)   A 


(^)  B  ^  . 
(Y)  B  ^ 
00  Kor. 
)  B  Vi  . 


(TO  B     ^.          (r\)  B'om. 
J.        (ri)Bji9. 


0)  B 

B  oW" 


IT 


-^\  J\3 


c 
«i«  \a 


\S    \JU   £i. 


-j  f'c  ^:W-v^7  *Vu 


U\ 


U\ 

Vii.\\   ii 


'JA       u    \J\ 


.        (0  B  UilL^.        (^)  B  om.        (l)  B^\.        (0)B0^. 
(V)   B^uiiUw.  (A)   B    ,^,l,V\^W-.  C1)  Kor.  2   274. 

Vl  <j  t,^  0j*iWui  S.  (u)  B   ^j.  (\H  B 

(^)  B  VoV\.  (\°)  B  om.  from      \3    to  4=> 

(w)  B  BU.          OA)  B 


0)  B   JV^. 
00  B  adds 
W  B        Ju 


\(Y) 


rr 


UJ    . 


JU  U\  i.%  V. 


o*j  Jp  o* 

^;(0  ^  e?kv  ^  ^0) 

i  -  —  ^  Q  135" 

U)     4»\    <*-< 


0- 


(J  )  B  «\Jo\  .  (r)  B  om.  CO  A  Cn-'^  with  ^^  in  marg.  as  variant. 

(«•)  B   om.  0V>   ^.  /^\.  (°)  B  4»\.  0)  B  jT/i.  (Y)  A  «\i. 

(A)   A  V^V,.  (^)  B   ^.  0.0  AB  OJJW«.  (^)  A   ^. 

(^)   B   4.V*.         0^)  B   0^.         (^)   B  y-.        0°)  B    ^\.        (H)   A  om. 
B   proceeds  :   \i^\  ^  \iii\  \ii\i  JA  c53i\  ^ii\  ^*  45^  ^ii\  . 


n  \         i  i^vi  j  b\*\  uJ^k  J>u\  v 


i  o 


)^   Jp 


0)   B  om.  JV^'  ^^  ^j  -fT]\  JV5.        (r>  B   Ol.        (^)  B       3.        (*•)  B  om. 
(°)  B    iL^U.  0)  B  4,1.  ^.  (V)   A  Y^Vj.  W  A  ^y. 

0)  A         .  (\0  B        .  (^)  B  om.  from         to  JU.  (\r)  A     c. 


(")  B    ,*>j>\.  (u)  B   U£  ^  joy.  j  Jp».  0°)   Kor.   2,  196. 

(n)   Kor.  33,  41.  A  om.  from  V,Jo\  to  ^j>-\  iT  ^.  (^  B 

0A)  Kor.   2,  147.  (n)  A  V.^Y^.9.  (r')  AB 

(rr)   B  o^Y^.  (r^)  B^S\\,.  (rl)  B  J^  ^  (r°)  AB 

(^)  B 


ru 


0)  B  om. 
(°)   AB  0.  . 
00  B   bcY\. 
(^)  B  om. 


U 


V. 


V. 


JVs  \j 


(H  A   Jl.  B  jVt.  (^)  B 

0)  B  ^  .  (Y)  A  ^.  (A)  B  c, 

(u)   A  om.  but      j\5  suppl.  in  marg. 


U. 


iS.Af.99tt 


\o 


A  \i 


nv          '^.jff-y\  j  k_>\*\  uJiU-ij  JA-.U 


i.%  v. 

JV5 


\\ 


L, 


*0)  V.    4\  JU^    *\    uJu.          JUflJ\    JW    4«\ 


Otr^  ^  cP 

\  \        \U  \\         "^      '         IV    )  \ 

u«^  (OJ^i   O"    t^""0  tJ  (3      •    L).^     (3^^   ^•*^>'5    A-J-A*)^  j.v«.n    ^JAf.OSi 


\  Jc  U\  >\ 


0)  A  jVjLi^  with  (jViJi«.\  in  marg.  as  variant.  (H  B  om.  (^)  A  \j>. 
(i)  B  adds  tf^aU.  (°)  A  V/^.  0)  B  JV^.  (Y)  B  om.  from  ^^  to 
JJua^l  4«\  <?-j  v-jybc  _^t\.  (A)  B  seems  to  have  Aj>._^\  .  The  word  is  partially 
obliterated.  0)  B  Jj.oV\  &~«  ^  p/^\  ^a-XA  J_^\.  (^)  A  A^. 

0  \  )  AB  om.  £\  J^\^  .  The  words  are  snppl.  in  marg.  A.        0  r)  B  o^-^  ,  but  cf. 
'Attar,  Tadhkiratu  '1-Awliyd,  II,  GO,  5.  0^)   B       J.  I11)   B  ^j  . 


L- 


m 


0VJ  ci4  i 


j\   <3U)Af.98a 
l.t    ^L    4inU  V\   \&jvi*    X?    4i*.k9  V\    \« 


^^o  ^j?  J=> 


0)  B  om.             (r)  B  <ui\.             (^)  A  app.   ,5^.             (*•)  B  d)i  o/i  ^ 

,^.           (°)  A  ^5\U*.           0)  B  ^\0  ^^.  (V)  B  app. 

(A)   B  tU^.            (^)  B   j/\.            00  B    5W^J\.  (U)   B   om. 

^j  ^\  JVi.        (»  0  B  J\5,.        0^)  B  adds  ^\}\.  (\  «•)  B  JAJ\. 


>%±.\j  JAJi\ 


\i\  JU  i 

jic, 

fU  0>  V. 

bljVii  Sjl 

^  v  __ 

4;^\    ^ 

&j  Jlo 


j   ~>.\  J\s(r>  <j,U\  j  «1:~  <,iU-<'>  «\  A;  0\ 


J\i, 


(1)  AB  j5^.        (°)  B  adds  ^U\\  ^.        0)  B  adds  ^\  f.  (Y)  B  O 

0,_?U\  .            (A)  B  ^^  \  .            0)  A  JjjU  but  corr.  in  marg.  (  ^  )  B  J 

(^Bl^.  (^)  B 

B  JV5^  J  ^Vo.             (H)  B   ^.              (\Y)  B   iU\.  (\A)   B 

B      "  •  (r>)  A  M.  (r\)  B   A*-. 


<B\    tf-j^  \ 
\i\i  «i 


B  om.  (0   B  om.   JU"  iw^  <^         !1      \3.  (^)  B 


iJ  *5ji  ) 


411  '  '    ' 


nt 


JW  Jj\  y.j  r^\  a.  ^Ui\  j  pliv  JU  /\  ^J  £4. 


:Vj^  J  Jj>l\  y>    ,U\  ^   Jj\   J\ii 
V.  \=~.   L.l\    *  a-  *»     U    TjSSW  tij  U 


JU  ^  .          *,  jk:  ^  J>J\j  J>A\<U)          ^  dili 

V<£  t;  ^-(^  JU 

411\  _^3    Zjjy.    S>V\j  U 


f  * 

II) 

4Ji\   ^  ASa>-   ^jVtoi    >r 


0)  B  \JLi\.  (r)  B   om.  (^)  Kor.  16,  55.  (^  B  j.  (°)  A  \i\ 

\  ^  for  f\^M.  ^B^j,  (Y)ABU.  WB^^J^. 

)  B  JuUbj.  (^')  A  om.   A=3\-s-  *  U-j   A-JuV*   but  the  words  are   suppl. 


in  marg.  0»)  B  J^i\.  00  B  o^.J>  for  JU  ^\.  0  ^)  Kor. 

55,  26.  0*0  A  om.  from  f  to  A.\a.»-  i.^>  .  B  has  ^\  <»iaa.  i^  ^_jVft>j>  r  but 

i,       has  been  stroked  out,  (\°)  A  U.  (n)  B 


-i,  J;u\  ^vs 


U   4»g 


> 


X? 


«-l   ^^    Ji 


J\5 


,\     & 


j«S\  JU 


0)  B 
(°)  B 
(A)  B  om. 
to 


<)  B  om.  ()  A     ,^-_,.  B      'va>'j.  >  H  J- 

0)  B  JVs.  (Y)  B  OBI.  from  oj»j  to  ciVw"  «\   •  ti  o^- 

4^  g^l  J\j.  C»)   B  JU.  (>')  B  om.  from  jVi 

A_^'.         (*0  AB  jOu.         (^)  A  jj,.^.        (^)  B  *,. 
B  \.  (*V)   B.,.  (*A)  B 


>4 

nr 


. 


J*\ 


-Xla      . 


j\  3>*  Cj  GJ\  3>*  S  Jte  ^3>  f  cf  ^j  A  v^  W 


\i  ^V- 


(^)  AB  l5Ji\.  (0  B  om.  jV*i  di]\  ^,  g^  J\5.  (^)  Kor.3,  16.  (*•)  B  adds 
the  remainder  of  the  verse:  ^Ajjj^\j*  [V\]  «J\  1  (°)  B  j^>_,  JP  <v!y. 
0)  Kor.  2,  130.  (Y)  A  ^^s,  .  In  B  the  word  is  partly  obliterated. 

(A)  AB  y£.  (^)  B  om.  00  B  £\  jVi\  ^3  U  J\y.  0»)  B  U. 

00  B  om.  from  ^liV.  to  J^»V\  J.  (^)  B  is^i^  ^\   ^  J  ^  J. 

(^)  A  ^ui^.  (\°)   B  dJLU<i.  (H)  AB   JU.  (\Y)  B    Cu-  . 

or  Aalio  .        (  ^)  Obliterated  in  B.        0"  •  )  B  o.UV,  .        (r  \  )  A  ^  . 


r  1  1          <^v\  j  fkj\*\  uJiUk  J.U\ 


.3  jjXS          j  ^     ^Jj  % 

>  4 

\  V,\ 

u 


V\  *i\  -         '         ,-^j  -^ 

^  Jl\ 


0\  _*  ^,  ^  4«\  4^^  Ju/\  JVa 

f>  U       (ir) 


f<"J>  •  J 

,sO°) 


(•)  Here  B  resumes  (fol.  906,1.1).         (r)  B  ,^>j£.         (^)  B  om.        I1)  A 

o~«  ^.        (°)  B  ex,   *$£  J\S*.        0)  B  Jo.         (Y)  A  j>\  Jo^.        (A)  B  J\Si. 
(^)  B  adds  ^  V\  <i\  ^  0^  j^i\  J\u.  (1  •)  B  ^  |r.  (\\)  B  ^~^j. 

00  B   \jjb.  (^)   B  ^.Ji*.  (^)   B    ^J,;.  0°)   B   ora.   ^1     \\5 

j\o-,.     (^)  B  r^,,. 


^ 


.     (j,\Jt) 


«j}- 


j^>-    ,3 


.J.i\\    V.I 


D    V\    ^i-J 


i        tl*       '     ^ 


j  is 


?^    J\3 

c 

A.'.\ 


r  i  . 


Jl.    A-J\ 


«.9*3    * 


f.  956 


0) 


Or 


J>  J>. 


^u      j* 

'1  V\ 


i.     -j\   .—is     IcAf.OSa 


i   added  in  marg.  (r)  ^J.  ( 

14 


u  c^S\\  ^V-5"     r.A 


U  vju, 


411 


0\  s 


j,  IJ.U\  ay.  Jf  \ 

L'    ^-J\!U\   ^^  CL-.^  5jJ>    diij    ^  ^^   J.^   )   ^_5jV«l\  ijjVs 

»UU1\  j3aJ\  \j\  lc-X 


J 


U 
V\  dll^  ^  ^  SJc     .5  ^1  J,      ^ 

4.',\     JW    411  \ 
411  \    ^^j     ^ljVv-Jl     ^.j\    J    JliJ     I^MIVKU     ^JC     dJlX^jj     ^J.;     J\AJ.l\     ^i 


iLJb-  jP  Jx-j   <0\S^l\   j   Aly^Ju   ^   .\i!l(i)Af.946 


J\5 


Suppl.  above.  (0  0V<  (*)   \i.  W  U\\. 


r  .  y 


.. 


U   JrW  <ui  \   A.^ 

Li  0^  J^,  V. 


V* 


\J>\ 


v\ 


-^    c  (J^1 


Jx,  ^. 

Ail       ^Vj 


Aftj    A^>-j     Ja5j    (J,ViJ 


Ovc  y  ^  V 


a:\ 


(\)   A^-.  (r)   c^Jj^- 

(°)  Snppl,  in  marg.  C1) 


in  marg.         (N  ,iy« 


!>. 


V. 


U  J-  \ 


.  JL\ 


\o 


(0  Kor.  11,121.          (^)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (*•)  Text  om, 


. 


Ju, 


jj 

AS 


U 


4tt\  ^Pj  (5jVp^\  J&  U 

^j^^) 
A^ 


Jo  j    (j 


J        l 


4» 


r' 


0O 


0)   Text  om.  (0 


X*.x» 


AAc    VJl 


r  .  i 


j..«j  AJ  u  k-^Aii  ujfc^n.  ^  ji>\j 

-t  Vv-,\  ^    V«  iKi  »l»  ^5    \     it  U 


ju  4»\  <^ 

.,i(l)  JU  U 


j 


0)   <dV~J.  (0  jL\ .  (^)  Suppl.  above.  (*•)   \j>.  (°)   Pj 


\  = 


.      * 

U\    ^   f\S 
JuJ    dJJ\    v-j-te    U   JVai 


4U  \  A^J  ( 


4il\     A^ 
1  \ 


\ 

411  \ 


~    4,;     o_ 


VA  c^*^j  i  jj..     *^*«     j.*  i- 


—  Af.92a 


(0  \i.     (^)  Suppl.  above.     (l)  So  the  MS.  Perhaps 


p  . 

r  <ui\  A^J  jV»-  o,  ^  JU 


4il 


\    JuP 


J>\          U   V\ 


0)  Text  om. 


^ 


r-r 


3o-\>   V*  Us   Jc  J  v.   jU    4.'A   dS/u    A*y\  jU    jOOj   A«.y\   di/uAf.916 

•-*  -X**  £' 

-? 


r .  i 


uri) 


2  J\i  *Ui  «»i  ^^ 


J 


» 


1  \    4.^     j£^\     J\3 

J  u-j^ 


s 

'   - 


j   -^'^-^   cA    y-*5?"   u^*J 


0) 


0) 


(0 


Text  om 


-4 


^ 

^    vfi 


JVs  4J 


^     o-JO    U 


TTj        O 


4JU49 

j  JL    J,  UU  iJls  \a 


U 


jj 


\ 


V, 


il 


iXl    U 


J\ 


(0  Suppl.  in   marg. 


A] 


4} 


*- 


Jo   £&i\   ^-XiP-U   4.Ac   jxlc-9   <^j    J«>j   r^^>i    4il\    jW     V.    JU 

4)1\    AS-  \    iJb    U 


^   pj    vfili.    Vi    0/,    0\ 


<JV*    Q     OAf.90a 

*>  ,  s*  •*, 


\i  j.  ^  ^  ,5 


^4 


,    ,.  X, 

U;  jjr;  a.*  ^i 

JU  ^  4_J  ^ 


o\  -\»      . 

Lj,    ^    JV5    4j\    (JU     4il\ 

•  >\  1\  C  i  c^,to j    \Vs  4,5' 


0\ 


i?     di)      d 


)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (r)   ^il~* .  (^)  jVo.  (M  Suppl.  above. 

Text  om.  ("^)  ,\J^2-}-. 


Y 


AJ 


4»\ia-J   A!  J\*J  j\>-0)  JVl?  di"3 
tt\   ^    0>J\ 

t  Ac\  JV*)" 


4il\    A^-j 

JO\     0.   JC>t    ^    CLi    ^30.\    JLJ 
AJ\ 


P\J*    V    LTT     ***J 


J 


Af.89a 


\o 


^-^5 

Jo. 


V*  tLi    diiaP-  \ 


Snppl.  above.        (°)  «>U\. 


ju\ 


ex 


it*    4s.<.    (  l        .^         U«  .*    4JU- 

^.\  J^  ^  v^b 

li   ,  _  ^«iSo\  ^^."  r 


4.1  UP-    4il>j     «U«*S     ^      »^ 


iis  j  v\ 


0)  4A\.  (f)  ^.^-  ^)  V^-L--./^-  (M  Suppl.  above.  (°)  The 

passage   beginning  Jy^  ^o    <o\  and  ending  ^\  ^  ,,a>^  ,y-  ^>._5  is  suppl. 
in  marg.  ("^)  .WU  • 


\\o 


Af.88a 


JS    > 

r- 


>.  ^  ju  ^  j\ 


[\>J&\ 

i-  ,]c  JUl   dl\   .-, 


J>  J  u-jj 


Jc  a*U  Al^  H  Jc  ^U  ^^     J\  Jo  ^b  033  v^L^V\   Jo 


\o 


Text  om.  (r)  ^Ax«i-^    app.  altered  into  uAv*L~« .  (^)  ^\. 


4.p    <jj 


V.  ^  U\  ^j 

^1  JL?-\  V>\ 


J-  - 


V. 


i  J; 


"°       ~ 


J      \  U 


0\T  JVs 


7cX3 


£     °-Xa    <U.C-    i_j\£     r    4 

\  ^  ^  J^  ^ 
Jc  J:  ^  >1\  Jo 


1 


-5Co  JU    JV«J 


J\ 


> 


»- 


V\  j,>  i 


A  CU\  Ld 


»       ^  4.J   vlj-it>       4.uJli3  Aio 


<  \JA\\ 


J 


ti\jJ 


*   I 


lik*J 


\jj   d-J 


dil       <J 


Jp 


<4Af.87« 


*    f  '    ^!^    O^       -  C  -^ 

ci^    Jli 


0) 


13 


0\ 


Ji\   *.U    vfllj   JjVjj   <u*  JS'l    ia  CU.U  4j  Ju 

j  4j 


O     4j\    ,50  JL\      j.^    ^         ^    t  vdj    A«J    A          £^j 


VV**   *^-:^j   '-^lj    V*  ^  (jWl^  JV;   las   v 


^;\    -  I  J  JU 


,  j^  U 

4cV^    <^Ac  \0 


\j\  diJ  i  ^ 
dii  J  ^  A!  1  ^1  U  V\  M  ^  s^^ll  JL  ^  A^L;  dlii  <j\ 

t  JU\        j*j    A^U     Ai.    °^>l9     ^L 


U 


(')  ^D   \^i.  (0  Some  words  seem  to  have  been  omitted  here. 

So  pointed  in  MS, 


Ui 


J\jJJ, 


ol>  J     .,i 

, 

\  _  ,\ 


o  0 


4J    9 


90iA)     vlj 


A,JL\  Jc  dili 


4fl 


\     tuJ  dili        "JU  A! 


.. 


J  A.    \J\> 


Af.SGa 


Cri" 


\'o 


r 


Ali 


,  See  Dozy,  SuppUment  aux  dictionnaires  ardbes  under 


Jlo  U\^ 


JU 


f> 


A 


o\ 


o* 

r  (0 


Af.85& 


10 


^1   j 


r- 


0)  ojJ 
in  marg. 


\A\  tji  «v.3  ^j 


i  0\ 


^t.  .^^ 


A,\\  UA  j  _£  V.  JT    j  ^c> 

i  4AO     4jJ>  j    tgij 


Jj*c*\  a! 

V,\ 


0)      j.  (0  Snppl.  above. 


*  V, 


>  Af.Soa 


»\  *i\  i<? 

o\  ^  f-  ^  «\  ^  ^ 

-    f  aA  a^  V\ 


Ail\    4^,     (j^^^    ^i\     £*     U^J      C-d      J\5 

ti  JV»j  dilj 


\AA 


Jp 


(5  Ji\  4^aJ  V\  di>u 


ojij\ij  -O   -V  O^ 


0) 


Cf- 


\AV 


*  (3  -A 


o 

JU  4.;\  jj 


U\ 


>-  Jp  jjau* 


jw:\ 


JU  4j 
t  A—  VJ  fc^  j^W  0\  ^  \i 

J\HJU\  oJ^v^  jWa?-   vi-ij    ^j 
A^J  oj^.\  ^  ^  Jp    dcl«r  JcOj 
^t\    >y    V.  _^SJ    Jb 


Us 


iJ  JU  \fj 


3      \j>\ 


J>    $ 


J>. 


^    Jp   k 


(0  <,  ^yu-.  (^)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (M  Kor.  26,  218. 


V\  A*  V;  U 


V;\  Vj\ 


* 


*«.        ^Tj   ^Ai.  Jaisr    1    ^*-    Oi 
-   L5jVj^\\   4fl\    JuP  U(0) 


4i\     (J^VOjJ^     4JG\     JuP     V,\     C 

^  L^\    05    Jr>,   A!    JV^ 
jAs  \i  V^kJ  jU\\   J«>J 


(r)  A  corrector  has  indicated  that  the  text  should  read: 


<fUai\  ^   j   f^T  ^  jt  V. 


$\  Jp  PL 


f        f 

(r) 

jVc  Jc^  JU 


j\  J, 

4il\    4 


1  Ai 


\  j^J\  J\  >  JUi 


written  above.  (0  Suppl.  above,  (^)  In  marg.       .^>\  . 


>°  ^  v\ 

J>   ^  c$^\  j^ai*  a:  -^^  < 
<\xlc  i^L.  i5  J^>  _^3  i&  Jo  o^J 


J&.J  \j^  JS'l 
:  ^.\  J\i  < 
r  Jo-Vi  CU-JU-(Y) 


. 

\J    \J\    4il\    4^j    t5jVoJ_^\ 


(  i.Y\  ilL     lj    Vxu.;    j^i    >4A1\ 


\ 


0) 


In  marg.  v^»3     .  ^-,i_j  above.  ()  In  marg.  uy. 

(^)  oJj  added  above.  (°)  Jb\x.  £*&-  added  in  marg.  (^)   0\\. 

(Y)  In  marg.      ...         '       (A)   Kor.   42,  28.  0)  Kor.  34,  25.   Kor.   has 


v-sjj  UJL^I     -v=*=i  •  ^'^  (Jj/  corr-  in  niarg.  (^)  ls.si\  corr.  in  marg. 


Snppl.  above,  0  ^)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (^)  3j\  added  in  rnarg. 


u\ 


(T 

4fl\ 


\ 


Vj  ji\  J*  J  AJLV\  >\ 

4^j  J^f\   Jp   v—  i5j  \  j\   L)iU\  jVS 

J  ^  ^1  JL^\    Jy,     dJJj>    -JW    ^  A  A  4U 


Ic    L 


0)  <5-Xo.  (r)   4.\Uj.j.  (^)  Kor.  3,  167.    ^^^  written  above 

(*•)   Suppl.  above.  (°)  ^o    in  marg.  before^-.  C1)  Corr.  to 

^^\.  (Y)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (A)   *L\Jai\  «  Jji  added  in  marg. 


0\  i 


J\3    Jyi 

^ 


V. 


s*         .-*•* 

)c  j  if*)  Us  L\\  Uto  ^  j^  J& 


ut    ^    J.J    J^i,     Jji\ 


Y\ 


^ 

1*\\    ^    JiU-    ^    JV^J.    jVC^'A    jVaJ    <U]\    4^J    4ii\    JuP    ^    J^- 

.ilSal  ^>-^  VfJ  K  s-x-»  Juo  ^o  V4>  V^J  So 


4 


(^)  The  passage  beginning  (jo  _ji  and  ending  \\5  A^^  Af-i-^  ^  is  suppl. 
in  marg.  (0  CA^--  (^)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (M  Suppl.  above.  (°)  \j>  . 
0)dib  x^,  (Y)  in  marg. 


Ul 


A. 


U 


\  u 


5  V. 


All\ 


^2.         * 


V. 


f.80& 


0)  In  marg.  ju  j  oo-  (F)  ^  added  above'  ^^>^t-  (i)  Suppl. 
in  marg.  (°)  Suppl.  below.  C1)  Suppl.  above.  (Y)  ^W.  (A)  jt> 
added  above.  (^)  \.  v^')  Jufc^,  vocalised  by  a  later  hand. 


< 


JAd\  J 


Ui 


v,\  ; 

0) 

Jy\ 


<  J\5  \^\  di 


JL\    ^    iu-     ^^.-^    O-jSS    4)1  \ 
4il\    A_  ^ 


>\  f  lli  V-  l^^  J^ 


<-^-.^      (_>      ^-  ^    ^**J    £    '    J^  Af.80tt 

^l    J.V&   S^Ull    ( 


\° 


(^)  Snppl.  in  marg.  (H    ^,  added  above.  (^)   Erased  by  a  later 

hand.  I1)   u^ViiJ,  (°)     ^ji\  added  in  marg. 


_->     -  rl          ^ 

j  *^*\y*  ^v,  cpJM  ^v^         \VA 


\j\ 


wr      e>i 
V;\  ^ 

411  \ 


4ii\    4.^,    ^J^^    ^^    A 

s-^\  C\  ci  JV5  A^?  Oi  ^j 

.V\  ^j\     ,  ^  cJ^  U 


>^    Uj*    4..     O  JC>\3     Jj3      \3 

cud  U 


0)  Suppl.   above.  (r)   Suppl.  in  marg.  (^)  U\.  I1) 

)  JJJ.  0)  Om. 


ivv 


0\ 

^  iw..^      -  A!    .VL 


Ali 


»l\    A.U 

A&^*J     U    ^Ac    V^l«.'>\    t5^\    v__AM    ArfU     jj'A^J^     AJ     d-jVS     r^ 
U    vi-M^    dV*)     4il\    A.^j     0Ak^ii\     JuJ,    ^. 

>.  A 

U 


4J— 


\i.  (0   Suppl.  in  marg.  (^)  o\^xi  .  (l)  <uA>  corr.  in  marg. 

*i. 

12 


(3   s 


0 


Li-  _ 

* 

1  4_i      V;  U 


J 

U     <i 


o\ 


^IcU     i»J\Af.78& 


(      Snppl.  in  marg.        (^)  ^-W.        (^)  aA,.        (°)  ^-W\  corr. 
in  marg.  (^)  ^V,^ .  (Y)  Suppl.  above.  (A)  ^jM  o 

corr.  in  marg. 


i     &** 


J\U\\    J\3     4J\     JU)     4il\    4-**j     41}  \ 

?^ 

V\ 


4il\ 


0\  5^ 


.  o\ 


4il\    4.^-j     ^\    J\3     i  4^..ji»    d~ftO    4\iP    ^O     \  j\  ^iii\ 


\o 


(\)  In  marg.   A.!*).  (r)    Oi.Vw*L-.a   corr.  in   marg.  ^>^«    corr. 

in   raarg.  (^-)    Os^—  *   corr.  in  marg.  (°)  Snppl.  in  marg.          0)   US 

written  above. 


IVI 

u 


1 


f\/\ 

J\J    4J\    (j,\Jt! 


Snppl.  in  marg.        (^)  The  marginal  version  adds:  i^i    k  (^^>  iJ)  o-o  J 


0)    Jc,    but   see    mj7   translation   of  the  Kashf  al-Mahjub,  p.  27,  where  this 
saying  is  attributed  to   Shibli.  (Y)  o_^o.  (A)  Probably  we  should 

read  «4*i  ^y  '43t  oj£  ^  O^  •        ^^  A^*!  •        (^ 


\-i\3 


4)i\  ^  A*-,  JQ  V\ 


j  ^tf>  ^_x:0    Jc  J>i\3   4.;U   flfjtfej  'fa\j~\i   411  \ 

Gri-v,  JU  AJ\  4ii\  **-j  u^^\   v.^ 


^         ^>  ti  J^  j 
V;\ 


(^)  L«.  (0  In  marg.  ]^^  V«  .  (^)  The  passage  beginning  ^=-  and  ending 
\\3  \Tj\  A.i^  4x«iJ^Jj  also  occurs  on  the  marg.  of  A  fol.  75«.  See  note 
1  on  p.  \"\1.  (*•)  The  marginal  version  has  Lr,U\  JV^  .  (°)  Om.  in  text, 


iaiVi-    <J>\    Ovr*"V\^    C^ 

\  J 


\  diii  J 


ivr 


\i\     i\  Cii\        .i  (  dlii         ^        -        V. 


f.766 


0)   Suppl.  in  marg.  (r)    In   marg.   VjJ^L 

written  above.  C1)  ^^V\  written  above.  (°)  Kor.  39,  75.  I1)  Orig. 

^-5  but  corr.  (Y)    «,J^.o  in  marg.  ( 


Cl 


>(()    \i\i 


Lf-Je. 


>a^ 

r*  «• 

JU.J,  dlli  tj  i^-J\  ^  JV^A"  o^  U  i 

b  \j  i*>  43jVi\  ^  i.oyW  j^\«  j  j^li^  <Ac  iai-  \i\  «i 

\i\ 


i. 


r. 


(^)  J^U.  (0  0^J.  (V)   ^U.  (^)  j£\  erased   and  ^\   suppl. 

in  niarg.  (°)  In  marg.  0-^.^5.9  as  variant.  ("^)  Suppl.  in  niarg. 

(^0   ^L.i^\      .aVi^i   corr.  in  marg.  (^ 


^i 


»U*}1  vj^>^  L^y*  1^    J  '  f  V  ***  V 


O^  (3^  ^    •  u         - 


*  V.   cu5_jj\  (j  ^U  J  «i.  j 

^.    L 


cr° 


r>\  >r   J^\  J&tf   JU   ^^P-    uJ^.U   Jc   ^H-^j    Sj-JH    ^\;J 

>\  ^  ^j  \i  ^\  ^  ^j  (>j^  J^  ^j^ 

r> 


V\ 


(\)  In  marg.  J>.  (0  U^.  (^)  jy.  C1)  The  orig.  reading- 

was       iLiVa.  (°)         . 


o~>-  V. 

U*     oVdl  Joo\  0\  a\  Ili  J>\  •*  0\ 

V- 


Ji  i  l^ 

^  l 
fls  A^J 


in  inarg.  0*0  The  text  has  Lj°Jai\  tfJjJ'^J  (vocalised  by  a  later  hand). 

The  story  is  told  in  the  Tadh.  al-Aivliyd,  II,  149,  9  foil.,  where  the  Persian 
rendering  is  j^Jx;  ^  J3  ^  ,  «if  you  had  looked  at  ine». 

(^)  BJU_/\.  C")    Suppl.  in  inarg.  (^)  Suppl.  above.  (^)  Here  is 

added  in  marg.  a  passage  beginning  ^U  J^l  ^  Hfc"1  iu,  \  j  ^J^J^  J^  ancl 
ending  jT  \  ^5  *U  ^  i.^4.  Jt>  c^>y  JU  '^_j\  iL"^  *»  *s-^  J^i  which  occurs 
in  the  text  on  p.  \Y^,  1.  \?  (A  fol.  77a,  1.8).  (°)  J  erased  before  dlb  . 

O)   Orig.   ^LiiiV,   but   corr.  (V)  ^3^.  (A)  ^-  .  (t)  j\^0> 

Va   corr.  in  marg. 


HA 


o-y  J\3  4,i  \ 


JA, 


o- 


aJ\   L  ^^.i  c-Mfl-j  t5-\j  0\^VU  o^        *    »\»\  (3 


r. 


(\)   Ivor.   2,  119.  (r)  In   marg.  Lp.   as  variant.  (*")  UM  .  (l)   JW  . 

^Ai.          0)   ^\U\.          (Y)jVf,,,         (A)  Suppl.   in  marg.         0)uvi>. 

')  V^i.  (\\)  ^W.  (\H  Suppl.  above.  0*)     ^J\  Ut  added 


nv  t£\  j  v 


U     ^^V^   *&    •&£    ^     0^     j.a    J\3 


i  ,5  ji\  u 


»        ^l 


\ 

w 

V\  4ii\   Ju^- 


-  V\    J£*J    ) 
£     \     4»\     ^J     AC>  t  4»        4  \o 

5jo.       e-  V\    <       U>      \  0\  dil  j  J 


Ljl   4  _  Ac 


H  ^  juv\      w  x,  ^ 

X,  vJt  J^  ]^  ^ 
J>-    >?j  >  «\  O^  ^  ^ 


(\)  The  orig.  reading  seems  to  have   been   ^J*.  (0  ^cOj  added  in 

marg.  (^)  ^  ^L.)    erased,  and     \c  \^OM  suppl.  in  marg.  (*•)  ^J«j. 


-us        3\  >:>       sA  cJil  ejV5  \Tl 


uJL\l\  JU-  Ju,  ex*  J*i 
JSV,  >'  o\  ^  4-  pU  ^ 


i    J\ 


J 


C-^ 
'»\  (5  Jl\ 


is  ju 


\0 


0)  Suppl.    in  marg.  C")  Snppl.  above.  (^)  In  inarg.    O^Uxll   as 

variant,          (l)   Kor.   3,  91.  (°)   Kor.  22,  28.          0)   jVi  ^   added  in  marg. 


->  J-  r\ 


p«  /:V^aJ\  jVW?\  cusj  (j  4j  4^.,  V^ 


V\ 


Jc  ^jcL-  *^y>  \y*\  j\  y\  r^\  J\ 
f 

\\ 

f 

•  AT*' 


Jp 

.^ 

3*  >z*sp     U  4.;\  4.Lv\     Ud\      *     &     S      f  JL       i  U  r- 

jV^ 

«    «^ 


The  last  two  letters  are  suppl.  above.  (r)   Snppl.   in  marg. 


li\  <;\  JU  ^  JU 

Aaxi   \j\    Jy,    JU    4J\   4A1\    4.4^    4il\    A,C- 

jTSu  ^  gill  yu  fit  \^  gill 

4il\    4.  U> 


S>U\  Jc 
V  i3 
&l\ 


iAJj    Jb    ^ 


cc\  diii 


Cr° 
JU  oUjV,  4j>^ 


^x* 

^      r-*^>-      C-bU 


r- 


0)  Suppl.    in  marg.  (0  ^  \ljJS,  co^*'i  added  in   marg.  (^)   «.vi\. 

•)  (j1!^^-  ^  fj^  added  in  marg.  0)  Suppl,  above. 


p    k$\    *~& 


* 

0) 


0\ 


ir 


i\  Jc 


co 


(\)   Suppl.  in   marg.  ( 

corr,  above.  0)  Suppl.  in  marg.  with   * 


for  oj»j)a>  . 


\a  ^ 


U 


V\  J\  \^ki,  0\ 


.Uj    O^j    ^   Cl^8*    • 

A^l\   ^Ji\   dJJ-X3   o 

"  ^  ^  ^^ 


\o 


(^)   pJA.  (0  Suppl.   in  marg.  (V  o^  .  (l)  Suppl.   above. 

(°)   Kor.  39,  13.  0)  In  marg.  ^J^    as  a   variant.  (v)   V^V^V*  corr. 

in   marg.  (A)  iL)  ^p    added   in  marg. 


i  "\  \  i  v     -u  V       *w    >*        ^  • 


ili    Jj 

.  oi^J  fWW^  ury\  J\Jj\  a.  Li  isxJ\ 

.a.>       U 


U 


JU  j  3>j 


\o 


A  f.  71  ft 


<vj.          (r)  Of.   Kor.  9,  60.          (^)   Suppl.   in  marg.         I1)  Snppl.   above. 

11 


<*JS 


V.    c     *  ^1     U       J     ~  &  U 


Jb  0--U  ^c,  A*  JA^aL 
.\^    diV^a    A^a.9  ^    4.! 
ai?-  JVis  dUi   4i»3 


\    J\5>     t^P\     pp^l      *\^4?      ^yi\      Jl>\ 

Jy  ^ 


4«\  Jy 


• 


f.71a 

j      \-s  ~ 

f. 

\ii\u    i^U 


Snppl.  in  marg.  )      i..  ()  V^u*>  .  In  marg.   ^JJM  . 

C4-)   Kor.  9,  GO.  (°)    J>y-U   is  stippl.   in  marg.  after  ^iii\   and  JjC    is 

written  above  it. 


1  \ 


- 

jo-l 


45  Jl\ 


\  J 


$      • 


0\ 


-   Jp  tf 


V.  VJ 


(^)  Snppl.  in  marg.       (r)  Snppl.  above.      (^)  cJ^al'A  written  above.      (^)  *»\^/V 
(°)  A.Voi  written  above.        0)  ^>        written  above.        (Y)  \  J=>\  but  corr.  above. 


JT 


\j\        \$     VAc    4il    ^ 


il\  U  A. 


Af.G9& 


_     , 

^  ^j 
V\  ^^^  J  sVi     V^  J,V\ 


* 


aio-    U     «i^   ^cl\    J   JV«3    4.O     A.1U    ^ 

\  j  \  UU  t  «UP  di^J  -x*j     AJ\  A.U 


(v-)   Snppl.  in  niarg. 
)  In  niarg.  U\\. 


*  V-  J^b  Vto-^^  ^ 

ci\        -tf 


<-V^    ^  4ic>V\    (jAaJ   d-Jt^j    ill9    06  j    4.A&    ^^.flC   ]    4,1 


'.  70a 


J 


U 


(\)  B  Lf^\J^.        (0  AB   J>^  J^..        W  AB  J>L  0U,.        (^  B  om. 
from    U\:\  ^j   to  ^\>  J.^.  (°)    A    J^,  .  (^)   AB   JW  J^..  . 

(Y)  AB  J^a.*.  Here  the  text  of  B  breaks  off  (fol.  QQa,  last  line).  The  fol 
lowing  words  (fol.  69?>,  1.  l)  JVls  4»\|T^  »o^«  occur  in  A  fol.  32a,  1.  7, 
near  the  beginning  of  the  chapter  entitled  p  V«.W^V\  4:>_j_j  *^^  L/2-t-^-s-:  iJ  ^r\  • 
The  portion  of  B  corresponding  to  A  fol.  69a,  1.  12  —  fol.  95&,  1.  8  is  wanting. 
(A)  In  marg.  Oy>JJuU  ^j**).  ?*$>  CA»  A^  ^*j  •  ^  Snppl.  above. 

(  ^  '  )  Snppl.   in   marg. 


t  ^    ,_JUJJ\<1>  J\j\3 


0\  ^U  i 


JU  J^  ^J\ 


JUaJl   3    *  \£>   i£J*\  \- 

^r)0^A\(^)0j^lf.69a 
> 


JVu   cdli  j  J  Jjj   4i«^_,  4 

ip  ^Ju   j  (j.V«J   <Dl\  ti\  -u  iArf>_5  Jlo 


\  = 


with  the  verse  ^\  W^  ^W  ^J  PU,  jj_j.x,\  which  occurs  in  A  on  fol.  114a, 
1.  8.  The  text  of  B  ending  on  fol.  52a,  last  line,  is  continued  without  any 
lacuna  on  fol.  68ft,  1.  1.  0~^)  A  U*^j  corr.  above. 

(M   B   *,\*?\.  (0    B   om.  (^)  B   j^Jo.  I1)  A  adds  in   marg. 

(0)  B  ^iJ\.        0)  A  adds  in  marg.  s'U\  J.        (Y)  B  V-\. 
(^)    B   o^i-  00  B  \3Vi.  (^)  A  in  marg. 

^V-^.       (^)  B  o;.       (\t)  B,       (\°)  B 

B   5 


\oo 


V.   S 

J 


\ 


,U  \j>\   o<0 


V^  4.;\  ^   A.C-  ^   J^^  C^"  -^J  ^  V&^L?  4i5j   f  &*A  ^Af.686 

^9  c*^    \J\ 


0)  B  U*.  (r)  B  5^U\.  (^)  B  om.  (M  B  om.  JV.J  A\\   ^U  O\. 

(°)  B   oj&\.        (V  B  J=>_5^.        (Y)  A  oU\  but  o\J  in  raarg.  as  variant 
(A)   B  ^.  (t)   A  AJ\.  0  ')  A   om. 

00  B  J^u-J  ^V<         (^)  B  ^..         (\i)  B 

£\  j,#A\  J^^  \3Vj  0^  ^  fyt,    -VV^  ^y.  \i\j.  0°)  Here  the  text  of 

B  breaks  off  on   the  last  line  of  fol.  52a==A  fol.  6S&,  1.   10.  Fol.  52b  begins 


U 


j\  dl)-&«Af.G8a 


J  j 


(^)  B  app.  ^>jj.>  or  k-j 
(r)  o^-  added  in  marg.  A. 
in  marg.  _AA*  ^  ^*  ^ 
W  B  S^\.  00  B  5 


B   adds 


but  the  middle  letters  are  almost  obliterated. 
)  B  ^9^  -o>.   OH-        (^  B  ^.        (°)  A  adds 
0)   B    S^V,.         (V)   B   U*.         (A)   B  om. 
(^)Suppl.  above. 
(\M   B  om.  ^ 


> 


V.     (>- 


411 


(\)   B    5^$J.         0")  B   il^U.          (^)   B^bl.         (*•)    B   J\5.         (°)   B   om. 
0)   B   dij,.  (Y)  A  0£.  (A)   B  Jrjj  JP.  (^)  B  om.   ^i\  J\5 

<d\\  <^j.        (^')   Suppl.   in  A  by  a   later  hand.  B  $for  V*  J.        (^)  B  om. 
A\i\  ^^  j\^\.  00   B  om.  from  o/^  to  j£\  &\.  (^)  B  \j\j. 

(u)   A  orig.  ^^u,,  altered   to   ^^aJL,  .  B  __au  .  (^°)  In  marg.  A  J^o. 

B  AX.  .        (  w)  B  om.  from      ^  to  p..        OA)  A  <wi;  J        (^)  B        . 


Joo  \J\  ^ 


JVs 


,  __  J*5j  t  Jiuli   dill\  4,''Vs  ij^ 


J 


\i   -X5 


Jc 


V. 


(^)  B   om.  (0   A 

passage    runs   thus:    x« 


B   om.  ^jJl\  ^.        0-)  B 
dJi   added  in  marg.   A. 


0)  B  a,.        (Y)  A 
.        (\\)  A  om.  4 


In   B   this 


J\ 


a          s  JjV\  cu5jJ\(A)  i^*c  VI  dili  v      X? 


Jy  \i 

**   ^ 


V\ 


(^)  A  VftAjj.^   Avitli  WjuJ^j   written   above.  (0  B  adds  V/t*^K>\^   and 

so  A  in  marg.          (^)  B  ^.          (l)  B  \^.\.         (°)  B  g\  diii  ^  ^bV,  J\5. 
C1)  In  A   j  is   given  as  a  variant.  (Y)   B  <j^  o^9ji\  for  j:>.  5"iLaJ\  ^i_j. 

(A)  B  om.  from  viJji\  to  Jc  jc  i-yj^  *-  •        (^)  B  app.  ^Lus.        (l  ')  B 


0\)B^J..        00  Bom.        O^ 

(H)   AB   <u~.  OY)   B  U\i.  0A)   B  o^AJ\.  (^)  AB 

but  A  in  marg.  gives     l^Jow^  as  a  variant. 


\0. 


f\a  JrU 


j       j'j  •*  0 

AU  k       <r>      \ 


j-ay   U   'A(S    <  c\X\  i2._j   ^j  ja>.   4__ij   *^>-j£-  4~i.'.   (J~-*J    >-V\.\  ^j'  ' 


A  corrector  has  stroked  out  the   words   *3\  ^,    in   A  and  has  written 
£\  above.         (0  B  0111.         (^)  A  ^Jc>.        (l)   B    U  ^  .        (°)  B  om. 

^J  '^  J^-  0)  B  A1"-  (Y)  B  ^V'J 

B  ,U  >.         (^)  A  -i;,.         00  B  .W. 


i.\ 


Ci.\<v>  A 
»_y-^  V».;Jj  (°A°Jsul\  C  "&\  \^;\(A)  Jy  j 


\i\ 

.\1\ 


JU 


,  0\  jt  ^^v-o  *j 


\\  il^  Jc 


0)   B  Us-V^.  (0  B  f\LiV\.  (^)  B  riU\  Jc.  (l)   Iii  marg.A 

WA  (°)  B    S\.  (1)  A  adds  in  marg.  ^ 


(y)   B  om.  (A)   Kor.  04,  10.  0)  B  -gjf..  (MB 

(^)  B   om.  diii  j.  (^r)  Altered  in  A  to  J^.  (^)   B  om.  ^!\ 

4U\  <^.  (^)By_5.  (^°)  AB  Ul  (H)  V^Vo  added  in  marg.  A. 

OY)   B   J^.  OA)   B    4»  \  JuP^\^  Jj.  (^)   B   c5j^  t5>U. 

(^"•)    A    adds    in    marg.    j>A£  ^\  4./>^\c>  ^   .Vil  ^>'0\  ci  ^=>\  VI 


-4 


<  AU 


\i\  4»*j 


0\ 


Jl     \i 


4« 


must  read 
0)  B  \->V 

(°)  B     ^  ^ 


CO  A 


,  ^  instead  of  \t  ^.  (n)  B 

(r)  A  ^,  B  dilj.  .  (^)  A 

-        ^^  A  adds  in  marg-  j->^.  aa-        ^Y^  A  in 

B  ^.  W   B  om.             00    B    .rjj.             (\\)  B  U*j  . 

^i\,  \f  0^)  B   J3l            O4-)  B  ^U,            0  °)  B  om. 

~M     \Vi.  (^)  Altered  in  A  to    ojVo-^   by  a  later  hand. 

,   B   Uii\.  (»A)   B   om.    *^\  jA^,^  .            (^)  In  marg.  A 

(r-)  B    *.  (r\)  B  5VU\.  (rr)  B 


B  s 


tlY 


f 


» 


\o 


\i\i 


^  ^o.^^  y\.  (n)  B  f^.  OY)  B  \3^.  0A)  B  om.  j^. 

0)  B  om.  (0  A  adiis  in  marg.   ^U-^-  (7)  B^^-  (1)  AB 

om.   Suppl.  in  marg.  A.  (°)  Written  in  A  with  tashdid.  0)  B  c^.V,. 

(V)   A  in   marg.  adds  Oyu-  .  (A)  B  ^j.  C1)  A  Jr>\,  .  0  ')  B  ^ 

^  .         0»)   A        \.         (^)   B  (K)  B         '        (U)  B        « 


B        ^o.  r     A   in  marg. 

jij,  but  there  is  no  indication   of  the  place  where  these  words  should 
be  inserted.   Probably  they  are  intended   to  follow   \rj^.^  in  which  case  wre 


lu 


0\ 


fi    ULf    \9 

\  J.^   ^  ^.   ciW(U)  4U\    o^"\   11  >.V\ 
VL\  ^^i  3/S"jt 
\  4:       sU  J  AU 


W    4fl\ 

V\  \p 

C*    ^>\\    JO 


(^)  B  ij^Tj.  (r)  B  icviac..  (^)  This  passage  (which  I  must  leave  as  it 
stands)  occurs  again  in  A  fol.  84&,  1.  G,  where  the  text  runs:  'jAs^  A.<?  >j>  ^fc? 
^j  '\f^j  _^  Ail4  4.J  t5 J^ \  J*^  JL-*  (l)  A  Ojij\£j,  B  ojij^ .  (°)  A  in 
marg.  A\=»ji\  ki.  0)  B  adds  i\j>^\  ia-i  J.^..  (Y)  A  in  marg.  ^x^,  B 
^-y£.  (A)  B  pL.  0)  B  ^.  0  ')  A  in  marg.  o~~>.,  B  o-^>>-. 

(^)B0^.        0°)Bj\5 


9jV\   £j>    j    J^,JcAf.G4a 


o    > 

£_•?-£    fVL—j,    <jT~'L?    L>  '*  ' 

4jiaj  dJio  J&  ,ji-i  4.1  ^^j  ^i  AaViaj^  3^v^y\  ^y^^  ^3  VA^ 

"*  >     *  o>0  T"  "°  "    \"    ^i," 

^   • .  **-a  j     -9j     ^*  k*"      °  ^ 


Jyl 


U 


C->j   H  c-ii^    '  c:-^yv^   <•*«•»•} 


(A  fol.  956,  1.  8).  (\Y)  The   following  text  begins  in  B   on  fol.  43b,  1.  1. 

(>A)  B 


0)  B   diii^.  (r)  B  >j  js..  (^)  Kor.  G4,  16.  (i)  A  Uj\  ^ 

(°)   B    ^  ^U.  0)    Kor.   7,32.  (V)   B  ^.  (A)   B  om. 

0)  B  JAtt.  00  B  om.  jV*i  4«\  <^j  ^\  J\5.  (^)  Bdlli  J 

(\0  B^.  0?)  B^b.  (^)   B   ^ii. 

10 


lit 


t  Awa       4. 


(^)  B  om.  ^^  ^1  J\5.         (0  A>c,  B   app.  ^  .         (^)  B 
I1)  B  V^j>.  (°)  B  om.  (^)  B  JuT,  <^*-j.  (Y)  A  adds   AJ. 

(A)   B          V,.        (t)  B  <*.        0  ')  B      o>fr.        (\\)  B  (\r)  B  \; 


(^)  B  ^.  (^)  After  V9  B  has  a  word  which  looks  like  dl*.  .  (\°)  B 
(n)  Here  B  breaks  off  on  the  last  line  of  fol.  90a.  The  next  words  J 
•<£\  1^  »VU  (fol.  90&,  1.  1)  occur  near  the  end  of  the  o^wi\  v_jb\ 


>\\  V 


\> 

W 


A!   AiO^i   ^  A]  A  f.  636 
V-  4«\ 


(\)  B  om.  (0  B  \^ViJu.\.  (^)  In  A  orig.  ^^VV  The  word  is  partially 

obliterated  in  B.  (*•)  B   ^y^\.  (°)  B  om.  <a\  <^j  g^\  jVd. 

0)  B         ,\».  (Y)  B      jy.  (A)  B  U.  H)  B  UJ\.  00  B      ^ 


itr 


J\i<< 

ju:$ 


ci\ 


J\s, 
<(T>  < 
J  ^.UJ, 


>- 


4fl\ 


)  ^  J^\  UV 


U 


V. 


4s 


Jc 


0)  B 


B  om.        t1)  B 


jp.  4»\.        (f)  B  ,v^o  for  <UJ\ 
B,V:i\j5.  0)  B  ^V\.  (Y    B  om. 

B    ^.          00  B  j^.          (\\)  B  ^^i^.          OT)  B   a.         m   B  om. 
<V5-^  ^li\  J^.        0*0  A  iL.  with  _XLw  in  marg.  as  variant.        0°)  B 

B 


Ill 


J>. 


Vl    30\  VA       i\^\  V^V^  ^         i.        4ii\ 


d\  V*          t 


O*.  O  - 


(^)  Kor.  59,  9.         (r)   Suppl.  above.         (^")  Suppl.  in  marg.         I1) 
(°)    ^-    with  «_jV>  written  above.  ("^)  j>\.  (Y)  Here  B  resumes  on 

fol.  87&,  1.  8.  (A)  B  L*jd\.  (^  B  om.  from  ^\>  to  w\  ±s 

(\0  B  .  0*)  Kor.  66,  6.  00  B        .  (^)  B  om. 


^4 


it 


\J\   V 

sr^ 

\J\i\9 


A& 


j«i^    4)1\    J^-j    ^    Wj 

j  ^*J   JTU 


ay. 


Jp 


>^ 


V\ 


O 

J\3 

^  w.\     vjt 


.  .->  . 

O*-    ^      ^        O 


-^  vw  U 


^  '  J^-    li 


f.62« 


si   ^  ix^     «L? 


«Lp 


In  marg. 


m  <  -     » 


r>  <!_ji\  ju*  ^  [jo. 

Jr  jfl.  ^  ^  villi  [ 

&1    t  u-^0 


>  __  |    31—  * 


^     Atf 


H)  -Jl  »-  s'  *'*' 

^A.    J^^_ 


^  J\j  -Lp 


^j  ^  c^-^  ^A  ViVj    *l^ 
^  U 


-  -  \° 


-\  I   U  JU3  \f£  ji  \^i\  r  4.u*  \Jb   c 


»-^     oU      *i^ 


<»i  ,<y  r-i>  .v.^  r- 


^)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (0   ^  (probably  a  misreading  of  (^.jJ=^' 

Suppl.  above.  (^  Kor.   74,  8—9. 


4-ic 


4» 


0\ 


i    u  ^(r) 


f.  61ft 


r>j  J\5 


(\)  jC  corr.   in  marg.  (0  Suppl.  in  marg.  (^)    In  marg.  J. 

(^)    In    marg.    «6y».  (°)  Apparently  altered  to  i>Vp.  C1)  I  have 

supplied  these  words  which  the  sense  of  the  passage  seems  to  require. 
(V)  Orig.  A*j,  but        has  been  stroked  through.  (^)  Kor.  45,  20. 


yw 


u  A 

jy  '^j  O$ 


^    *J 

j    i 


A»\  lcM       ,   Ai  jo  V*       ^lu:  <dc       UT  4il\  iaLj    i  ^  VI 


iL   o 


0)   Suppl.  above.  (0  In  marg.  ^r^-  (^  —  c-f  •  (i)  In 

marg. 


ju  «] 


111,    ( 


i*  5\  J\i  _, 


4\i\ 

\i 


V. 


0\ 


a,  » 


fU> 


0  ^  '*  jv,  -     .T^    Vu  «  4*  4tt\        ^L    !\ 


\» 


j  j\~>Y\  u-^jo  ujj  i  O&J 


marg.   ^.  (*•)  Suppl.  in  niarg. 


(°)  The  last  letter  has  been  erased.  0)  In  marg.  <u  jL-  (Y)  VJ 

(^)  Suppl.  above.  0)  A.  Jo  .  0  *)  ^jj  suppl.  above. 


i, 


1\  ^L-j    J\3 


y  ^y  J^  315  \ 

XP-    4)J\    ^j  j  J     J\    c 


\o 
>         .    .n»  . 


A.i\   4.x£   L£/,    4J\3   4iP   <U)\  ,<>^,   +\yp\   &\  CX^-  _^j^  V-«J^    l  dI)3Af.59& 


>_.WJ\  Jc  JJj  k^  O^VU\  rC\  j    ut 
^«o  ')  U  4*  «\  " 


o  ,  Ic.    ?    0Jj  a_JLj  4.^   4)1  \ 


*'   »'   J^J    *^J    ((^» 


(^)  _j  suppl.  below.  (0  4»\  added  in  marg.  (^)  \^-i.^>-  corr.  in  marg. 
(*•)  vJ^j  altered  to  ^J3j\j.  (?)  ^  .  In  marg.  ^sJ.  C1)  So  above.  The 
orig.  reading  seems  to  have  been  i\p\.  (Y)  J^^.  Ibn  Sa'd,  IV  (1),  173,  20 

has  yt  J^^i  o^v-^.  (A)  ^.  C*)  Altered  to 

corr.   to  ^£.  (^)  Suppl.  in   marg.  Or) 


-U?  ^cM 


U 


.       ^ 

C\       4\1\    t 


rl> 


O\JL 


;  0 


^  ^  <xP  4\i\  ^s>j  Af.59a 
3    <-^   A\i\ 


Suppl.  in  marg.  (0  In   marg.  ^  *\ 

u-  L$>W-  '  (^)  Kor.    15,  43.  (l)  Suppl.  above. 


J\3   ^j      si«?  <UJ    liW    411 


-«i^>  «uj\  Jj^»j  o\j  \j\  J&  M^all  JA\  ^  ^u^  <^.  4ii 

'  J^jJ  >  t5j  V  ^t  ^  l.(1)  J^i   dlS 


^3     JU      t^v 


10^  \j\j  A-JiSj  iL> 


/  ^rci^   -U^a.J    AU> 


411 


J»\  rU=  y. 


Kor.  2,  274.  (0  Kor.   6,  52.  (f)  After  ^^  in  marg. 

5  J\  ^^ .  (*•)  Kor.   18,  27.  (°)  Kor.   80,  1-2.  (^)  In 

marg.   <Jo.\  ^  <uo\  ^Ic  ^  W_/>  •  ^Y^  ^riS-   \f~h>-  ^  Orig.  4/J^, 

but  corr.  by  later  hand.        0)  Altered  to  ^J^\.        0')  _/J\.        (u)  Suppl. 
in  marg.  (^0  Written  above.  (")      u»   written  above, 


411 


/\    U 


411 


j 


V. 


14 


JJT-J  u^S  A 


(0  Suppl.  above.  (^)  ^_j\^\  jfi  j  written  above. 


Suppl.  in  marg. 


\  ^  \ 


)>  OVi 


i    ** 


»    Jp    L-«3j 


l   4.'\ 


\o 


VJ   4.J\   J\ij 


>^  V\  b-i 


4il 


(^)  In  raarg.   ^V,  .  (r)  Kor.  3,184.  (?)   Kor.   3,  132.  (M     \ 

(°)  In  marg.  ^  diU>  jp  ^  J^L   ,j^  *\  *»  <^\  ^j  Jr 
0)   V«ki?.  (Y)  Kor.  33,  72. 


t*&    4\1\ 


<  -    -X.O 


A\l\    ^^"^     * 
.  O^    4\S\ 


^  A^U 


c   IAC-    J\3    J!AJ, 


UV\Af.57a 

Jp 

Jo 


In  marg.  Sj^-^\  P^V\  «v»«j     .  (r)  Text  om.  (^)  Inmarg.  iA. 


(iUJ\ 


fvC\ 


!^    U\\ 


*L? 

Ar 

5i\^:\  >\  <,  j, 


-  j\ 


> 

0 


J  -A, 


\° 


(^)  Marginal  note:   JcjlA  Va^VL*  ^A5  V/<:3c.  *ji\  pyj_j  iV\  O!A  ^V^  V»  ^J&  ,j\ 
^aVi^J.  (0    Suppl.   in   marg.  (^)   Suppl.   above.  (l)  Vj\»«. 

(°)  Kor.  18,  64.  0)  Kor.  18,  66.  (Y)  Suppl.  above.  (A)  Suppl. 

in  marg. 

9 


r  A 


ialc   A9 

JUP 


Vc   ."\ 


V. 

\j  «IL>  y>j  *\ 


4 

^5         .,     4,'»\    4AP    {J^^    V^    i*\ftU-Vlj 

J-  0\ 

j^^ui^  <iY\  da  ^jy  Jc  ^\  ^   ^Oll   gjJCj   ^^M   Jc   - 


)  Snppl.  in  marg.  (r)  In  marg.  «uj\*.  (^)  Suppl.  above. 

Kor.   2,  131, 


\  TV 


4« 


J 


U  J\i\ 


dl;-C' 


4  4il 


V\ 

\    4^J     4AJ\     JuP    ^     J^M,    J\3 

r 


(^)  Altered  to  V»U .  (r)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (^)  Text  om.  but  cf.  Qushayrl, 

1G9,  8.        (*•)  ,yu  written  above.        (°)  A  corrector  has  indicated  that  the  reading 
should  be  &*  J\.          0)  See   Tabari  I,  3006,  1  foil.          (V)  In  marg.   SJ^u  , 


ci\  *i 


t  VSi\  V;\  jJ    J 


After  ^JLl   in  marg.     \c  JUi  ^^     _. 

UA  dlli  _xxt.  (r)  Snppl.  above.  (^)  In   marg.   j>^U.  I1)  In 

marg.   ^ .  (o)  Altered  to    CX,.  (1)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (Y)      »    . 


J  ^) 


5  JU  A;,\  J^  ^ 


4tt 


i.    1 


V.  ixu 

•        •         >      \* 

Y\  i*u».  ^-^-.^i 

Lp   AaP 


411 


9«> 


j  Jp 


(^)  Suppl.  in  marg. 
by  a  later  hand. 


(0 


J  I  t^\  Jji;  )  ^iJ  V, 


u    4.i\ 


j   )Af.5 


Af.546 


but  has  been  stroked  through 


iJ^  JcO  \i\  {}$  *&   4U\Af.54a 
4., 


.,  rlc  CU  ^  ^  CVi  JT\  Ai\  [A^]^ 

4«\  i-*C-    l  -  V\ 


iP  4il 


(\)  Suppl.  in  niarg.            (r)\AJo\.            (^)  Kor.  10,  107.  (i)  Kor.  2,  147. 

(°)   Kor.   11,  8.              0)    J^  but  _5  has  been  erased.  (Y)  These   verses 

occur    in    the    Diwdn    of   Abu   'l-'Atahiya   (Beyrout,   1886),  p.  274,  9—11. 
(A)            \.             (^)           .             (\0  Diwdn,           t. 


J&j    Vf    4,J\ 

^1  V.  4fl\ 


U 


P  4jil 


Jp    5 


4il\ 


^-    4ii      c  i  t  4il 


(^)    Suppl.  in  marg.  (0  Suppl.  above. 

(°)  In  marg.    J    . 


„* 

irr 


tf  Ji\    U*j     4»\ 

U   Jj\    <5y    J 


J*\   J 

^^    si^s  4ii\  J^j  oU    Vx    -X*) 
r*^   ^^   ^-V\    v_jVft>J    Jc 


VI 


)  ^  4»\  e^ 

Jy  y-j  <  J\3  \fj\  il^  V,  dil  j>^  ^^  ^,U 


(\)  111  marg.  Vp  .  (r)   (5^-1  added  in  marg.  (^)  ^AW^  diii  Vp  . 

A  corrector  has  stroked  out  the  words  4^V\f*    and  has  written  <u/>   above. 
C1)   Altered  to  \^?  by  later  hand.  (°)  Suppl.   above.  (1)   Suppl.  in 

marg.  (Y)        ^  in  marg.  (A)  Kor.  8,  12. 


f  Oi 
l   v 

f  * 


A^ 


ll    (J^*-J    oV»    V)    <JVl    4^-    48  1 

li  CP-  4«\  c^>  ^  ^  >  (3  ^1^>>.  I 


Jj\  4«\  ^ 


\J\  0\  0\  i-J-^  ^>^  ^>j  V\  \ 


O  C 

Jy 


(^)   t5i\x*.        (0  Suppl.  in  marg.        (^)  In  marg.  o-sx^-i-.        (*•)  Orig.   jit- 
but  corrected.          (°)  Kor.  3,  73.          0)    ^\\  added   in  marg.          (Y)   cJ> 
corr.  in  marg.  (A)   Orig.   ^.>-J^\^  but  corrected. 


'\  ^Vx<T  ir. 


j   <Acub    A 
S^^S^    o/j^.\  ^J^  j 

cl 
0j?J  ^  -"bc5V\ 

Cu  au,i  s 


\r  jw 


0)    Suppl.    in   marg.  (^)    Altered  to   oyt\iai\  by  a  later  hand. 

)    L»-.  (^)    I    cannot    ascertain    the    correct  form  of  this  nisba:  it 

might  be  either          «>  or  ^ 


4A1 


A*? 


S>   iL  U  ^**    *Lp  4«\ 

4.-^  4«\  ( 

"  ^^  5r  : 


* 


)    4JU\    V^j 


Vi\     «1^ 


4il\ 


>*JuS1    <8'  Jj-^)  '-r'^'  '  _/^   J 


l  \o 


)  Jy  C\J    t  J&j 


(  \)  Suppl.  in  marg.       (0  Kor.  9,  101.      (^)  ^./l  corr.  by  later  hand.      (*-)  Owi^  • 
(°)  Kor.  56,  10—11.  (1)   Kor.  9,  73.  (Y)   \j>.  (A)  Suppl.  above. 

0)  The  penultimate  letter  of  j£\  is  pointed  in  the  text  both  as  ^->  and  Jj 


0s"  'HjS  ^  <>»•  o-&  ^^  *^j    *'     -r    < 


^     a).\  Ji_,  <  JU  4J1\ 

"^  J\i 

0\  J^ 


[AJLH    ? 


Jy 

CS  ol  ^  ^-j  < 
JU  <  JW  ^\S  vi  V^  U 


\o 


JU  0U 
°lr  Jlu  U\  J  5D»\ 


0)  Kor.  4,  87.  (r)   ^\.  (^)   ^^.  (i)  Suppl.  in  marg. 

^*tfW-        ^^  In  marS-  4^J3.        (Y)  Suppl.  above,        (A)  ^  corr,  in  marg. 


\  \  v    i  *U  <» 


CPU  ^  ^  jAii  \TfUiJ 


<« 


C 


V- 


(^)  The  original  reading  seems  to  have   been  d^*>..j  .  (r)  Kor.  18,  6. 

W  Suppl.  in  marg.  (*•)  In  marg.  ^I\i-  .  (°)  »i..J^\  added  in  marg. 

C1)  jj.  (Y)  In  marg.  ^jj.ai\.  (A)  Orig.  Jjjj.  u  ,  but   \*   has  been 

stroked  through.  (^)      ^1  corr.  in  marg. 


A 

I      *  Al  •   -     ,  •      I    .  .\\_..-         I       .1     , 
(**"*  c<-J 


y 


4.  AM 


-^]^)  J^  >   A!! 


U  i 

\  V- 

\I\ 


4»      4^  =  x^        t 


ob  U=» 


J  *VH 

.y 


JU  4«\  [Jp 

o\  ^K^VWi^  J  villi  Ji-j  i  ->^o  ^  ^La  y,3  JV«1\  ^i 


^Af.506 


(\)  ^,    suppl.  in  marg.  after  ^"j^U..  (r)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (^)  In 

marg.  ^c-.  I1)  ^U  ^\  added  in  marg.  (°)  In  marg.  V^C*. 

0)  cU5\  written  above  as  variant. 


\  \  o     f4»»      c     -s     ji        v       j.^>- 


U    *L? 
o\  jJ^  Ju*  V;\  <J 


y  <s 


4U 


ULj      A^   ^, 

5  «  j\ 

\J\      V 


A& 


s^> 


P     4JU 


0\  JV^  r. 


411 


\          -      ^**^  ^    4  —  -3    4jt^J,    ^f   U5^    vSJu     Jl^ 

.  i/9* 

U,  \jU 


0)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (r)  In  marg.  ^^  ji  .  (^)   Snppl.  above. 

•)  In  marg. 


\    \ 


^  Jy  # 


'k\  u  ^LJ 


4., 


* 


,;ic\  u  0^ 

JU  U  j^.  V-S  y  Vd  Caj\  jW\  ov.  ^ 

4il\    A.^l>-    U^    cl\-» 

\  VI  ^.Ul  JU\ 


0)  c-Jo    corr.  in  raarg.  (0  4»\*P\    suppl.  in  marg.  after  di!j>. 

)  Kor.   47,  21.  I1)  Kor.   20,  113. 


i  /""^  [5 


a    *1^>  <uj\ 

J^\  oJ^f-  J 

di. 


r  i  A. 


»         ^  Uii     ,do> 


Af.48& 


'J*  ^ 

*  ~~~     I  I 

\Va  .*\\  \\i  "          U  5i^     ^       1L.\\     -.U,       :<i   ".N   ,.\\  *x^0) 


\o 


Kor.  96,  19.  (H   ^c-  corr.  in  marg.  (^)  Snppl.  in   marg. 

written  above  instead  of  j.  (°)  In  marg.  i\).  0)  In  marg. 

(^)  In   marg.  ^_^ftA,  . 

S 


^-  j  yi-aJ\  J.«>\  oUafJUv.  j  v-iV,  iSSI  L-jViT"    I  \ 


.,  j^  jlj  <3>t  dij  ;>i5\  ^  3^  A?  3^  A 


u\  \*\>,  ^ 
.  SO  »jl   <L. 


*J\L 


-         44,. 


0)   Snppl.   above.  (0  Kor.  18,  17.  (^)  Orig.   0^  but  corr.  by  later 

hand.  (*•)  Kor.   17,  1.  (°)  Kor.  4,  113.  0)   \j^.  snppl.  above 

after  \xL  •  (Y)  Kor.  52,  48.  (A)  Kor.  3,  200.  0)  Kor.  39,  13. 

0')   wJb,  corr.  in  marg.          (\\)   Kor.   16,  128.          OO.jA=.          (^ 


\\\ 


0 


i)j 


3  r 

dj(A)  o^i  JiJ\  UD  Jju  OP  JU.  dius   , 


JJ  ^5  Jl 

u 


u 


*U 


o*    oi0i) 


(\)   ^,  but  corr.   above.               (r)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (^)  Kor.  37,  102. 

I1)  Kor.  93,  5.            (°)  Kor.  20,  119.            I1)  Kor,  20,  120.  (Y)  Kor.  38,  24. 

Text  has>i9.             (A)  Kor.   38,  33.            0)  Kor.  9,  43.  00  Kor.  48,  2. 

(\\)   JV^,   but   corr.  by  later  hand.         0  r)  Suppl.  above.  0?)   Kor.  4,08. 

(^)  Kor.  48,  10.         0°)  Kor.  8,  17.         (n)   J^  suppl.  in  marg.  after   id. 


45*!  o-- 


U 


J\a 


U      \ 


°rU(U)  JU 
' 


r. 


)  Kor.  41,  53.  (0  Snppl.  in  marg.  (^)  Kor.  20,  26—27.  (*•)  Kor.  94,  1. 
(°)  The  marginal  note  ends  with  two  words  which  appear  to  be  U*  J^J  . 
0)  Kor.  26,  87.  (Y)  Kor.  66,  8.  (A)  Kor.  94,  6.  0)  Kor.  6,  75. 

00  Kor.  7,  184  (quoted  incorrectly).  (U)  Kor.  30,  7.   Kor.   has   jj;^. 

00  Kor.   88,  17.  (^)  Kor.   25,  47.  0*0  Kor.  4,  124. 


j 

£-    4JVI  ulUJ 


4il\ 


w 


\ 


c    Ja\      \   \1.\ 


V. 


y  o    -        -.-"c  0^"     >    ^  >          *  .      % 

JCvP    ^0    ^^^      ^P      -^,     f^^J     a*^"J     ^ 

0)  _j,  but  corr.  in   marg.  (0  Snppl.  in  marg.  (^)  Suppl.  above. 

-)   In  marg.  U_j.  (°)  C^  written  above  as  variant.  ("^)  Kor.  12,  108. 


snppl.  above.  (Y)   <u\\.  (A)  >>•?.  >*•"•  ^   Kor.  ^>  ^8. 


\  *  A 


(5  A\\  j 


U 


Jb 


'.466 


Suppl.   above.  (0  In  marg. 


Suppl.  in  marg. 


V        (iij/\  J»\  o\k 


Orig.  ^j.,  but  corr.  by  later  hand.        C")  In  marg. 

(*•)   Suppl.  in  marg.  (°)  Suppl.  above.  0)  The   words  AX,\  i«*j  have 

been   altered  to  dx>\  ,-^j  and  i?-.  has  been  added   in  marg.  after  <uj). 
(Y)  Text  om.  (A)  o.  suppl.  above  after 


f 

\  j\  : 
>\  uu  ;   \,  y\»4«  >\ 


Jj\ 


\o 


v\       J  ^  U*    f  U\  ^,\        Cl  oji4 


'JP-   j-^-  A  f. 


)  kl^U.  (0   Kor.  4,  84.  (^)  ^,>"  .  (*•)  Kor.  4,  85. 

In  marg.  S>J\.  (^) 


\.o 


V. 
U 


5 


u  ic  ju-  «\      dUi  ^  yc  [u     ]^   * 

\         \f  V\    ' 


Suppl.  in  niarg.        (^)  Orig.     Ui»  but  corr.  by  later  hand.        (^)  In  marg. 
.  (*•)  Kor.  47,  26.  (°)  ,s.  (" 


U 


fe  j4*M0  o-jt^j    i  L^tJUrfaSj^    AJ*Vl  oV-aVlU 
i  V.\  iou~  Jy*  j\  i***"  J^ 

;y  ^<C  o\  JU  4ii\  JL\ 

J^  >     ^\     JL\     0\     J 


i'VJ 


ic  J 


\      **«~       f      r  J>  O 


^     tf 

\- 


0)    Suppl.    in    inarg.  (r)    After  <u}\   the  words   jjii\  ^A*   have  been 

stroked  out.        (^)  \i.        (^-)  viWi   written  above  as  variant.        (°)  In   marg. 
.  0)  In   marg.   J>.  004,  (A)  In  marg.  J, 


U     L 


0s" 

O-\    JU  Ai\    4.-,£    4li\    t^    ^C*    C*    ^     ^    ^><>J    <C- 


J     o 


,    J^ 

U 


4il\  *-       ^*-u-\5i   dJlJL^^   ^Ato    Vljc,  J^L     4il\    4,«*j 

V,  \  i.*c-   J^i   A,f  a,    Jx*e-\  ^   \,  \    i-»«-j     « 

»j  Sly  4~*i;  Jc  iiJ\  j.^  ^ 


\  ° 


«U> 


)  In  marg.  \Jj  A,    f\c>  ^.Jo^.        (r)  In  marg. 

Snppl.  in  marg.         C*-)    ^Ji^j.        (°)  Kor.  24,  53.        C1)  Suppl.  above. 


4ii 


\    *V3\  U 


u    s 

J 


.  r 


viA>l\  <u*  J  ^U\  JW  ^  ^U          U 


0\ 


J       u 


4il  . 

\o 


iij  jc-   .jtU3  <UJ 

J  (jai^  i^ 

V.     -  jJl 


(\)   Kor.  5,  26.  (0  Kor.   21,  92.  (?)  Kor.  2,  38.  (*•)   Kor.  59,  7. 

/0)  Suppl.  in  marg. 


.    \ 


A;  1 


JW   J  dJiii    4c>jj     1    J\iJ    4JU\ 


CbJO        i 


\S\  Vj\  Ji*s  JVs_,  i^lll  a^A  ^   x, 


^)    uv-'-j  written  above  as  variant.          (0    Snppl.  in  marg.          (») 
In  marg.  V»^  diii  ^i\.  (°)   Kor.   33,  41. 


V. 


\  . 


^  dL-i  ^        V. 


,   ^>   \JAf.43« 


0)  In  marg.  \     ^.  (0  Orig.  ^^3  ^JlA  diiis.  The  words  ^ 

have  been  stroked  through  and  ^Jii*   has  been   altered   to   ^^jix9. 
(^)    Suppl.    above.  (*•)    Here    is    a    marginal    variant,    which  has  been 

partially  destroyed  by  worms:  it  appears  to  be  ^     .        (°)  US  written  above. 


1     Va     i — lU 


yhf,-,-1'"11 


f  * 


o(Y) 


\ 


1J\ 


A.1   ^L,    k 


JSV, 


*i^3 


\)  In  marg.  ^.^.  (r)  After    ,Vo  in  marg.   A\i\  Jj>....  (^)   £\. 

Kor.   15,  98-99.  (°)   ^;K  (1)  Suppl.  above.  (Y)  Kor.  68,1-4. 


>\  J  *U 


J.C  C~, 

J\  6- 


Jo 


L  Aj  -s.^ 
>  ^^  J^  J  V\ 


g-  ^ 


i^iV.  V\    u 

jr  "Ic 


j  -ub 


0)  B   *^A>.          (')  AB    au~  .         (")   B   ^«.         (t)  B    «k\\.         (°)  B   41*1. 

c  r 

0)  B  om.  (Y)  AB  om.  Suppl.  in  A.  (A)  B  app.  ^A, .  0)  B^L. 

00  Here  ends  in  B  the  «uj\  J^-'^.  P^V\^  S^-'V1!  ^Vx^  (B  fol.  87&,  1.  7). 
The  words  ^^  ^  are  followed  immediately  by  the  title  of  the  next  book 
viz.,  Vj.voi\  wj\^\  ^\£.  The  omitted  portion  extends  from  A  fol.  417;,  1.  15 
to  A  fol.  G2a,  last  line.  0^)  j.»\  corr.  in  marg.  00  Suppl.  in  marg- 


ji 


_,\ 


\\; 


*V 


«L? 


U 


oi 


i   j«i^ 


^1^ 


(^)  B  U.  (H  B  __^.  (^)  B  om.  (*0  B  cV*i.  A  adds 

in  marg.  (°)Bj£>^js^.  0)6^..  (Y)  B  Jc.  (A)  B 

(^)  A  4^.  (\')  So  pointed  in   A.  (^)  Kor.  33,  28.  00  B 


* 


v. 


JU  4«\  5\  JV*  *\  ^  ^  ^  ^(°)  ^  4^  £,\\  JV^) 

|>U*3j    4M\j    r<£"\   fcVj\J    4j,\    ^<UP    ^J    Jl^0)    t^^Jli    ^oJ\ 

^A  W*  OLT    O^  Cnj  klUS"-  J^  ^  A*^  ^^  J>-j   o^   ^   £  ^(1) 


0\ 


JU 


i£^j  C»i  " 


j  <\£&  Loll 


4* 


^*"  *•!>  f 


411 


\o 


AZO.  •)  B    J^l*.         (W)  B   3^  ^\t        (\A)  A   yVL.        (^)  B  \&0. 

(rO  A  o\  with  &j  Y^  suppl.  in  marg.        (r\)  B  45^.        (rr)  B  ^^1. 

(^)  B  ^4.  (r)B  Jq>_5jt-  4U  o->U>.\  (5Ji\.  (t)U  suppl,  in  A.  (l)  Bom. 
^\\\  <u-J  jli\  JVi.  (°)  B  ^JJ?.  0)  B  J.  (Y)  B  om.  (A)  B  \1*  J, . 
(^  B  Vi\*.  (\  •)  The  words  from  ^^  to  ^  ex^\  are  suppl.  in  marg.  A. 

0*)  A   om.  (\H  A  ^c  ^ji.  (^)  B  ^.jj.  (\i)  B  \^   for  ^ 

^  SiJ-.^-  The  words  la.9  ^,   are  suppl.  in  marg.  A.  0°)  B  di^j>  ^ . 

(^)  B    ,U^,.  Oy)  B   Ali. 


1  0      (  f^o 


iLJ 


\  Jy 


- 


l,  Vc  Oj.'\  *\i;5V? 


«i  j 

s  u  iiiiu?  u    ^  Ja^  v* 


jA^ 


V. 


0 


\o 


V. 


B  om. 


(°)  B 
(A)  B 


£>  jt.        (0  B   o/i  J>.        (^)   Kor.  33,49. 
^\  ^,Jo  J.  0)  B  ^\.  (V)  B  om. 

B  <ui\.        (^)  In  A  ^  is  suppl.  after     i  . 
B  app.         -    .        0^)  B  om.        (^)  B 


B  C 
\°)  B 


x4 


J^> 


^  V1 


(\)  B  adds  Jc  4»\  j-o  .        (0  Kor.  59,  7.  B  ^  .        (^)  B  om.        (*•)  B  adds 
;U  us.  f\f  Uj.        (°)  B  fVf  for  ^  ^.        0)  B   J^sJ.        (V)  Kor  59,  7. 
)  Kor.  7,  158.        0)  Kor.  24,  53.        0  •)  Kor.  24,  63.  A  ^V,        0  \)  B  0/3  J*;'. 
0  B    ou-Jli.  (^)  B   a\;.  (\i)    B   ^  <Jc  ^J\  ^U  ^\J\  J^. 

Kor.  3,  29.  OT>  B  O'^.  (W)  B<&\  ,  .  (\A)  Kor.  33,  21. 


B  Ai^i.  (r>)  Kor.   24,  55.  C"\)   Kor.  43,  42.  (IT)  B  ^».\   . 


4_\i\ 


u  ii^  p\  g\  3^3 

f  ,j\  tfjJS  i^y*) 

*£O^  ^ 

\  A      A53  t^^         v* 

^  f 


.-U 


A. 

b    J      f  4U>-j    4JJ^>«^^    *'    4,)\jt9^    <i^<>L    *A^\2    ^'^ 

\  v         j\    *  u 


t  C 


(^)  B  ^io_j  (j.  (OB  om.  W  B  A)i\  J^-J.  (l)  B  om.  J\5 

*ii\  4^j  £i\.  (°)  B   o/i  Jc>.  0)  Kor.   7,  157.  (Y)  In   A  $£ 

has  been  altered   to   j^\  and   J\  suppl.  in  marg.  before  it.   B  om.   J\  but 
has  jijA.  (A)  B   JW  J\l.  (^  Kor.   42,  52—53.  (\  •)  Kor.  53,  3. 

(\\)  Kor.  62,  2.  (\0  B  ^$2^  ^<)\.  (^)  B  om.  from  ^  to 

(^)  BA.V\.  0°)  Kor.  5,  71.  (H)  B  om.  Jc^  jp  ^\ .  (\Y) 

for  «N\  ,.  (\A)  B     U.  (^)  Kor.  24,  53. 


j  vr-V  15$  -.V^  ir 


o* 


\  VI     ti  v 


\S\  ° 

Jt 


u 


0)  B   JJj.  (0  B   j»J  Aiy.            (^)  Kor.   2,  205.            (*•)  B 

(°)  B  Jc.^  JP.  0)  Kor.  5,  21.            (Y)  B  adds  Vli    J,  >io  .            (A)  B  om. 

W   Kor.   27,34.  00  A  V^Al,    corr.  by  later  hand.                00   B  V(J. 

00   B  <C/L.  (^)  Kor.   27,  90.         0*0  Kor.  42,  28.         (\°)  B 

OT>  AB         ^.  (W)   Kor.   47,  32.            0  A)   B  \J*. 


A 


f 

A  U  JL  VA)  *;  V\  JV;  U  j;      ,\      0  « 

.  v\ 


^u  4J5  J\a  > 


f  Jtij\  r  Uj  JW 


;  U    »3  s 


B  om.  (r)   Kor.  26,  78—80.  (^)   B    ^.J^.  (*•)  B  om,  from 

to   t5Ji\^_5  o^s-  ^  0\.  (°)  B   o^.  0)  A  om.  ^  ^. 

(V)  B  AsJSC  .        (A)  A  U  _,.        (^)  Kor.  26,  83.        00  A  &,  .        (\  \)  B  ^  jp. 
(\r)  Kor.   13,28.  0?)  B   adds  ^i\\  Ji^  -ui\^l  V^.  (ll)  A  om. 

0°)  Kor.  24,  30.  (H)  B   u-^\.  (w)   B  om.  *x\  ^  ^\\. 

(\A)  B   J*)  ^i.  (^)  Kor.   50,  3G.  (r")    B  om.  from   J\\  _,\   to  X^  . 


J  JbJ>     »L-     J 

*  * 

J  \k^\5  U;  ^ 
5  U  C 


-    ,  ii\--(f)  «\  ^  V.<T>  f  JB 


4il 


Af.386 


0)    B  om.   A\i\   «^    >,Li\   jVi.        (0  B   YW.        (^  B  om.        (^)  AB 
(°)  B   JjJ.        0)  Kor.   21,83.        (Y)  B   jVJ.        (A)   Kor.  93,  6.        0)  B  o^^. 
(^•)  Kor.   18,  110.  0\)   B  ^lp^.  00  B  J^  JP.  (^)  In  A 

is  written  above  as  a  variant.  0*0  B  om.  di\3  ^ .  (\°)  B^. 

B   jV£3\  ^j.  OY)   Kor.  26,  89.  0  A)   The  words  from   jl   to 

are   written   in  marg.  B. 


A1 


r 


\  v\ 

\,jv\ 

\   \ 


^  .\ 


i  \i\ 


4S     AS- 


ii.  U, 


\i\ 


Jp 

"  <1  »i; 


.   jy  '.\  v     u  v  j3\  45-  j\  -ji  >('  l>  jg 

I  dJJj    JLX)    oJ.    ,5  Jl\ 


0)  B  ^  Jc>.  (0  B  L<:.  (^)  Kor.  20,  109.  (*•)  B  om. 

(°)  B  ,jVd.  0)  In  A_^b  is  written  above  as  a  variant.  B  ^A^.  (Y)  B  »^-. 
(A)  AB  <t-\.  A  in  marg.  \^\.  (^)  B  ^.  00  B  V^Jut.  0»  )  B  4. 
OH  Kor.  2,1.  0^)  A  ^\J>.  OM  Bj.  (\°)  B  om.  \  . 


^\i\    /vj    ,j.x>  * 

• 

^ 


r\ 


xv-J 


AA 


JVvyr)  j^v^  j^  ^  u  4»\      Vc  ujk  J^  > 


0) 


Af.376 


»*j  iuu>.  (A)  iuM/\  ctJU  V-  V^U,  1  ^  V^VJ 


(0  B   J^-Y^.  (^)  B    U.  («-)  B   om.   JV^ 

B   £^\.          0)  B   4i/j.          (Y)   B   U^.          ^A)   B  om. 

,        (^)  A  o\.        00 


AY 


t£a      C  Y\  y  " 


Jib 


-    :  ^  g. 


U 


\  j^f  it 

U      \  ^^  Jy  ci\  pA,  ^  >  " 

ipwWl^    U  *2i\    ^.«J\    Jy    j    JjJkiJ^    *;uiaL-\Af.37a 


(\)  Kor.  2,  30.        (r)  Kor.  3,  97.        (?)  B  ^J.        (^  B  ^\  .  (°)  Bom. 

from  \js\  to  «J|y.                  0)   B  om.                 (Y)  AB   J\5.  (A)  B  \^. 

(^)  B  adds  ^JP.           (\0  B  t5Ji\.            (\0  B   jU,  ^U  .  (\r)  Kor. 

4,68.           0?)  B        ?Ao.           (U)Bj>^>-           (^°)  B  adds  j  \,Jd:^  |T 

(H)   B   0\         .         (»Y)   B  1  J  t.. 


(1A)  B   ,v^Vj_5  ^c  .        (^)  A  J\.  The  reading  of  B  is  doubtful.        (r>)  A  om. 
from  J3.   to 


,  ^   V-     *r 


:;t  c\>o>     ^ 


0^  -Jo.0)  J\5 

o\U\     J5     c 


]>T    \V- 

^b    \.:UiAf.36& 


°*&\  C  ' 


\o 
r   i> 


(^)  AB  om.  from  o*  to  uii  .  The  words  are  suppl.  in  marg.  A.  (r)  A  om. 
^\  v-i-u.  ^.  (^)  Kor.  76,  21.  (l)  B  ^>y.  (0)'Bjy,.  0)  B  om. 
\^U  fj^i  .  (Y)  B  om.  ^y,  J  .  (A)  B  ^  ^  j.\\  .  C1)  B  ^J  for 

0/3  Jc>.  (^)  Kor.   23,  64.  0\)  B  Ovj,.  (^r)  B  om.  o^^  u^- 

(^)  A   Coi\-  (;i)  B   ^  ^U.  0°)  Kor.  64,  16.  (H)   B    ^. 

Ov)  B  om.  J\  ^j   £iJ\  JVi.        OA)   B   ^y«i.        (H)  B  \y£\.        (r-)   B  om. 


J»\ 


4. 


V,_,  j^-rt  \-. 


=>_j  3s"'0* 


f    « 


j   V        U   S^ 


)   B  adds  <w\.  (r)  Kor.   83,  24.  (^)   B   ^  .  (M  B   J\. 

B  0111.  C1)  B  L/i^  .  (Y)  Kor.  83,  25.  (A)   B  adds  <uU=-  ^ 

(^)   B  oin.  from  UL-&.  ^   to  pxjkl  J^^  Cr8-  ^'^  Kor,.  83, 

27-28.  0\)  B  i5Ji\.  (\r)   B  jfi.  (^)   B   ^\  J*\  ^^i  Jc. 

(\M  B  JaJj,.  0°)  B   CfcU.  (H)   B   ojSaJj.  (\Y)  B 

(\A)  A  V<-   and  so  app.  B.  (^)  B  iaJLu.U.  (rO  B  app. 

(n)  B  ^Jo\.  (rr)  Kor.   76,5.  B  ^  J&.  (r^)   Kor.   76,17—18. 

(ri)  Kor.  76,  20. 


At 


U 


ic  3  cJ,W 


icW\  Ac 


J  (5^j  ^  V-  viUi  Ji-UaJ^  tj  \i3Vl  ^Jj 

^JL  V^l\   V^   4« 
4-j  °j  gfl  U 


U 


B 


B    5 

A     J^^  oJSi  B  has 
23,63.        (\°)  B  om. 
(^A)  Kor.  83,  18—19, 


Kor.  23,62. 

0)  B   o^ 
')  B 


Af.SGa 


B       ul.  C)  B  om. 

(Y)   B  om.        (A)  B    \<J. 

B  JU  00  Instead  of 


Jy  . 


^)  Badds  A!!^>  Jc>  A\\.        O1)  Kor. 
~0  B  Jy.        (\Y)  Kor.  56,  10-11. 
Kor.  83,  22—23.  (r~)  B  C^Ac  but  corr.  above. 


Jb* 


r     t 


V.     ir-    k  A)  U<-  N  0V5V\ 


A  f.  35& 

\o 


(\)  B  om.        (0  AB  <,.        (^)  Kor.  23,  60.        (*0  B    Us.  (°)  B  o«\  J^j. 

0)  B  J*i'.            (Y)  Kor.  7,158.  B   \yj^.            (A)  B   ki-J,  .  (^)  B  ^iV,. 

(\  OB  0/3  Jo.            0»  )  Kor.  23,  61.  00  B  ^/ie.  0*)  B  iUs_k  • 

(\M  B       .           (^°)  B  adds  Jt>,  j*.  (n)  B  Jc>^  JP.  (\Y)  B  \^  iU. 
(^)  B   AX-. 


^- 

11  \  ^S    A9j    4U\    4^,    fcrH   JU  ( 


O        (3  J     f 

°      >   \      -     -    \\ 
W     jv-J  cj  JU 


(\)  B  ^io^  J.        (OB  om.  4Ji\  <^  >^\  JV5.        (^)  B  om.  C4-)  B  app.  J_j. 

(°)   B  ^J,^j.              0)  Kor.   17,  59.          "  (V)  Kor.  5,  39.  (A)  B  o^_, . 

(^)  Kor.   23,  57—58.             0')   B   j>Vi^U.             0\)  B  ^\.  (\r)   B   om. 

from  J\l9  to  ^y.        0^)  Kor.  23,59.        (^)  B  ^.^Vj.  (\°)  B  J^  jc>. 

(^)  Kor.   20,  G.            OY)  B            JP.            OA)  B          \\.  (^)  B 


A\ 


o  f       *>  f 


r.  o  (  j     t-  a 

^i\    >\  1°J  \S  0° 


>  fvJ\<n' 

C        (U 


0)  B   j.          (OB  Jt>.  j£.          W  Kor.   2,  2.          (*•)  B  ^ .          (°)  B  ^ 
0)  B  ^u^\.  (Y)  B  ^L.  (A)  B    ojTj>  Jc»  ^.  0)  Kor.   10,  36. 

(\-)  Kor.  10,  33.        '    (H)  B  ora.  00  B  Ji>jjs.  «u>\.  0^)  B  0 

(^)   Kor.   2,  2.         (^°)   B  <Ji\  15^\.         (n)   Obliterated   in  B.        (w)  A^i 
The  word  is  partly  obliterated  in  B.          0A)  Kor.  31,  26.          0*0  AB 

(r-)  B  ^o^. 


^ 


JJL*  <^  ^  Af.34« 


.\il\ 


U       l\  ^ 

/\  .{^  y\^\  ^^ 

4tt\ 


(\)  B  1=»U:^V\  ^U.  (r)  B  om.  from  ^i  J  to   ^,1    Ac\^.  The  words 

from  ^i  (j  to  Jo^\  ^  ^>j*-  Vc   are  snppl.  in  marg.  A.  (^)  B  om    \\3 

4»\  A*-J  ^ii\.         (1)  Suppl.  in  marg.  A.         (°)  B  \sJ^.         ("^)   B  ^A}  4=>_,U 
(V)   B  om.  (A)  B   Uc.  (t)  AB  \5j?  .  00  A  js^  Jc>. 

(^)   Kor.    26,  192-194.  (\r)    B    c>u^  £j,  OU,  ^JJil  ^  o^3  . 

(^)  B  ^.  (^)  B   <uu~>  A;V<^.  (\°)  B  J^  f  Aiy.  (\1)  Kor. 

17,  84,  OY)  Kor.  39,  1.  (\A)  B  proceeds:  ^\  ^  ^k<J\  J,J«  *  ^ 

S'  <0i\  ^  <5jtx-J  viLV^  jij*i\.  So  A  in  marg.  01)  Kor.  40,  1. 


0"')  A       \  o-          j.  (n)  A  app.   5.  (rr)  B 


Jjto  ^p  j 


j  4  _  Aa     __  _ 

\  ^  ,^SJ\  j^a."  "\c.^  (S-^\  y>_j    <Ja«i\ 

1^^   ^\    ^   ^U  ^  Jc 
JV5 


g\j\  ^.j  ^=-  A»  o\^iV,  i  J 

L         U 


0)  B  0,jJ\.  (0  B  J\>_,.  m  B  om.  (I)  A 

(°)  Altered  in  A  to  ^il  0)  B^jS\.  (V)  AB  &£".  W  B  . 

0)  B  ((V)c.          (*•)   B  gy.          (")  Altered  in  A  to  -£_J*~"  •          00  B 
4.;^aB-\.  (^)  A  corrector  of  A  has  drawn  his  pen  through  dJJi. 

01)  B  J\li.  0°)  B  r^J.  (H)  Kor.  50,  36.  OY)  B  . 
(^)  Kor.  39,  19.           (^)  A 


X* 

Vs 


oi) 

- 


\S\  y^  <rr>  JVsj,  <*"lXJ\  oU,  o-  '«'\  J*C\(n)  Jte  iiii£\, 

^  (^  9  3^5  ^  ^/\  tf^L.  ><rf)  jvs_,  <^J\  C.e 

O  ^^  J   3>,\%<ro)  JUfCi.\<r->  Cy(ri)  .^V^ 

(\)  B  om.  (0  Kor.  3,  13.          (?)  B  i,V\  oW    ^  j^.          (i)  B  ^W^ . 

(°)  Kor.  31,  3—4.  C1)   A  has  o^j  £j  (in  which  case  the  citation  is 

from  Kor.  5,  60)  but  ^^\j  has  been  stroked  out  by  a  later  hand  and  the 
words  jfl  Sy-^\j  added  in  marg.  Text  as  in  B.  (Y)  Kor.  18,  107. 

(A)  Kor.  16,  99.  0)  B  iV\.  (^)  B  om.  .^  jc.  <a\j.  (\  \)  Kor.  23,  1—3. 
(^)  B  £\  ^  OiJ.\\  J\ii  ^lo^.  (^?)  B  ^*S_5.  (\^)  Bom.  ^  jT^c.. 
(^°)  Kor.  23,  10—11.  (H)  B  ^  ^.  (w)  B  ^\  JL^.  (\A)  A  ^f 
(^)  A  AJ\ii\.  (r-)  B  om.  (r\)  Kor.  35..  25.  (IT)  Kor.  3,  16. 

0"?)  Kor.  39, 12.  (tt)  B  UU\.  (^°)  Kor.  3,  5.  B 


Af.33« 


0)  B  J^jt.  (0  B  J.  «  B  j,J\.  (1)  B  ,/ 

)  B  ^Wp.       0)  B  om.  «U^  ^\  J\5.        TO  B  j^,;.       (A)  B 
.  0)  B  om.  (»OB\t.  ("J 


0*)  B   yS^l.  (^)B^J,.  (r-)B>jjt.  (H)  Kor.  45,  22. 

(1"0  B  JV5  V^j.  (")  Kor.  18,  27.  (ri)  B  adds  U»y  ,^\  <g  3. 

(r°)  Kor.  7,198.  (")  B  adds  OsUV/1  os-      >-]>-  (rV)  Kor.  3,12. 

(rA)  B 


VI 


'^  ol°r) 


<i(ro) 
ol 


'„    \0 


(rO  A  ^iy.  (r^)  Kor.   2,  1.  (r*0   Kor.  2,  62. 

(^)  Kor.  2,  38.  (0  Kor.  2,  38.  (?)  Kor.  3,  169.  I1)  Kor.  2,  145. 

(°)  Kor.  2,  147.  B  J^iV,.          0)  Kor.  5,  26.         (Y)  Kor.  5,93.         (A)  Kor. 
29,69.  (^)  B  adds  iVV  (^')  Kor.  27,  40.  (u)  A  adds  in  marg. 

<a\  Jtu-  J  ^a;^    k^\,  \jAftW_,  ^Vfcj  ^\  Oi^  O^  (Kor-  8>  73)- 
(\r)  Kor.  3,  140.  Kor.  has  *^\j.  0?)  Kor.  98,4.  (^)  B  om. 

0°)  Kor.  33,  23.  O1)  A  adds  in  marg.  <uj  Jj~*^  \^«^  ^y.^^  V^V.  ^y^ 

\l  f\^  \j>\  J^^  (Kor.  8,  24).  (\Y)  B  l%l  (\A)  B  adds 

(\t)  Kor.  4,  79.  B  om.  J5.  (r<)  Kor.  3,  12.  B  om.  dlii. 

(r^)  B^\iU  (rr)   Kor.  6,  32.  W  Kor.  3,  182.  (!"*•)  Kor.  42,19. 

(r°)  Kor.  35,  6.  (^)  Kor.  45,  22.  (rv)  B  om.  the  rest  of  the  verse. 

(rA)  Kor.  79,37-38.  (H)  B  ^^  ^  f\3u  ^W  &  U^  ^^  J>  ^  OU 

(Kor.  79,  39-41). 


** 

I 


J\  'J&\  C\  rf'(A)  J\a 


S^VxsJi  <u~ii   wliich  occur  in  the  chapter  entitled  oU\^a\U  *^o_^\  <j  A»\i  \  ^nt 

(A  fol.  63&,  last  line).  The  text  of  B  resumes,  without  any  lacuna,  on  fol.  69&,  1.  1. 

0)  Kor.  27,60.        (r)  B  J&.        (?)  Kor.  22,74.        (*•)  B  J^  .        (°)  B  om. 

0)  B  o^.  (Y)  B  ^\  oj^.  J-  (A)  Kor-  35>  29-  (^  B  om-  the  rest 

of  the  verse.        OOBj^u.        (^)  A  Vik^>Vl.  B  VikoV\ 

0^)  B  J^j*.  (\i)  B  ^  J\5.  (^0)  B  J. 

^  O^.  ^U^V  0^)  B  l^j  f.  W  B  Ji-J\.  0  A)  Kor.  5,  52. 

B   JfGj,  and  ^  has  been  suppl.  in  A.  (u)  Kor.  5,  53.  (rO  B  om. 

_5  Jiks.  (ri)  Here  A  inserts  in  marg.  ^U\  V^.  jU,   ^\  sij\jV\  ^  *->Vj 


Vi 


'  J^J  >  ^  ^  V 

\Si        liSl     \J\         uJ^     3  JuJ\ 


4AJ,\    ^    J^  4« 


3  j\ 


CU  f\s\        dili    c  (r) 


V. 


J  u-ij  , 

^  jr  jv; 


A\!\ 


(\)  Kor.  26,  88—89.         (r)  B  om.  from  £  to  A-  ^Ji  ^  *X>.         (^)  Kor 
37,  81—82.  (*•)  B  om.  (°)  B   •/!    yii\  ^  AjV^  0)  B  app.  AJ\. 

(Y)  B  J^jc.  Ali.        (A)  Suppl.  in  marg.  A.  B  j\^\  o^  .49.        (^)  A  proceeds 
U  Aii\^i>  A9_5-   In  marg.  A  ^L  ^\  jj£  ^  ^^  «J^  ji^l  f^  O 
fjfj&A  gf  ^^-   Text  as  in  B.        00  B  ^  •        (U)  Kor.  2,1 
B    o^^.  (^)  B  Juk.  (U)  Kor.  10,26.  0°)   B  om.   J 

)*\s*.  (H)  B  io\£>.  OY)  AB  (53i\.  OA)  B  ^5^. 

l  is  the  last  word  in  B,  fol.  43a.  Fol.  436  begins  9-y_j  JV*iV\  ^  r/ 


<  liu  *\i\ 


^  4«   Jop-       *;.\ 

Vc  jjjL.ajH  jt>j  ~-r^>\>.   f\r^  •*»>.  Oi-1^ 

S1  illW   lljj;  ro   ^>t  U    j    Jl5  <<r) 


ij>-  jTcLji  *J  CaJ\  _oi\\>   ff\t\   J*)    U\  J»\ 

jU.  Jc  ^  \j>l.  f$\  ^  V^O)  ju<°)  4«\ 
>  «Jy  >  0\>\      oil  dili  J.  yj*.J, 


j  >(M) 


0\  ^  <  y, 


j 

JJj  Jp   dl> 


(^)  A  0U_,.  (0  In  marg.  A  ^^  &&].        (?)  Kor.  16,  91.        C1)  B 

(°)  B   ojTi  Jc>.  0)  B  j^.  In  A  the  final  alif  has  been  supplied. 

(Y)  Kor.  6,38.  (A)    Kor.  36,11.              0)  Kor.  15,21.              00  B  ^ 

(")    B    om.  00  B  £  01^  JD  ^  ^.^  oJub  J.             0  ?)   B   J^  j 

(»  l)  B  JV"9  ^.  0  °)  Kor.  17,  9.            (1  ~V>  B  -cU  J  ^1\\^  .            0  Y)  B 

^J.            OA)  Kor.  38,  28.  0^)B^\.            0"-)  B 
(n  )  Kor.  50,  36. 


vr 


01 


^  c^  y(U)  x? 


°V)  4»\  J\S  aij  «L» 


0)  AB  ^WU  (0  B  om. 

)  A  c^u^.         (°)  B 

^b  ^  ^U  4a\  J\J  J^JP 
Jj;\.  0)   Kor.  3,5. 

)  Kor.  54,5.  00  B  . 


Kor.  4,  71.  B  has  C^^         for  Cr 


(Y)  Kor.   17,84.  (A)   Kor.  36,1. 

(^)  AB  jk.  (^r)  B  ui 

2,1.  (\°)  B  adds  5' 


V  \ 


-C5 


U 

v 
Js>«  A)  OjW  '  " 


Jl\  J 


JU  <£l\  ^U^ 

'  ^)  o^stil°0)      : 

4l\Uf.31a 


0)  B  ^.         (0  B  i^jUi.         (^)  B  om.         («•)  B  j£>A9.         (°)  B  j^\. 
0)  B  Jp    ,j.c-.  (Y)  A  ^Vo  but  ,j_^o   written  above  as  a  variant. 

(A)  Altered  in  A  to   OJ*$>  which  seems  to  be  the  reading  of  B.        0)  B^J. 
00  B  ^.^  Oij}\  (j  \^iB.  0\)  B  om.  from  <J^  to  J^V\  ^»  O^W 

(\0  in  marg.  A^c>\.  (^)   B  jU_,  dl^b .  (^)  Kor.  15,75. 

(\°)  B  om.  from  c**-^  to  Ju\jT.  (n)  Kor.  51,20.  (w)  B  V\. 

(^A)  A  ^U^,V\  with  V^  as  variant. 


* 


U  *Vki.U   kJUS)    4«\ 

^ 

U 


\  A&   Jp 

0VsY\ 


5  V. 

4fl  ,v 


(^)  B  om.  4»\  <^^        \  J\5.  (r)  B  om.  (^)  B  ^.  I1)  B  AJ\ 

AJ  ^P.  (°)  A  om.   AjJ\ji\  ^Va£\j  but  cJUU  has  been  supplied  by  a  later 

hand.  0)  B   ^j^k  UV^.  (Y)  B  oV^lV,  .  (A)  B  4^1. 

C»)  B  \.  00  B  U.  0\)  B 


Jp 

&  y\  JU 


•/>  Jl\ 


x5^  \i\i 
U 


j^  >  j^  \r\>-(    y  \^  r 


(\)  B  om.        (r)  B  om.  from    ^  to  A-^.        (^)  Kor.  7,  163.        (V)  B  ^ 
yJ^  J*liU.  (°)  B    ^JL.  0)   A  J^..  (V)  A  om.  J^  snppl. 

in  marg.  (A)  B  ^^_,.  0)  A  ^ii\.   The  reading   of  B  is  doubtful. 

00  B   U-,Y\^;  (^)  B  <a\.  (\0  B   ^  ^.  O^B^jp. 

(^)   B   ^j^U,.         (\°)  B  app.  c-^llaUjb.        (H)  A  ^U^J\.        0  Y)  B  om. 
A  in  marg.    ^L.  0  A)  ^  has  been  suppl.  in  A.  (H)  Kor.  57,3. 

(rO  A  adds  in  marg.   SJubllVi  J\o.  (H)  B  j,\.^. 


t  <• 


.      J 


s^  ^ 


1X5         c 


ew,Ul\ 


<  »jA\-ii,\ 

tt\  J\»  ^  Ji\  **-, 


v.  4 


4* 


(»)  B  om.  (0  B  £_,_,.  W  B  om.  JS\  **•_,  ^ii\  J\5.  (1)  Kor. 

50,36.       (°)  A  jSiW.        0)  Kor.  85,3.  B  JutVi.        (v)  B  J\i.       (A)  B  adds 
J^  after  fo=._,\.  0)  B  a..  00  B  u_lc-.  (»)  B   o^.,. 

(*0  B  Jr>j  _>t.       W  B  om.  from  ^  to  Jt>_,  _jt..        (I  *•)  B  li.       0  ")  B  ^_,. 
(I"*)  B  Jai.  (IY)  B  om.  Os-  0  A>  B  4*.  0  t)  B  a^_j  which 

is  written  in  A  as  a  variant.  (r')  B  J\«».  (ri)  B   ijyi\. 


IV  <4Ujl>Y\    JW 


4il 


JV5 

<  *\1\  V\     iV.  X, 


0)  This  passage  occurs  in  AB  above  (see  note  V  on  p.  11)  and  is  also 
written  on  the  margin  of  A  in  this  place.  I  give  the  text  according  to  A. 
(0  B  om.  W  Kor.  13,  28.  (*0  B  J&.  (°)  A  ^.  0)  A  om. 

from  A^-J  to   A.9^iA  ^»  ^>fK^_j.   The  marginal  version  in  A  has  iVo  for  i$-«. 
(Y)  B  app.  j\^\.  (A)  A  om.  from  J\is  to  ^;\Ja^.  (^)  B  _yb^. 

(\0  B  om.  44^1  Jc.  (u)  A  ^xL^  but  \yt\j  written  above.  (\0  B 

J\  \j£Lj.  (^)  B  om.  from   Jc^  ji.  to  o>-^-  ^^  Kor-  1(5,  128. 

0°)  Kor.  2,148.  B  o\.  (H)   B   J> j  js-  AJy.  (^Y)  Jn  marg.   A   ^ 

U\.  OA)  B 


Jt  -* 

iVl  JU  -A, 


sH  j\ 


0\ 


<(  •>  4\1\  JU 


B  om.  (H  B   J13.  ()  AB    3>.  ()  A    3.  (°)  B  \iU 

C1)  B    J*^.f  (Y)  Here  both  A  and  B  add  the  passage  be 

ginning  J\i^ji\  jc  ^  ly~^\  Ju*j  and  ending  AiWij  .uj\  ^V«>.\  ^.*>.  ,JA  which 


evidently  belongs  to  the  next  chapter.  It  has  been  supplied  in  marg.  A  in 
its  proper  place  by  a  corrector  (see  the  following  page,  1.  \  to  1.  °).  Here 
the  corrector  has  written  in  marg.  A  ex*j  ^->U\  <3  W>^>  JA^>>  • 
J=^  JP.  0)  B  om.  «tt\  <^-J  j^\  J\5.  00  B 

(\\)  Kor.  89,27.  (\r)  Kor.  13,  28.  (^  Kor.  2,  262. 


10  i  (j^y\  (j\>  v-A, 


jV  OA  ^^  ^  a: 
\  CV\ 


Jj\ 


(\)  B  om.  (0  B  A*.  (^)  B  o>^i  for  cr^  O/i-  C1)  B  U 

l>Jo  Jo\.  The  orig.  reading  of  A  was  >j>\.  (°)  B  \1  which  also  appears 

in  A  as  a  variant.  0)  A  iwajiU  but  ,_-J-0\  written  above.  (Y)  A  jfi 
but  JS-  written  above.  (A)  B  om.  from  Js*JV,  to  ^\y^\j.  (^  AB  U\». 
In  A  J.^\  is  written  above  as  a  variant.  00  B  ^C- .  (^)  B  c5><al\ 

for  4»\  <^-j.  ^r)  A  had  orig.  ^\  <^\j  but  J  has  been  stroked  out. 

0*)  B  ^-  (U>  B  tfj>.  (\°)  AB   AJtf      .. 


+* 

li 


5 

U<0) 
V,  3 


cr 


X, 


ii\     lu\ 


0  } 


JW    ^r»V» 

4ttl  Vl  JU    4«\ 


(\)  B  jjU.         (0  B  j\Li\.         (^)   B   iJfi.         (i)  B  ora.         (°)  A 
but  written  above.  0)  B  tf.\.  (Y)   B  om.  JU  <\i\ 


(A)  B^«ai\.  (^)  After    ..^  B  has  a  word  which  is  partly  obliterated: 

(?)  U,  .        0  ')  B  ^.        ((1  1  ))  In  A  j  is  suppl.  before  i\.        (>  0  B  Jj 
J,^l\\  and  a  corrector  has  restored  this  reading  in  A.  0  »)  B  om.  J\3 

(^)  B  «W 


v., 


'Is.   \J>U 


J\5  ya«i,  _ 

V.       9 


JW 


•r   \° 


(\)  B  Wji^  OjA.  (0  A  CrJij^.  B  app.  CnOj...  (^)  B 

W  B  j^.  (°)  B  ^^^1.  0)  B  J\5.  (V)  B  om.  (A) 

0)  B  £.  00  B  Jku.  (\\)  B  V^.  (\0  B  lij^.  0*)  A  ^JU. 
0*)  A  adds  tJiyi  J\o  jy^\  JWj  but  these  words  have  been  stroked  out. 
0°)  B  om.  from  ^l  to  JW  A\i\  4^,.  (n)  ^\  jWj  in  marg.  A. 

OY)  B  oy^»  J*V\.  0A)  Suppl.  in  marg.  B.  0  1)  A  in  marg. 

.     (r>)  B jc  A!>\         \     .     (^ )  B  sjii, 


0s" 


4B 


,  vi  j& 


.(4J1\ 


^   «•"   Ji5 
U  4)1\  oV 


,  y 


\;\ 


B  , 


(f)  B 


M  B  0\,. 


.  (0  B    U 

0)  B  a\  ifj. 

but  ViJos-  written  above.  00  B  <c;VJi. 

0^)  A  \i.  Oi)Aal.  0°)  B 

*  T-.^-  (IY)  B  om. 


(*•)  B  ^.  (°)  AB 

(A)  AB  |i.  (1)  A  VJ 


B 


{y>. 


Wil\  JV 


marg.  A 


». 


OJ\  j\5j  < 


,vJ 


f.26& 


^ 


0)  B  om.  (0  AB  ^^i.  A  in  marg.  J^lil  (^)  B  ^j.  (*0  Bom. 
O.  o\5S.  (°)  B  0VUJ\.  0)  B  UU.  (Y)  B  1>  (A)  B  ^\. 
0)  B  ^^j.  00  B  om.  w\  <*.j  ^]\  J\5.  (\\)  B  ^  VVj' 

(\0  B  W;\  JW.        (^)  B   o/3  Jc>.        (\i)  Kor.  33,21.        0°)  Kor.  17,59. 
(^)  Kor.  18,  110.        (W)B  adds  the  remainder  of  the  verse:  \Jo\  «C 


si 


(  * 


Ji* 


a.;\  Jo 


\o 


0)  B  om.  ^\ 
(^  B  diii. 
(A)  Kor.  3^169. 
for  ^    ^T. 


j^\  J\J.  (r)  B  U\0.  W  B  om.  UVs  ^\ 

B  om.  0)  B  eu~   ^  AJ^.  (Y)  B   o 

C1)  Kor.  55,46.  0')  Kor.  24,37.  (u)  B 


Jlo 


J\B  aU\  ^  J,l  *'\  <a\  «-/>  jrl  oyj:\     \  .  \f 

^\  ^  £^(0  J 

Ai     (  oleA/      C-VuaM 


4tti  »->•  r 

^^  jl  U  £ 

JU  V  5^00  ^  ^  yU\^>  <JL\  U 


i.\\  \° 


^«  Jo  U&*  ii-i\   oVa.^  ^  Jju\\  Jc 


(0  B  om.          (0  In  B  C=H\  follows  ^^U          (^)  B  om.  <a\  «^ 

W  B  \)L.             (°)  A  \i.              0)  B   C5J.\\  jU\.  (Y)  Altered  in  A  to 

5^jf.             (A)  B   ^  <\i.            (^)  B  J^  JP  X  0-)  li\  suppl.  in 

marg.  A  after  ^•J3£.                   (H )   B    S^\  Jc(?)  VuJ.  (;  r)  B    ^si. 
0^)  Altered  in  A  to  U. 


a-i          ol 


/J^ 
U 


(^)  Kor.   3,29.  B  om.  Jj.         (0  Kor.  2,160.         (^)  Bj"^.         (*•)  B  om. 
(°)  A  om.       .0)  B  ^.        (Y)  B  %_,  Jc>.        (A)  jVk.U\\  added  in  marg.  A. 

0)  B  J-yjj.          (^)  B  £*-  fx  vi^ji.  A  in  marg.  <^ 

01)  B   <^^c>  J«>.  (^r)  A   Oji-XoJ\  but  corr.  in  marg. 


\J 


AX« 


i  \J>U 


'A\  JW 


5  L-  >  > 

J\  ^ 

1-fy    \i\   JV5    Sj^   U<41>   JU    ^  i^t?  J\i 


Jii  \ 


0)  B  ^.      (r)  B  dUAi      (^)  B  JU  \s^^  jU  V^.xTU.  W  B  ^. 

(°)  B  om.             0)  A  ^J€.             (Y)  B  di^,  \i  Vs.             (A)  B  om.  ^s-  4«\ 

,3=>_5.            0)  A  has   ^\  as  a  variant.           (^)  B  \y^5.  0\)  AB  ora. 

but  snppl.  in  A.          (\0  B   J^\  4^  ^.          (^)   B   J\y.  (^)  B  ^\. 

0°)  B  ^Ji.        (^BjVSj.        OV)  B  om.  ^\  *^  *^\  J\5.  (\A)BU\O. 
(n)  B   o/3  ^J.           (»"•)  B  ^^  *^-  J  jVi9  v,V\.           (n)  Kor.5,59. 

(rr)  B  ^l. 


4B\ 

\f  -ii-^  jia 

>  «\  i-.^)  V\  -^  ^  o       V. 


0)BU.  (0  B  yy\.  mB^\ki.  W  B  MlX-  (°)Bom. 

0)  B*^.  <Y)  B  cm.  «\  «-_,  ^li\  J\5.  W  B  ./i  ^J.  C>)  Kor. 
2,182.  00  B  om.  from  J\i_,  to  Ay^\.  (»)  Kor.  50,  15.  00  Kor. 
56,84.  Of)  Kor.  17,59.  Ol)  B  om.  from  Jlw^\  to  ^y\  ^1. 

(*°)  The  words  «ij»_^3  f  «r«  suppl.  in  marg.  A.  0"*)  B 

0V)  B  J^V.  0A)  B  ^.  (^)  B   o-i^j-  (r'> 

In  marg.  A  J.«  ^\  is  written  over  «i»  *J\. 


00 


;  ^J  u  f  G 

S\    j£l    J\i    * 


V.  a 


l  ^U.   o.U        ji'         (»*)  411\ 


J\^.  ^  dill,       (^)  .        45  j  V.    o   Ua.  JW;(A)  41)\ 
JvL,  J>!\  JV;  \f 


JU 


-. 
JU  ^\  ^  «*/> 

\3_,    y  \   Oy   V. 


0)  Kor.  33,52.  (0  JJ  om.  (^)   Kor.  50,17.  (M  Kor.  9,  79.  Kor. 

has  f]^.j  fa.  (°)  Kor.  G4,  4.  0)  «  om.  ^  ^.  (V)  u  ^ 

V^  J\5.  W  B  ^  J>.  (^)  u  ^.  0-)  Be*-  -«!. 

(U)    H    V-  (^r)    Iii  A  a  later  hand  has  supplied  ^,1  before   C 

l.   in  A.  0°)  B  adds:  \^*  Cc 

i)  A  ^.         (\Y)  ],    ^.         (\A) 


Ivor.  7,195, 


(4\»\    U^_,     \£j>\     - 


Ot 


\>\;i,  A.UiJl,  ,j«L\ 


\i 

l    jfcA   J\f\    ^J    4B\ 

J\  >\ 


(\)  B  oin.  (r)  H  4  ejUi.\.  (^)  Here  B  has  the  saying  of  3\ii\ 

given  above:  "V^aAS\  j^^c  ^^\  (j^-  J***  V^jJ\  ^  jU5i\  J^j  (with  j^  for 
;>).  B  JV5  for  J^.  W  B  4e>j\.  (°)  B  ^^uj..  0)  A  OJ^JL^  ^^ 
but  ur~li\  erased  and  W  «ui\  written  in  marg.  (Y)  B  o\-J>j  .  (A)  Kor. 

5,119.  0)  B  om.  *&.  ^.o,,,.  00  B  S_j.  0^)  B  OVJ.  (^r)  A  AxoJ?  . 
(^)  A  *W>.  (^)  BjfM.  (^°)  B  V<iAi^  J^V\  ^JL\.  (n)  B  ^l, 
V\  iio,  V\  W.  (\V)  B  om.  4«\  \  V^.  (\A)  B  o\\. 


Ai. 


V*  J 


J\a 


0)   B  Jc>_j  j.c..        (0  B   e>o_j  «m\  V\  ojC  ^  O^1  ^  B  om>        ^  B    fe 

j^xi.               (°)  B  Y^.               0)  B  ji-.               (Y)  B  om.  ^  ^j  ^i\  J\5. 

(A)   B  Ujjj.            (^)  B   ^J.            (\-)  Kor.  5,119.  (^)  Kor.  9,  73.  A  has 

tj^.^,.           (\0  B  om.  from  Jj^j  to  ^l^^.  (^)  A  (Sj^  but  j>Vui\ 

written  above.          ON  A    ._j  .^   but  corr.  in  marg.  0°)  *  l*a«J\  ^c — ,Wj 
is  suppl.  in  marg.  A-           (^)  B  .-j. 


yM  Ai.  vA,  <j3\  .-AxT  of 


j\a 


>\  J-  Ci,  <  ^.  U 


i,  <  5>v\,  I;  jl\ 


y  ;-ji  j\a 


\r  ^    s  \ 


A  adds  in  marg.    OSj\,  4»\  Jl  £\UV\,.  (0  B  OJ,  .  W  AB 

j.         .(*•)  B   5jJi\l.  (°)  A  li.  0)  B  om.  (V)  B  app. 

WBjoJl.  0)  B  JV.^-1.  00  B  om.^U^l. 

(H)  B  om.  «KjJ  j.  (*0  B  J=,_,  jf.  4«  .  0^)  B  ^,.  04  A^V 
(^°)  The  passage  beginning  Vjjki\  u;jVf->\  ^  and  ending  4^;V«\  3  in  suppl.  in 
marg.  A.  (^)  A  UU\  jJw..  (1Y)  B  S^J.  (U)  A  ^^J  but 

corr.  by  a  later  hand.  (11)  B 


ol 


b 


>J 


°r) 


U 


\o 


J\a 


0)  A  corrector  of  A  has  indicated  that  this  verse  should  follow  the  next 
one.  (0  B  uij_y.   and  so  A  in  marg.  (^)  A  in  marg.    *\pb\  &~*-j- 

(*)  In  marg. 
(V)  B  om. 


This  hemistich  in  B  runs:  \jj&  ^jj.  J^yJJj  ul/^ 
A  Lryo.  (°)  A^JJ  but  corr.  in  marg.  0)  B   ^  . 

(A)  B  dJu  Jl.  (^)  B  ^V^.  00  B  om.  <ui\  <^ 

(\\)   B  Jc-^J^.  00  Kor.  5,26.  0*)  Kor.   14,15. 

from     Vs    to        =*^  0°)  Kor.  14,  14.  (n)  Kor.  65,  3. 


-)  B  om. 
OY)Kor. 


25,60. 


Kor.  26,217—218. 


B 


and  so  corr.  in  A. 


*  UW      '  _J  V)      t   7*.  V-U  '      <-_)  W 


J\a 

ii    JU    ^    JVi>    4B\ 


(j^-l^j  ojV^X\  Jp  jv^l  ^  ti\«J(^  4li\ 


<* 


U  J^ 

>  Jp 


(^)  B  om.  (0  B  J\fc  JV5.  (^)  B  om.  J\5i 

added  in  A  by  a  later  hand.         (°)  B   ^j.          0)  B  ±>\}\.         (V)  B 
^Jc.  (A)  A  \j>  but  corr.  by  a  later  hand.  0)  B  ^j-.^U  instead  of 

«tt\  ^j.  (v<)  B  ^.  (^)  A  in  marg.  ^  Sc^.  (\0  B  ^\j 

(^)  B   diiJ^.          (^)  B  i^.          0°)  B  om. 
AB   OvlJ\  A  in  marS"  ^^  °'  (W)  B 


JL>  •>!  JVii   J 
0  y,  >-         ,ui\ 


J\a  j 

^.l\r\i.A,\i.  U*  0\  JJ  JS  U*j  <^J\ 
Ijo   ^^  ^'>-^      ^1*5      -^  ia**a;\     -V>-\  \j      Gi   dilc 


(\)  B  om.  A\J\  Juf-^.\.  (0  B  om.  (^)  B  \i^.  (*•)  B 

(°)  B  0/J\.         0)  B  Vilt.^.        (V)  SuppL  in  A.  B        \.        W  B 
(^  A   Ov"oLai\  but  corr.  in  marg.  (^)    B  om. 

(^)  Kor.  39,  13.  00  B  adds:  <u\^  o«  ^^  j^  J 

(^)   B      ^jt.        0*0  A         U  corr.  in  marg.  B  \^\o. 


±  U  Ati 


V.\ 


Jp 


U      -^ 


U 


\o 


-*u3  Ju>yH  JjU 


B 


(0  B 


*  <iU^.  (^)  B  om.  *>\  ^ 

-  0)   B  ^V^-        ^y)  B  app. 
\.          0-)  B  om.         (\\)  B 


n  marg. 


IV 


> 


. 


*j  (?  lli 

U  JW^> 


Jjl     O, 


JA>  U  i^o  ' 


V. 


\jaJ\  ^  slij-  a»j\\  JVy  a»jj\ 


^&M     i 


0)  B  om.  (0  B  u-^\.  (^)  B  ^\.  (*•)  B 

(°)  A  J^\4  altered  to  o^-W  by  a  later  hand.         0)  B  &\».         (Y)  B  o^ 
Instead  of  ^A*)  ^VCj  A  in  marg.  has  f  Ju>j  ^  Vj-^ji.  (A)   B   \1^. 

(^)   ^  sup-pi,  in  A.  00  B  j.  (^)  These  words  are  suppl.  in  A. 

00  B  om.   *&\  ^  £L\\  J\i.  (\^)  B  JC>JJP.  0*)   B  J^  JP  J\5^. 

0°)  Kor.  2,274. 


u-    <5  Jl\    Cj 

0\       yJ  0\  J^ 


Af-20& 


OiJ^ViH  fA5  Jj\  y^    U 

4«\  ^ 

o  C-         A.! 


U          < 


\o 


i  \r°o) 

\  j^   il 
4,15  jte   O\  JV^   Jjbjll 


(^)  B  Jj^-  (r)  B  om.  j*  ^i  om.  in  A,  but  suppl.  in  marg. 

(^}  B  om.   4\M  ^  £J\  J\S.  (°)  A  iwi^^.  0)  B   jyj.  (Y)       V, 

suppl.  in  marg.  A.  (A)  B  j*\j\.  (^)   B  5^.^.  (\«)  B  i*^A*. 

0^)  B  A}  <\i\  jUrf-k   ojVjs-Vi.        OH  B  Oi^\\.        (\V  A  tf,.        (\i)  A  oJi2. 
(^°)   B  J^.  (H)  B  0\j,V\.  (W)  A  JftJiV,   but  corr.  in   marg. 


v,  jty  jvs  *\  A 

JUjAf.20,, 


J^(A)  ^'^  ^ 
ii 


t  U 


0)  B    g  di^  ^U\  ^1  ^L.        (0  A  o^;  B   o^1^        W  B  orn. 
W  B   ^l.  (°)  B  fV7y^!.  0)  B  &  (Y)  A  ^W.  (A)  A  Jo 

but  J^  written  above.        0)  B  £\  J^  J\ij  Juc   U  o\^  dJi        0  •)  B  U-l  V-  . 
(^)  A  o-»c-  J\3.  00  B  om.   «ti\  ^j  j&  j\  J\3.  (^)  B  Jy*  Jj. 

(^)  B  J\ii. 


,.1 


it 


U       i 


i  \i, 


U 


**  ^      J     '  ^^ 


^)  B  om. 
B  ^. 
B  adds 


(0   A   t/,V^\.  (^)   B 

0)   B  om.    i^\  J\ii. 
.  00  B  ^i^. 

(^)  B  Ji\. 


B  oin. 


(V)   A 


AB   \i. 
B  om. 


JV3 


4.J.  a.Xj  1       AlA       ^-jJ  I) 


(^)  B  ^\.  (0  B  om.  (^)  B  o~^.  (^  B  V/<:  .  (°)  \f 

0)  B  J^^.  (Y)  B  jWj,  4,\J.  (A)  B  j^,..  (^)  B  om.  from 

to   i;jx\\  ^c..        (^)   B   Ow^Uj.        (u)  B  om.  <ui\  ±&  ^  .        (^r)  A 
corr.  by   later  hand.  0^)   B  V».  (^)  B  om.  <&\  \s-j  J^\ 

(\°)   A  b. 


if 


\ 


JU  ^ 


\o 
'.19a 


.  0\ 


4—  Ai 


B  om.   J\3_j  _LS^,  ^-s'^>j.        (r)  Kor.  37,164.        (^)  B  om.        I1)  A  adds 


in  marg.  >J\  fli,  fU^  pju  ^  ^\,  J^_  JV^  o\  JV^\,  fU\ 


j\cViaJ\  jJ.Aa.a-  tj   4.;b\j^   e^AUa|.  (°)  B  om.   this    heading  and  proceeds 


A   »9A-   but   corr.  in  marg. 


B  om.   J5  <^;.  A    a>Jo    jV^  J*-»ti   but  in  marg-  O^ 

ol  (^')    B   5 


11  <V^>^  oUA\  J  v^A, 


f\U  o 


()  B  om.        (      B  SJU.  B  SAa. 

(Y)  B  i  V^  v«-  •        (A)  Qushayri,  4,  25,  has  CA~ 

B  ^^^  .        (^  ')  B  adds  <;\  4«\  <^  .        (u)  A  A»\j.\\  with  ^A  V\  suppl.  in  marg.  B 
t5^V,\  jjb\ji\  and  in  marg.  ^Vo^.  Qushayri  (4,  25)  (5  A  \  y>^,  but  the  edition 
containing  the  commentary  of  Zakariyya  Ansdri  (Cairo,  1290  A.  H.),  I,  45,  11 
marg.  has  <5A^yi>^\.         (^)  jj^J  suppl.  in  A  before  ^*-_j  . 
4ii\   *U  0\  A^^.  (u)  B  om.  A\i\  <a^  ^\  jVi.  °    B 

(^)   B   JU,       L".  (w)  B  <  ^o.         "  OA)  Kor.  14,  17. 


<ui\  ^J-  f  J.VJJ\  Jy  j  ^l 


0  JJU  ^  >  ^\  3  i  ^j-^  >»  J^  >i\     V; 

>  ^SCj  V,\  ^  ^  JU 


V. 


sy 


0)   A  ^VxxJ.             (0   B   om.  (?)  B   J_ji   tf^UV.             (^  B  iai-j 

(°)  B   om.  <ui \  4^-j  ^  ^  JV3j.  0)   B   iy-Uj,          (Y)  B    lc\  411^  *i 

(A)  A  05^l\  but  corr.  in  marg.  (^)  B  J\3.        (^*)  Kor.  51,56.        (n)  B 
00  B_1"A\.            (\^)   B  A\.\\^. 


L  ^*  0 


j\  Ac\ 


<U} 


stl,  JuJ\          U 


0\ 


J  ^  di;U  jL 


u,  UW  fU 


J   u 


o\ 


\o 


B  om. 


(0  B 


ex, 


B  \1.  0)   B  viUi  J   BJ\5.  (Y)   B 

B  Ow.  00  B  b. 


)  B  o 

(A)   B  om.   3 


s  U 


k  sii£\  5^  5^V,ll  <^o  1  yJA  «^  ^ 

S^iL.  AJjS  ^ow  iii  i  4 
**-j  '\  JVs    <^-ji5\i 


4f  J_»\^  o^  -1-"  o 

Jo 

Ui  j*>    .  \i 


-  r. 


0)   A  in  inarg.  o_j\i^\.  (0  B  ^ Jxx\\ .         (^)  A  dJAjST.         (*0  B  om. 

(°)   B  has  Uu\  instead  of  <Ji\  <^-,.  0)  B  om.  Vc\     \\3.  (Y)   B   t\sz~,\. 

•J  U  -s 

(A)  B  \ft  \s\0.  (^)  B  om.  from  A,V\  to    ^   i>u^«  (^ ')  B  UL^j  . 

(u)   B   om.  A  \^))aj.  (ir)  B  ^.oiU   f\^Vi-  (^)  B  «u^Lx 

0*0   B  L  J.  (^°)  B  <wb\  .t-K  (^)  B  om.  from  o-si-^,  to 


u 


A«J 

JU 
tt\    4 

j^i  yv,  u  yv;  jL^v^ 


^-*^  O_T^   *—  *•-     f^1   (>-*^     *—  • 

b  ^  °^  >^ 

v\  i^\     O^        ^     «  ^^         v\  u 


0  B  <Jrai.  (0  B  V;\.  (?)  B   <;Vto.  C1)  B  _,.  (°)  B   om. 

^   suppl.  in  marg.  A  before  ^^-Y^ .  ^)  B  tiVjJj  ^j^-e  • 

Here  B  has  a  lacuna  extending  to  «L  U^j  ci^^o    exxt  (j,-^^^  (p.  ^A,  1.  1). 
Suppl.  above,         00  A    ^'VilK        (^)  A  J1,  V\.        (\0  Suppl.  in  marg. 


V.  *\i 

0) 


4.1^9 


AU 


(      B  om.  Kor.   20,109.                     B  om.   w 

I5-)  B  J^  JP.  (°)  B  VU^  «\k*  o..              0)  A  0^W).              (Y)  B 

jJai.            (A)Bdiij^.  0)   B   VJ.          (^)  AB  tfA           (u)  B  *ls>\. 

(\0  B   ojTi   Jt>.  (^)  Kor.  2,256.             0*0  Instead  of  ^Jc  ^-   P^J  B 

has  Uc  H.          (\°)  B  om.   ^\   U  J.            (^)   B           .            (™)  B   o^. 

(\A)   B  jjA*   ^\0.  (^)   B   4j\:\  j-             (f')  A 

in  marg.  (r^)  B  om.  411  \  ^-j  gj-ii\  J\3. 


(\)  B   &.  (0  B  om.  (^)  B  Uu.\.  (*•)  B  ^ .  (°)  A   ora. 

but  suppl.  above.  ("^)  B   A).  (^)  A   I^^JjUJi   corr.  to     \Ji*JL 

(^)   A  dAiJu,  after  which     \c.  has  been   supplied   by  a  later  hand. 
0)  B   VA,,,,  0-)  B  4ii\  JUP.         (u)  B  ora.   O^j  cr9-         (^r)  B  ^j,. 

(\^)  A  om.  from  here  to   ^^.J^  (Jt«^_?  bllt  tlie  passage  in  supplied  in  marg. 
in  two  slightly  different  versions.  (^)  B 


i-Jai-  ^  V^    AiiiA   J   L«J\ 


ti:U\    oJ 


^  >0) 


a- 


,  ._, 


5ji  Jc  ^j.. 

(JC\  4\JJ,  ,U.    Vj<u>  <  4V  o*!-  a- 


U 

Jo-  ^  jP(^0^    Ji\  ija^   £.*    4^J^  j)y\-j    4JuL    AtoU-i   U 


(\)  B  om.        (0  B  cx-^.        (^)  B  Ju>.^\.        («•)  B  i 
(°)  B  UV\.  0)  B  proceeds:    ^\  Uo  ^  j\  o^.  (Y)  B   j>Jh. 

(A)  B   J^i\.  C1)  B   «ui\  j>_^.  (^)  B   i^.          (\\)   A  om.  but  j\o 

written  above.  (^r)  B  app.  o-«L.    (?--o).  (^)  B  Ail.  (^)   B 

o-.  0°)  B      W.  (^)  AB      -- 


J.5\J\ 


3    Jc 

"  5 


(OB  tf^\)-         (0  A  uj^jiA  but  corr.  in  marg.         (^)  B  _yt,_j.         0 

<3*^  t>*  O^  o^**  •  (°)  -^  ^jj  •  ^  B  om<  ^  B  ^-^  ^ 

(A)  B  om.   A  adds  in   marg.   <uli^.  0)  B   ^«   and   so  A  in  marg. 

00  A  om.  these  words  but  they  are  suppl.  in  marg.  00  B   <J 

00  A  iTbut  corr.  in  marg.  0?)  B   J.b.  0*0  B  ^J 

0°)  A  om.  ^ &\  (y*. 

3 


r  J        J          ^oo 

U      Vw 


^         ~ 

L^-  -7    • 

Jj  ij^^l   <-uJ  ^\(^}  V  U  ^\ 

it  Si  •$ 

U  j^-Xi.  Jc  'Je-j^0'5  iLi-   oj,-i=>_, 


U  ^  ^/v)  ^ii\  JV5  ^  <0U\  j  U 


f.!4& 


(\)    A  adds    in  marg.  Vi\  U  J^.  (r)  In  A  the  words  Jya,  ^1  \J^ 

liave  been  erased   and   <vW~)  ^  U  J^«J^   written  in  raarg.  (^)   B  om. 

I4-)  B  cj-is^l.  (°)  The  passage  beginning  ^.\  JVs^  and  ending  ^j>  »^ju 

4.v.x\a>J«    (j,V>«j'    <ui\    is    wanting  in   the    text    of   A  but  is   suppl.  in   marg. 
0)   B   U^.  (Y)   B    j^.  (A)   B    ^\  f^J,  4^  JaJ\/i   ^  ^. 

(^)  A  in  marg.  Jo..  (\0  B  Jj^.  (u)  B  Jc>jjf-.  Or)  Kor.  3,16. 
(\t)  B  >^  JP  ^-  (^)  A  \jji5.  (\°)  B  j^\  vi)!j\,.  (^)  So  A,  but 
is  written  above.  0Y)  B  ^_j^\.  0A)  Here  B  proceeds:  p\Vj 
(n)  B  proceeds:  /\  cu-.t.  ^;\  6Vu>». 


1  1 


\j  ij^jo.! 

.;U  el*.  0^>*  j  oj-J   Ji 


0)  B   i*^.  (0  B   vbJJ,  ^  (^  A  A&U.  (M  B 

(°)  B   JW.  (^)  B   OJA;_,  A^V^.  (Y)  A  |.U-   In  B  the  first  letter  is 

obliterated.  Qushayrl  (161,  22)  has  p\JL  .  (A)  A  <J  corr.  by  a  later  hand. 

0)  A  ju*,..  (\0   B  om.  (\\)  Kor.  7,  171.  00  B  adds  £^  o. 

^iji.  (^)  B  om.  4»\  ^>-J  ^\  J\5.  (\M  B  >^\.  (\°)  B  \i^. 

(^)  B  om.  ^.  0Y)  B   ^do_,.  (\A)  A  adds  in  marg.    yu  ^  o*  V^J. 

(^)  B  om.   jb,        .  (r-)  A       jua, 


f 


Vc 


^\  ju 


^  O  jki   ^j  ^  lie  tf  4j\ 


B  orn.  (r)  B   JV5^.  (?)  B   om.  jCj  ll..  (^)  B  proceeds: 

^\  tfj\  0^.  So  Quslmyri,  161,  17.         (°)  A  ^\.         (^)  Here  B  proceeds: 


(A)    A   J^W> 
.        (^r)B  om.  oJc, 
0*0   B  U^^. 

0Y)  A  V/^9  erased: 
but  corr.  in  marg. 


in   marg. 


(Y)  A  45^  but 

(\')Bom.0\.         (^)A  U\. 
(\?)  _5  added  by  a  later  hand. 
(^)  A  J>^V\  but  corr.  in  marg. 
B  app.  J.J  ^.  (^A)  A 


written  below. 


\ 


U 


-\0 


0)  B  om.        (0  B  JL^\  oo  ^y-\  5^.        (^)  B  J^js-.        (^  B  proceeds  : 
^  u^^  cAik*V  (°)  A  \^.  0)B    iU.  (V)  After  ^^   in 

marg.  A  ^  ^  >V\.         (A)  B  V;^3  j5.         (^)  B  j^\  .        0')  B  J^ 

O.        (\\)  A  x-^.       (\0  B  jUi  4u\.       (^)  A  ^Aii.      (\M  B  a*-. 

(\°)  B  rU,  .        (^)  B  ijl  J\  and  so  A  in  marg.        (W)  B  V^.        (^)  B  J 
.  (^)   Kor.    7,171.  (r-)   B   om. 


^  O.  . 

(r\)  A  ^V-^p.   The  words   ^,  y\5  £j  ^J\  ^\  jc  ^At-iV,   are  added   in 
marg.  A.  (IT)  B    0U..  (FV)  A  SO..  (^)   B 


»w  TA 


U\ 

&\  j>.  0\r^\  ^  4« 

<        >    -  *u\  ^->Vo 


\o 

tf 


(\)  B  om.  v->o  0&  f\L>j.  (0  B  c5^^.  (^)  B  om.  (^)  B  JV^. 
(°)  B  0\.  0)  B  ^V^  ^.  (Y)  B  »\,J\  J.U.  (A)  B  om.  ^  *\,J>\  ^ 
^jV^.  (^)  B  ^  t5JIJJ..  (\0  A  Jy\  ^\  bat  corr.  in  marg.  0\)  B  j 

Ju^\.  (\0  B  £\  Ou^\  ui  -i-ji  O^  cP'  °^  A  ^'  01)  A  ^^ 
but  orig.  ^o_,.  (\°)  A  adds  ^  after  dl*_,.  (n)  B  Js^  j.t.  0Y)  B  om. 
dii^i  J\5j.  OA)  B  Jx^. 


ry 


V,  ^  05  *>  V 

J  o^Vu,  ^  ;uil\ 

**Y\  ^-  <2»^aJl  ^irv* 

^  rVv^V\     7  c^N  VI 


Jc       i,  r\  ^\^r)  JV 


'  ^    s-'W 
tfV,  ^  ^      V^  ^W\    Ja  jj\ 


1 


ii^i^    v*3^      J    "r^c  fJ^'   c-t" 


\o 


A«U 


(\)  B  0j^U\.  (0   B   om.  (^)  B  ^^^.  (^   A  in   marg.  U'J  . 

(°)  A  has  A.l^ai\  \*\  ^  \jllj  A.J_^ali\  but  A.JU  ^  is  suppl.  in  marg.  0)  BuU. 
(Y)  B  j.  (A)  A  om.  ^  Vi/i  ^0,5.  (^)  B  ^U\  JU.  0')  B  ^c>^. 
(^)  B  A^M.  (^)  A  in  marg.  U.  (^)  A  in  marg.  o!\a£.  (^)  A  in 

marg.  dJuJj  .  (^°)   A  in  marg.  AiLi~a  .  (^)  A  in   marg.  J,\  Js*^  r-10 

(w)   B  app.  oW. 


n 


L^\  \j\  V«£  4.4\£>       (^   411  \    SJ\       ViJ 


<)   4fl\ 


(\)  B   ^^..        (r)  B  om.        (^)  A  ^  but  corr.  in  inarg.        W  AB  ^V,^  . 
(°)   Ivor.   59,8.  0)   B  om.   ^Vo  ^  .  ^Y)   B   omits  this  quotation. 

(A)  Suppl.  above.        0)  Kor.  2,274.        00  Bom.  J^  o*.  -^^^        ^^  B  om- 
Jc^js..  (\0   B   ^.  0?)  B   j^o.  (^)  Instead  of  ^J^  jT, 

B  lias  <u\S    and  A  in  marg.  <u\c>.  (^°)    In    A    (jj-^-^  nas  been  written 

above   o..        (H)  B   cj\>.        (W)  B  o^>-        °A)  1J  ^U'        (n)  B  J^J- 
(r')  B  ^SU.        (n)  B  <C.        (rr)uom.4s\  A^-    '*\     \5.        (r^)  B         . 


IT  0 


P   ^AJ   XJ^aJl   is 


>,ai\  ^  4Jl\   ^° 

1  Jil_,  <^.  V.  Jo 


aJ    Jj    A5i    * 


0)   B   J.         (0  B  J\5 
4»\  <^.  0)   B   om. 

00  B  proceeds:    ^\  J.J 


B 


4fl 


\(n) 


(^)  B          .         (*•)  B   app. 
(V)   B  dJU.  (A)  B  ^< 


A  ,  vvA  but  corr.  in  inarg. 
)  B  J^  js.  <UJ\.         OY) 


B   om. 


J\i 


k 


U  ( 


\;>\  j»\y\        Ui 


vo\  L  Si 


B    \t.  (^)  B    U\0.  (^)  B  proceeds: 


(\)  B    V&.  •  (r)  B   om.  (^)  B.Jju  .  (l)  A  corrector  lias 

written  in  marg.  A     L  ^  .  (°)   B    J\^W  0)  B   o^  Jc>. 

(V)  Kor.  31,  19.  (A)  B  S^\.  W  B  JY*^  ^b.  00    Kor.   4,  85. 


0)  B  om.  4«\  ^^  ijii\  J\5.  (0  B  JtW-.  m  B  <,  .          (*•)  B  om. 

B  J=>\      k  ioj\    k      \      li,.         0)  B  U».         (V)  B  iUU. 


B  om. 


B 


')  B  \i. 


B 


B  om. 


0V)  B 


Ji, 


^V,  <  *Jj\ 


rr 


^i\  *\  ^  r\ 


30)     *U    <UJ\    jLa-j    **    i,*^\    ^V.U    Y\    y\S    U    ^^Af.106 

er     "  l 

^.l>  ly.^a.1);  ^\  ^JV^ 

jiWvjjjCt.ij^a 


JO     4-3 


lo 


Here  B  resumes  (fol.   4?>,   1.   1).  (r)    B  OA^  ^-\  ^iy  V»^  Jc\  ou^ 

J=>^         (^}  B  Oln-  ^^  ^j-        (i)  B  o^-        (0)  Bom- 

(1)  B  ^i"  (Y)  B   &3J"  (A)  B  om'  ^  ^J- 

Suppl.   in   marg.   A.  00   A  ^Vij.  (u)   B   ^.  (\r)  B  ^=>  . 

)  A  j^  J^  A*-     c.        (^)  B   ,_9,  (\°)  B  ^s 

)   B   om.    U 


*LP  4»\ 

Vi 


J\5  ^ 

Aen 


(\)  ol.V,^  jU-V\  (0  Kor.  5,  112.  Kor.  has  3\.  (^)  Suppl. 

in   marg.  C4-)   i«j\i\   written  above.  (°)  In   marg.  A-V»  .  ("^)  v.^J 

(^)   ^^9  suppl.  in  marg.  before 


t*    J^ 


V\ 


Vl^  Jo 


o^  \T-Vi" 
dili  J  o^  ^ 


Af. 


i*»   L    iW 

Volc\  f 


,v 


^)  In  marg. 
In  marg. 


0)  JA*. 


,  which  appears  to  be  a  variant  of  rj-U)\  .        (0 
.  I1)  So  in  marg.  Text:  ^.  (°)  Suppl.  in  marg. 

suppl.  below,  (A)  x-\j   corr.  by  later  hand. 


J 


05  \  L.  0>>  ^  JV; 


A.L  JO  O     \J 


CV. 

^-^>\   di^ 


\. 


a.  ic 


(^)  Sup  pi.  above.  C")  Snppl.  in  marg.  (^)  Kor.  5,  71.  (*•)  Snppl. 

above.  (°)   So   in   marg.   Text:  j-^UV.  .  0)   So  in  marg.   Text:  J\ii. 

(V)  oj-iU.  (A)  So  in  marg.  Text:   *L\,.  (V    yyU, 


^\j&\  jTl  j  ^  i 


^4 


^o     ^ 

d— *  ^  ^  d—  r^  \ 


JuJ\  Jc   u^fr   J:   ^-  dJ_^  U   ^J   vdlj  ^^   iiil\   V'^j   J 


0\  3 


V\    \j    U  \  • 

^o  \  ^^  ^i  jjto  V^_\i>-j  V^iAs  j  ^_/«-AJ  r>t  3"^  ti 

f 


J  U\  U*  j^l  yAk\\    VC\ 


Ac.   J,\   (5^.    ^V«J\    j^Tj    ^Jcs£    J,£>  V!b 

r>r^  [i-i^aji\  AC.  ^  ^1  j,\  v\  (5^>i 

fJU*j  <^yb  *p  J  A.VJ^\  u-)j\3  Jt  ci\jJ  AU\  ^  r^1^ 

~  "i  U  A, 


0)  So  in  rnarg.  Text:  ^.^.UA.  (0  Suppl.  above.              (^)  In  marg. 

^  j5\.                 (l)  Kor.  18,27.  (°)  t5^\y.j-                 (1)  Suppl.  in  marg. 

(Y)  So  in  marg.  Text:   <uVO.  (A)  Kor.   18,109.                 0)  Kor.   14,7. 
00    U  «uiV    added. 


\  y 


V.  t^    \> 


J  ^- 


U  la 

1    '  "  n      - x    •      ""TVjjJl  \o 


A  f.  8& 


\i\i 

JL  ^i 


0)  Inserted  below.  (0  Suppl.  above.  (^)   ^^-^V>   added  by  later 

hand.  W  Snppl.  in  marg.  (°)  Kor.  9,  123.  (^)  d)\3  corr.  above. 


Sl&»-  .y  *-fyd\  O*  fa  <y  ik  ^  vV  '  fM  v>»        1 1 


j\  o\  * 


aA  61 


(^)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (0   So   in  marg.  Text:    O^\j.  (^)  Suppl.  in 

marg.  Kor.  50,  36.  (*-)  Suppl.  above.  (°)  Kor.  13,  28.  0)  In  marg. 

o-o I,.  (Y)  In   marg.  ^IV^. 


\  0  f  i*i\    JA\ 


^ 

» 


JiaJ\  ^i.^a.J. 

u^^j   ^JjV^j   ^j\j   4j^i\j>j    A.l\jtL-\   ^J.Si 

^  ^^    ^8  ^^  * 


^)  ^:^    snppl.  in  marg.  after    j^.  (0   Corr.  to  &}J&$  by  later  hand. 

Suppl.  above.  (*•)  In  marg.  ^^  .  (°)   Text:  V^^l  W  V/JjU 

-».  0)  So  in  marg.  Text:  A^.  (Y)  ^^^iVj  added  by  later  hand. 


^ 


9   Jc-    4JX.LO    *jlc    j 
J^(°  >^   0\j 


j  ^  JW  JJ3, 
oVj\^J>  J 

lS    <j    ^^       5    ^3****    1--J  ^  J  \5     [vi«v«iV*^     "—  J'£**>)-V5     oVa\JU» 
^  3c>\    JX.^   Jx>^\    oUc^    5>v.«l\    (j^>\^\^ 

«  J>j  >  4a\  ^  A)  ^3  U  ^^  Jc  OL:J 


Suppl.  in  marg.  (r)  So  in  marg.  Text: 


\i   y>-  >  ji  [Jte]0>  AJ> 
>\  JV;  *,V 


ic\ 


i  \      ^s^      x» 


j« 


A  f.  6& 


i^0*    Jf>j  >    4»\ 


^    *i*w    j    i    LTrJ    *^ai!lj^ 


Suppl.  in  inarg.        (0  So  in  marg.  Text:  4>\->\  ^^>\s  erased.        ( 

inserted  before   Ujj\.  (°)   ^^    in   marg.  0)   Kor.   68,4. 

o  in  marg.  Text:  oVWuUo^,  (A)  So  in  marg.  Text:  \^Ai»^. 


\° 


53      c.  A  ^  but  corr.   in   marg.  B  S^  , 

B  \£\.  (°)  B  om.  0)  A  ^j>_5  but  corr.   in  marg. 

A    *l*ll1    but  corr.   in  marg.  (^)  B   J,VjiJ'  <u^.  (*)  A  in   marg. 

tf-  Here   B  has   a    considerable  lacuna  extending  to  the  words  \^J\  U-U 

V\  ^jr>\  J>\  ^\  J,\  (A  fol.  10&,  1.   1).  (^')  i.iVo   written  above. 

Kor.   39,3.  0  r)   Suppl.  in   marg.  0?) 


\  \ 


V. 


JJi 

1  ^  V.    o 


(^)  \^.^£  corr.  in   marg.        (r)  Here   B  resumes  (fol.  36,   1.  1).        (^)  B  ^. 
(M  B   oin.  f°)   B  om.  V/.  \ft!"j   -^  ^.  ^^  Suppl.  in   marg.  A. 

(Y)  B   om.  (A)   B  45Ji\.  C1)  B  om.  0  )  B    iJj-^ 

(^)  B  ^.  OH  B  jUlj  ^b.  (^)   B  0\  {.  (^)  B 

(\°)   B  ^ji/i^,  (n)  B   om.          OY)   B^J^^.          OA)    A 

but  corr,  in  marg. 


A-r 


<>  JAxJV  3-^1  J^l?  J>- 


<oi 


i\   ^  •    \   JV5 


~  ^          ^         —^-  x.  ^          v-,     -^  X  -    ^    A-  f'  5& 

-£  „,  ^ 


(^)  In  marg.    .y^.  (r)  So  in  marg.   Text:    y v^ .  (^)  Suppl.   in 

marg.  (*•)  Vvt  corr.  above.  (J)   Text  has  w^W  ^d^,  but  the  word 

has  been  altered.   The  original  reading  appears  to  have  been   oV*J\,. 


lU3  J>  j     u-jV; 


_ki.l  jO   U^  4^C> 


-fu\ 


l     wu- 


4^j  ^         /j   V  A  f. 

"  '^J    ^-^    <u^    U 


,      ,  r 

A. 


0)  Text:    f\o.  (r)   Text:  ^W.  (^)  ^,A\\.  (*-)  Qj .          (°)  In 

marg.  ^>jj.^  .        0)  In  marg.   ^ .        (Y)  Suppl.  in  marg.        (A)  Kor.  9,  123. 
0)  Suppl.   above. 


^4 


Vjj  5bj^  u*5lafe\« 

.J\  ^U  dl\j 

A  _    *       **  A' 


c    c-»JS  Af. 


*Ls    ^- 

^o    ^    4,'A    JVL     C^.-X/\(f)    4l.\J    i^Ja>    Ju. 

V\ 


'"^   ^  V^'  '  OV£Ji>  ^p  3  *_j\j 


Jp   \JuaJ        Vs(i)    »^ii 


(^   Kor.   2,  137.  (r)    Oj^\  ^,\   written   above  the  line,  between 

and  J\i.  (^)  Suppl.  in  marg.  (^  So  in  marg.  Text:  ^ 


i    L*. 


JW  £V:j 


tii  J     ~> 


V. 


V-    U          oU    ^A^\  V. 


di)  J 


(\)  Kor.  59,7.  (r)   dJii    o\J)J.  (t)  ^^  suppl.  above  after  oj\. 

(l)  ^   suppl.   above.  (°)  VT  suppl.   above  as  variant  of  As\;  . 


,^sr  JL 


i    0\ 


uj 


Vl«,0 


"**• 


Jw  ci\ 


(^)  Kor.  58,  12.  (r)  Ivor.  40,  18.  (^)  Kor.  17,  22.  (l)  So  in  marg. 

Text  :  O^-*  . 


"  '        \\  \  '*      *\\    \          c.       \ 

r 


j\ 


U  dili  ^-A)        i\  0\ 


fC\ 


^  > 


r 

-X*i 


>j 


li     \° 


0)    In  marg.   4?\j*j  <dj-'.* .  (r)   Jc.  (^)  Kor.  3,98.  The  remainder 

of  the  verse  is  added  in  marg.  (*•)   Kor.  5,  3.   4,^1  has  been  supplied 

above   after  ^Lxi  \ .  (°)  Kor.  3,16.  C1)  So  in   marg.  Text:  Jc  LL.lt. 


\   l          A  f.  26 


,3 


\o 


Ic  ^  O 


So  in  marg.   Text:  o^.A^  .  (r)  So  in   marg.   Text:  U.  (^)  ji 

^.        (l)  Var.  in  marg.  A^l.        (°)   Suppl.  in  marg.        0)  Kor.  12,  52. 


Kor.  has   -\  '<&  \          « 


1  _  » 


j^ial^  Ua.j.\  ^o    -X5^    U 


^j  > 


0)  So  in  marg.   Text:   a^Vf_j-  (r)  Suppl.  in  marg.  H  So  above. 

I  ext :  ^\J .  C1)  ^  in  marg.  (°)  Kor.  57,  21.  0)  Kor.   35,  29. 

00    The    words  <i&\  ^iV>   cj^^V»   j>Vw  c£*j  Jwali-a  A**^   are 
after   <J,2..  (A)  Kor.   27,  GO.  0)  jU, 


j   J6^  Jp  <irf^\   SlSU   JiVi\V\^   isejj^a.*^  A  f.  16 

oj^j 

_    Jc   .. 


iaiJ   Jc.& 


MC  ^^.i 
jc 

(Li  iJ 


.       \o 


(^)  JJi  Aii^  ^i>  and  so   always  in  A.  B  has    U^  <^,^  4\   ^.^  <^lc  <ui\  Jo. 
(r)  B   jVxi'  i«\  .  (^)  The   words  ^  ^  ^.^  ^  ^  are  obliterated  in  B. 

(^  Here  the  text  of  B  breaks  off,  the  remainder  of  the  pag3  (f.  3a)  having 
been  torn  away.  Several  folios  are  missing  here.  Fol.  3b  begins  with  the 
words  ^$1^  *(_§-•  j>  (j-a  Cf^\  J^jf'  Jj'W  *i*^  7>^J'  which  occur  in  A  on 
f.  56,  1.  7=  p.  M,  1.  ^  in  this  edition.  (°)  Suppl.  in  marg. 

0)  So  in  marg.  Text:  ^ 


V,.\  JU  iUi 


U  V 


j.   VI 


0)  This  passage  down  to  the  words  -C^Ji  j\£\  j\=>  i$Ji\  0-  1  ' )  is  wanting 
in  B.  (r)  Space  left  blank  in  A.  CO  Cr^jV, .  (*•)  Perhaps 

should  be   read  here,  but  \#M  is  distinctly  written  in  the  MS.  (°) 

0)  The  text  of  B  begins  here  (f.  3a).  (Y)  B  V- .  (A)  A  om.  *  U 

(^)  B  ^\^. 

1 


in 


<u£  Jl\  J  laic 
\LaJ\  ti  Uc  ^  Ji 


v 


A\\\ 


i  .  r 

i  .  Y 


i  I  V       v->Ux£V\ 


11  Y 

if. 

ir  \ 
irr 


>\ 


.,  Ki  p^o  jyi 

*\U\     u-J 


01 


\  ti\    dlS  j  o\l\j 


^\    ii   ^ 


V. 


c    ^   ^p  j  J 


Ujx5\   J    u^_ra^\  Jfc\ 


xvXX-^xj 


11*-   ^J    dio  ,$, 


fAV 


TAA 


J^  £\c*  uJu?^  J 

(3 


^  •  T 


vr. 


JU 


r.  \ 
r.r 
r.? 


r.y 


r  \  \ 


n  \ 

Til 


rvi 


ryy 


sv\ 


4.S 


j\    1    dilj 


iri 


\  0. 


I  VI 


\AV 


1  \  \ 


\  1V 


* 


j^ 

J    <V:^^  J^  J 


V. 


.  o 


\1\ 


j^ 


*i^> 


in 


(3    u-» 


(3  c->) 


\  \ 


C-    A\i\ 


ry 


^.  4\1\ 


u 

n 

1A 
V. 


vr 

Vi 

vv 


Ai 

Al 

AA 


dili   o 


dil  j 


4\1\ 


JW  ^l 
JW  ^ 


JW 
JW 


<> 


u 

J 


v. 


U 


n 


To 
TA 


11 
IV 


0V 


oy 

1. 


4.^  v—  \> 


M    Aia     ^_JU 


J 


ir 


\  . 

\  \ 
\  V 


\Y 


-** 


B?  al-Sarraj,   Abu  Nasr 
189  The  Kitab  al-luma1 

S3  fi!l-Ts.sawwuf 
191-4 


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